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Department ofBotany

No. 163
January 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Brazilian Science Council (CNPq) has established a Brazilian Biodiversity Working Group - GTB (Grupo de Trabalho em Biodiversidade) with a view to establishing an inter- institutional, technical forum for the various levels of biodiversity (genes, species, communities and ecosystems), which will periodically and systematically meet to examine and discuss questions concerned specifically with the conservation and sustained use of Brazil's fauna and flora. The Working Group will act as a point of reference in supplying advice to government agencies, as well as bilateral and multilateral funding institutions, and the environment and conservation community in general, regarding the technical and scientific aspects required for the identification of priorities and strategies at the regional and national level. The GTB will also serve as a reference point for the Brazilian members of the Specialist Groups of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC), making use of the scientific and intellectual resources of the largest international voluntary network of experts in biodiversity conservation, today counting on more than 7,000 participants world-wide.

For more information about the Brazilian Biodiversity Working Group, contact Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Coordenador do GTB, c/o Conservation International do Brasil, Avenida Antonio Abrahao Caram 820/302, 31275-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Tel./Fax: 55 31 441-1795; E-mail:


The Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation was formed on January 14, 1996 by a group of biologists from five countries and numerous branches of the biological sciences. The society serves biologists and conservationists throughout Central America and southern Mexico by publishing a newsletter, Mesoamericana and by sponsoring annual meetings in Mesoamerica. The quarterly newsletter will include news in Spanish and English of current projects, meetings, and literature, as well as biographical sketches of founding members, and short, non-technical articles of general use to biologists working in Mesoamerica. Membership is US$20 for individuals and $40 for institutions (includes 3 issues of Mesoamericana). Membership fees may be sent to Oliver Komar, Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 43015; Tel.: (614) 369-0175; E-mail: Checks should be payable to Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation.

Mesoamerican residents have a 50% lower membership fee ($10/$20), and can contact the Society's Secretary, Silvia C. Chalukian, Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Conservacion Biologica, Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Apartado 93, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; Tel.: 504-76-6140; Fax: 504-76-6234; E- mail: or


This summer (August 10-23) at NOAHS-Conservation & Research Center, Front Royal, Virginia outside of Washington, DC, a two- week intensive hands-on course will be offered in methods, applications and interpretation of molecular genetic analysis of free-ranging endangered species. Participants will learn how to develop and interpret a wide range of genetic data using real examples, laboratory demonstrations and a variety of computer programs. The course will be limited to 25 students. Tuition: $1,950 (includes housing and meals). Application deadline: March 15, 1997.

For an application or inquiries contact: Jan Martenson, Course Coordinator, NCI/FCRDC, P. O. Box B, Frederick, MD 21702- 1201; Tel.: (301) 846-1299; Fax: (301) 846-1686; E-mail:


The Atlantic Center for the Environment will conduct a five- week fellowship program on land conservation and stewardship for conservation professionals from countries in the Caribbean and Latin America July 6 - August 9 in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Six positions will be available. This intensive program will be practical and problem-solving in its approach, introducing participants to conservation issues in the United States and eastern Canada. The fellowship will focus on landscape conservation and the related topics of biodiversity conservation, rural economic development, and sustainable agriculture and forestry.

The fellowship program is open to individuals working as leaders, staff or volunteers with a Latin American or Caribbean institution (NGO or government agency) active in the areas of biodiversity conservation, landscape conservation, sustainable agriculture, sustainable forestry or rural community development. Applicants should be able to work well in a group and actively participate in discussions in English.

Interested applicants should send a letter of application (no more than four pages, in English, answering the following questions: 1) Describe your experience in environmental protection, generally and in land conservation stewardship, in particular, describing any relevant projects that you are working on or planning; 2) What are your long-term goals for promoting landscape conservation and stewardship in your community, region or country?; 3) What are the specific needs of your NGO to help strengthen its function and activities in this area?; 4) How would this fellowship experience benefit your work and that of your organization? How would you disseminate the knowledge gained to other NGOs? and 5) In what ways could you imagine playing a long-term role in an NGO stewardship project at the local, national and/or international levels? Also send: 1) a resume or curriculum vitae; 2) a brief description of the organization with which you work and its activities; and 3) two letters of reference (one should be the leader of another NGO) describing the applicant's qualifications, activities within the environmental movement, and the potential impact of the fellowship opportunity on his/her work.

Application materials should be sent to: Brent Mitchell, Director of Stewardship, QLF/Atlantic Center for the Environment, 55 South Main Street, Ipswich, MA 01938; E-mail: Application deadline: April 1. Notification of decisions will be made in May.


The Society for Conservation Biology can be accessed on the World Wide Web at The site contains a variety of topics, including information on membership, meetings, table of contents of upcoming issues of the journal, Conservation Biology, awards, and the society's newsletter.

A guide to botanical specialists and literature on Canadian biodiversity which lists more than 300 living Canadian botanists, with addresses, fax and E-mail information and citations of over 15,000 publications and reports on vascular plants and bryophytes, is available through Environment Canada at:

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew have made two important databases available on the Internet: Vascular Plant Families and Genera and Authors of Plant Names. It is possible to search for details of a genus name or author, search for data on an author standard form, view a list of genera within a family, and download the data to a local PC. It can be accessed on


The Center for Plant Conservation has available a revised directory of U.S. groups concentrating on plant conservation, as well as lists of rare and endangered plants by state. Cost is $18. Order from: Center of Plant Conservation, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166.

Jaguar Trax is an excellent video program designed to teach young people the value of tropical rainforests, preserving biodiversity, and developing sustainable products. It also gives insight into the wisdom and experience of the native elders of Costa Rica. Cost is $65, plus $4.95 for shipping and handling. The 40-minute video is available through The Video Project, 200 Estates Drive, Ben Lomond, CA 95005; Tel.: 1-800-4-PLANET; Fax: (408) 336-2168.


The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) has an opening for a coordinator of the course, "Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach", which takes place in Costa Rica June 23-August 16. The eight-week course is an intensive field course for 22 highly qualified and competitively selected graduate students from OTS member institutions. The course travels to 6-9 ecologically contrasting sites. Detailed orientations to plants, animals, and significant ecological processes, as well as short faculty-led and student-designed research projects, are conducted at each site.

The coordinator shares the responsibility of conducting the course collaboratively with the OTS instructor of tropical biology. Qualifications for the position include: Ph.D. in a relevant aspect of tropical biology; experience with OTS courses or similar courses; knowledge of Costa Rica; excellent teaching and leadership skills; high degree of organization; and ability to communicate in Spanish (the course is taught in English). An honorarium of up to $6,000 is offered, plus international travel and maintenance costs in Costa Rica.

For further information about the position contact: Dr. Shaun Bennett, Academic Director, Organization for Tropical Studies, Box 90633, Durham, NC 27708-0633; Tel.: (919) 684-5774; E-mail: To apply, send a detailed letter, curriculum vitae, and the names, addresses and telephone numbers of four references to: Dr. Deedra McClearn, c/o OTS at above address or Fax to Costa Rica: 011-506-240-6783, or by E- mail:


March 26-29. The 20th Annual Meeting of the Society of Ethnobiology will be held at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. For more information, contact: LaBau Bryan, Department of Anthropology, Baldwin Hall, Room 250, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1619; Tel: (706) 542-1433; Fax: (706) 542-3998.


Adams, J. 1996. National parks: new uses for old tools. Conservation Issues 3(4): 1, 3-11.

Adler, T. 1996. Protecting predators. Science News 150(22): 344-345.

Alexander, D. and Miller, A. 1996. Saving the spectacular flora of Socotra. Plant Talk 7: 19-22.

Allen, W. 1996. Traveling across the treetops. BioScience 46(11): 796-799. (Panama)

Allis, S. 1996. Clear-cutting becomes a ballot issue in the Pine Tree State. Time 148(18): 68. (Maine)

Alpert, P. 1996. Integrated conservation and development projects. BioScience 46(11): 845-855. (Africa)

Anderson, S. 1996. Cascade Head, Oregon. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 42. (Sanctuary for endangered species)

Andersson, K. and Ortiz-Chour, H. 1996. FAO and indigenous groups. Unasylva 47(3): 28-32. (Latin America)

Anon. 1996. Climate change threatens bird migrations. FOCUS 18(6): 4-5. (WWF's Climate Change Campaign)

Anon. 1996. Conservation spotlight: trumpeter swan. End. Species UPDATE 13(9): 12. (Wisconsin's cooperative conservation program)

Anon. 1996. Conservation and equity in bioprospecting. The Canopy Sept./Oct.: 4.

Anon. 1996. How new mapping abilities can help save tigers. FOCUS 18(5): 2. (GIS technology)

Anon. 1996. Illegal bird trade flourishing across U.S.- Mexico border. FOCUS 18(6): 3. (New report by TRAFFIC)

Anon. 1996. Mountains that hold the world's richest flora. Plant Talk 7: 18. (Montane forests of Middle and South America)

Anon. 1996. One a year is too many! Plant Talk 7: 17. (100-year census shows a Massachusetts park is losing an average of 1 plant a year)

Anon. 1996. WWF makes breakthrough in tiger conservation. FOCUS 18(5): 1.

Anon. 1996. WWF projects protect newly discovered species in Vietnam. FOCUS 18(6): 1.

Begley, S. 1996. Survival by handout? Nat. Wildlife 35(1): 52-57. (San Joaquin kit foxes)

Benz, B., Cevallos, J., Munoz, E. and Santana, F. 1996. Ethnobotany serving society: a case study from the Sierra de Manantlan Biosphere Reserve. Sida 17(1): 1-16. (Mexico)

Boice, L. 1996. Endangered species management on U.S. Air Force lands. End. Species UPDATE 13(9): 6-8.

Bush, M. 1996. Amazonian conservation in a changing world. Biological Conservation 76: 219-228.

Cafferty, S. and Cheek, M. 1996. 306. Hibiscus fragilis (Malvaceae). Curtis' Bot. Magazine 13(4): 210-214. (Extinct on Mauritius)

Christensen, K. 1996. A reanalysis of the status of Crataegus eremitagensis, C. raavadensis and C. schumacheri (Rosaceae). Symb. Bot. Ups. 31(3): 211- 220.

Clark, T. and Brunner, R. 1996. Making partnerships work in endangered species conservation: an introduction to the decision process. End. Species UPDATE 13(9): 1-5.

Cotterman, L. and Jones-Roe, C. 1996. Botanical gardens and arboreta: partners in conserving biological diversity. Natural Areas News 1(1): 1-5.

Davis, G. 1996. South Africa and the Biodiversity Convention. Plant Talk 7: 13.

De Bois, H. 1996. Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, International Studbook 8, 1995. International Recovery and Management Committee for the Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin and Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. (Data through 31 December 1995)

Defler, T. 1996. An IUCN classification for the primates of Colombia. Neotropical Primates 4(3): 7-78.

Delanoe, O., Montmollin, B., Olivier, L. and IUCN/SSC Mediterranean Islands Plant Specialist Group. (Compilers). 1996. Conservation of Mediterranean Island Plants. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, England. 106 pp.

Diamond, H. and Noonan, P. 1996. Land Use in America. Island Press, Covelo, California. 366 pp.

Dransfield, J. 1996. 301. Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (Palmae). Curtis' Bot. Magazine 13(4): 186-190. (Rare on Mascarene Islands)

Drew, L. 1996. Tales of the great white bear. Nat. Wildlife 35(1): 16-25. (Polar bear)

Duraiappah, A. 1996. Poverty and environmental degradation: a literature review and analysis. CREED Working Paper Series 8: 1-34.

Ehrlich, P. and Ehrlich, A. 1996. Betrayal of Science and Reason. How Anti-Environmental Rhetoric Threatens Our Future. Island Press/Shearwater Books, Covelo, California. 352 pp.

Eriksson, O. 1996. Population ecology and conservation - some theoretical considerations with examples from the Nordic flora. Symb. Bot. Ups. 31(3): 159-168.

Ferguson, K. 1996. 304. Lobelia vagans (Campanulaceae). Curtis' Bot. Magazine 13(4): 200-203. (Endangered on Rodrigues Island)

Fitzgerald, J. 1996. Impending global decisions and forest- dependent endangered species. End. Species UPDATE 13(9): 9,14.

Fonseca, G. 1996. A biodiversity working group for Brazil. Neotropical Primates 4(3): 88-89.

Ganesh, T., Ganesan, R., Devy, M., Davidor, P. and Bawa, K. 1996. Assessment of plant biodiversity at a mid-elevation evergreen forest of Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India. Current Science 71(5): 379-392.

Gerloff, N. 1996. Destruction of a well known habitat and measures to preserve it. British Cactus & Succ. J. 14(3): 139-145. (Pedra do Segredo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)

Greenberg, R. 1996. Birds in the tropics: the coffee connection. Birding 28(6): 472-481.

Grifo, F. and Rosenthal, J. (Eds). 1996. Biodiversity and Human Health. Island Press, Covelo, California. 350 pp.

Grunewald, F. 1996. The other cost of war. Plant Talk 7: 15. (Initiative to protect plant genetic resources in war-torn lands)

Halloy, S. 1996. Native and managed diversity. Agricultural Science 9(5): 31-36.

Hanna, S., Folke, C. and Maler, K. (Eds). 1996. Rights to Nature. Ecological, Economic, Cultural, and Political Principles of Institutions for the Environment. Island Press, Covelo, California. 320 pp.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Protea odorata, a case of benign neglect? Plant Talk 7: 24-25. (South Africa)

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of Southern African plants. Strelitzia 4: 1-117. (3,435 taxa threatened at global level)

Hind, D. 1996. 303. Cylindrocline commersonii (Compositae). Curtis' Bot. Magazine 13(4): 195-199. (Rare on Mascarene Islands)

Hind, N. 1996. 302. Distephanus populifolius (Compositae). Curtis' Bot. Magazine 13(4): 191-194. (Extremely rare on Mascarene Islands)

Hogan, D., Sawyer, J. and Saunders, C. 1996. Southern maritime chaparral. Fremontia 24(4): 3-7.

Holmes, T. 1996. Restoring oak populations, Part II: acorn storage and germination. Fremontia 24(2): 12-14. (USA)

Ingram, B. 1996. Design for plant conservation. Plant Talk 7: 26-29. (Nature reserves)

IUCN/SSC Orchid Specialist Group. 1996. Orchids: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, England. 153 pp.

Julia, I. 1996. Spain creates two new national parks. Plant Talk 7: 34-35.

Kasperson, J., Kasperson, R. and Turner, B. 1996. Regions at risk: exploring environmental criticality. Environment 38(10): 4-15, 26-29.

King, D. and Stewart, W. 1996. Ecotourism and commodification: protecting people and places. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 293-306.

Kohm, K. and Franklin, J. (Eds). 1996. Creating a Forestry for the Twenty-First Century. The Science of Ecosystem Management. Island Press, Covelo, California. 576 pp.

Lennartsson, T. and Svenson, R. 1996. Patterns in the decline of three species of Gentianella (Gentianaceae) in Sweden illustrating the deterioration of semi-natural grasslands. Symb. Bot. Ups. 31(3): 169-184.

Lesica, P. and Ahlenslager, K. 1996. Demography and life history of three sympatric species of Botrychium subg. Botrychium in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Can. J. Bot. 74: 538-543. (Relatively rare species)

Lesica, P. and Shelly, J. 1996. Competitive effects of Centaurea maculosa on the population dynamics of Arabis fecunda. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123(2): 111-121. (Arabis fecunda, rare native)

Linden, E. 1996. Cutting down Alaska's G.O.P., Congress saves the Tongass. Time 148(18): 64-65. (Tongass National Forest, Alaska)

Lipske, M. 1996. Rare beauties. Nat. Wildlife 35(1): 26- 31. (U.S. endangered plants)

Little, J. 1996. To cut or not to cut: how to manage healthy forests. Am. Forests 103(4): 18-22, 31.

Lucas, G. and Synge, H. 1996. 33,730 threatened plants. Plant Talk 7: 30-32. (1996 IUCN Global List of Threatened Plants)

MacDonald, L. 1996. Global problems, local solutions. Am. Forests 103(4): 26-29, 32.

MacKenzie, S. 1996. Integrated Resource Planning and Management. The Ecosystem Approach in the Great Lakes Basin. Island Press, Covelo, California. 252 pp. (USA)

Martin, G., Hoare, A. and Posey, D. (Eds). 1996. Protecting Rights: Legal and Ethical Implications of Ethnobiology. UNESCO, Paris, France. 32 pp. (Issue 2 of People and Plants Handbook: Sources for Applying Ethnobotany to Conservation and Community Development)

May, P. and Seroa da Motta, R. (Eds). 1996. Pricing the Planet. Economic Analysis for Sustainable Development. Columbia University Press, Irvington, New York. 192 pp.

McBride, R. 1996. On the rarity of banded butterflyfish in the Mid-Atlantic. Underwater Naturalist 23(3): 18-19.

McCullough, D. (Ed). 1996. Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation. Island Press, Covelo, California. 448 pp.

Miller, A. and Cope, T. (Eds). 1996. Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, Egypt. 536 pp. (Conservation status given)

Musch, R. 1996. Plans to save Puya raimondii in Bolivia. Plant Talk 7: 23.

Nabhan, G. (Compiler). 1996. Pollination Redbook, Volume 1: Global List of Threatened Vertebrate Wildlife Species Serving as Pollinators for Crops and Wild Plants. Forgotten Pollinators Campaign, Tucson, Arizona. 19 pp. (A survey of the IUCN (1994) Red List to identify vertebrates which provide pollination services)

Nicholson, K. 1996. Marketing traditional handicrafts from a Himalayan national park in Nepal. RECOFTC Newsletter 9(2): 1,9,11.

Oberbauer, T. 1996. Sierra de San Pedro Martir. Fremontia 24(4): 20-24. (Baja, CA)

Oliveira, M. and Manzatti, L. 1996. New location for the Muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 4(3): 84-85.

Omar, S., Razzaque, M. and Alsdirawi, F. (Eds). 1996. Range Management in Arid Zones. Columbia University Press, Irvington, New York. 307 pp. (Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Range Management in the Arabian Gulf)

Oostermeijer, G., Hvatum, H., Nijs, H. and Borgen, L. 1996. Genetic variation, plant growth strategy and population structure of the rare, disjunctly distributed Gentiana pneumonanthe (Gentianaceae) in Norway. Symb. Bot. Ups. 31(3): 185-204.

Packard, S. and Mutel, C. (Eds). 1996. The Tallgrass Restoration Handbook. For Prairies, Savannas and Woodlands. Island Press, Covelo, California. 432 pp.

Perkins, L. 1996. AZA Species Survival Plan profile: orangutans. End. Species UPDATE 13(9): 10-11.

Radomski, P. and Goeman, T. 1996. Decision making and modeling in freshwater sport-fisheries management. Fisheries 21(12): 14-21.

Redford, K. and Mansour, J. (Eds). 1996. Traditional Peoples and Biodiversity Conservation in Large Tropical Landscapes. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virgina. 278 pp. (Case studies in Latin America)

Rosenthal, D. 1996. Showdown in Zimbabwe. Int. Wildlife 26(6): 28-37. (In the nation that once held Africa's greatest concentration of black rhinos, private citizens struggle to save the last of the animals)

Samson, F. and Knopf, F. (Eds). 1996. Prairie Conservation. Preserving North America's Most Endangered Ecosystem. Island Press, Covelo, California. 352 pp.

Schoonmaker, P., von Hagen, B. and Wolf, E. (Eds). 1996. The Rain Forests of Home. Profile of a North American Bioregion. Island Press, Covelo, California. 480 pp. (Coastal temperate rain forest)

Schramm, H. and Hubert, W. 1996. Ecosystem management: implications for fisheries management. Fisheries 21(12): 6-11.

Shanley, P., Hohn, I. and Silva, A. 1996. Receitas sem Palavras: Plantas Medicinais da Amazonia. Editora Supercores, Belem, Brazil. 50 pp.

Shanley, T., Luz, L., Galvao, J. and Cymerys, M. 1996. Translating dry data for forest communities: science offers incentives for conservation. Rural Development Forestry Network Paper 19e: 7-19.

Sheehan, L. and Saunders, R. 1996. CMC progresses with efforts to protect two special sites in Monterey Bay sanctuary. Marine Conservation News 8(4): 6. (California)

Shipman, S. 1996. Do commercial users influence marine fisheries management? Fisheries 21(12): 22-23.

Shuford, W. and Hickey, C. 1996. A review of the status of the white-faced ibis in winter in California. Western Birds 27: 169-196.

Skow, J. 1996. Ransoming redwoods from a timber tycoon. Time 148(18): 65-67. (Californian redwoods)

Smith, W., Meredith, T. and Johns, T. 1996. Use and conservation of woody vegetation by the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania. Econ. Bot. 50(3): 290-299.

Snape, W. 1996. Biodiversity and the Law. Island Press, Covelo, California. 286 pp.

Sobel, J. 1996. NOAA releases "final" plan for Florida Keys Sanctuary. Marine Conservation News 8(4): 11-13.

Sponsel, L., Headland, T. and Bailey, R. (Eds). 1996. Tropical Deforestation. The Human Dimension. Columbia University Press, Irvington, New York. 352 pp.

Stein, B. and Flack, S. (Eds). 1996. America's Least Wanted: Species Invasions of U.S. Ecosystems. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 31 pp.

Strahm. W. 1996. Conservation of the flora of the Mascarene Islands. Curtis' Bot. Magazine 13(4): 228-237. (Threatened plants of Rodrigues and Mauritius)

Stuessy, T. and Sohmer, S. (Eds). 1996. Sampling the Green World. Columbia University Press, Irvington, New York. 384 pp.

Thor, G. 1996. The biology and distribution of three red listed lichens in Sweden. Symb. Bot. Ups. 31(3): 355-363.

Torre, S. 1996. Notes on the distributions of the Ecuadorian callitrichids. Neotropical Primates 4(3): 88.

Uotila, P. 1996. Decline of Anemone patens (Ranunculaceae) in Finland. Symb. Bot. Ups. 31(3): 205- 210.

Verdcourt, B. 1996. 305. Ramosmania rodriguesii (Rubiaceae). Curtis' Bot. Magazine 13(4): 204-209. (Nearly extinct on Rodrigues Island)

Viana, V., Ervin, J., Donovan, R., Elliott, C. and Gholz, H. (Eds). 1996. Certification of Forest Products. Island Press, Covelo, California. 288 pp.

Wallace, R. 1996. Influence of commercial fishers on resource management: a local view. Fisheries 21(12): 24- 25.

Webb, G. 1996. Bristlecone pines --- oldest beings on Earth? Herbalgram 38: 10. (Great Basin National Park, Nevada)

Weeks, W. 1996. Beyong the Ark. Tools for an Ecosystem Approach to Conservation. Island Press, Covelo, California. 208 pp. (The Nature Conservancy)

Wilkie, D. and Finn, J. 1996. Remote Sensing Imagery for Natural Resource Monitoring. A Guide for First-time Users. Columbia University Press, Irvington, New York. 295 pp.

Yaffee, S., Phillips, A., Frentz, I., Hardy, P., Maleki, S. and Thorpe, B. 1996. Ecosystem Management in the United States. An Assessment of Current Experience. Island Press, Covelo, California. 376 pp.

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