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Department ofBotany

No. 164
February 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Formed in 1995, The Biodiversity Forum (TBF) is a non-profit organization concerned with the international conservation of wildlife, habitat, and biological diversity. The Forum seeks, through communication, education, cooperation and public advocacy, to support the conservation of biological resources through the preservation and responsible sustainable use of these resources. Specifically, the Forum pursues the following objectives: 1) to promote and encourage international public awareness and understanding of issues relating to the conservation of worldwide biological diversity; 2) to encourage cooperation among governments, international organizations and the private sector in developing methods for the sustainable use of biological resources; and 3) to collect and disseminate information relating to international treaties and conventions designed to regulate the commercial or noncommercial use of biological resources.

TBF also closely follows developments concerning the conservation of biological resources governed at the international level to help assure that all interested parties are fully aware not only of actions taken internationally but also of the significance to their interests of those actions. In doing so, TBF principally follows the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and the more recent Convention on Biological Diversity.

In order that sustainable use be accomplished in a responsible manner, TBF believes that extensive education and communication are needed to ensure that all aspects of major issues in the biodiversity field confronting the scientific community, governmental policy makers and the private sector are understood and thoroughly discussed before decisions are made and acted upon.

The Biodiversity Forum supports responsible development programs that permit the judicious use of biological resources for the benefit of humankind as a whole and for those regions and areas, including range states, that rely upon those resources for their survival. In addition, TBF strongly supports private sector efforts to conceptualize and implement sound sustainable use projects that meet reasonable and ethical conservation and environmental standards.

For more information on The Biodiversity Forum, its personnel, activities and newsletter, visit their Web site at:


The World Conservation Union and the Species Survival Commission have just published two new plant conservation action plans - orchid and palm. Edited by Eric Hagsater and Vinciane Dumont, the Orchid Action Plan chronicles the threats to certain critical species, but more importantly to critical habitats that host extraordinarily high orchid diversity and endemicity. It explores and recommends specific ways that national and local legislators, scientists, and orchid conservationists and growers can all help to reverse present trends. The facts and viewpoints in this comprehensive document update and supplement the information available to conservation organizations and agencies throughout the world, so that they can lobby their appropriate government offices more effectively.

Palms, Their Conservation and Sustained Utilization, edited by Dennis Johnson, is intended for use by conservationists in all sectors of society including scientists, policy makers, government officials, educators, planners, and grant awarding bodies when developing their research projects.

The objectives of this Action Plan are to identify the most threatened palm species, to present recommendations for conservation that cater to their specific requirements and to provide strategic guidelines for the conservation and sustainable utilization of the many palms that provide food, construction materials, and an important source of revenue for many people.

Both action plans are available through IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Rd., Cambridge CB3 0DL England; Tel.: 44 1223 277894; Fax: 44 1223 277175; E-mail: iucn-; Web site:


Tropical Diversity and Conservation is an intensive, graduate- level, three-week (August 3-24) field course conducted by the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) in Costa Rica. The course studies the diversity of organisms and their interactions in three contrasting tropical forests: a seasonally dry forest (Palo Verde National Park), a mid-elevation montane forest (at the Las Cruces Biological Station), and a lowland rainforest (La Selva Biological Station). Students will work with core faculty and a variety of visiting scientists to learn how to measure and monitor biological diversity as well as to understand the causes of its decline.

The course is open to all qualified applicants regardless of institutional affiliation, including advanced undergraduates, faculty seeking an introduction to the tropical aspects of their fields, high school teachers, and graduate students in biology/ecology and related fields.

Information and application materials are available from OTS, Box 90630, Durham, NC 27708-0630; Tel.: (919) 684-5774. Applications are due April 14, 1997.


The WWF Global Network has recently launched several major campaigns which are highlighted on its Web site at They include: 1) WWF 2000 - The Living Planet Campaign, which provides many ways to get involved with WWF's global efforts in conservation; 2)Forests For Life, a major effort to reverse destruction of forests and to protect them for future generations. Central to this section are detailed maps of protected areas in 82 countries; 3)Climate Change Campaign, a critical effort working in over 25 countries to raise awareness of global climate change that threatens wildlife and natural ecosystems, and to pressure governments into taking action; and 4)Endangered Seas Campaign, an effort to preserve the earth's water masses.


The Guide to a Sustainable Future is a special edition from the editors of The Green Disk, a journal of contemporary environmental issues. This 1400 page volume is a comprehensive guide to the organizations, agencies, projects, campaigns and companies that are the vanguard on the path to sustainability. Each of the four sections (ecological building and design, organic and sustainable agriculture, wood conservation and alternative fibers, and renewable and clean energy) contains extensive background articles, news, and resource listings. Included are: 232 full text reports and articles, and over 1,700 references; 563 Web sites, listservs, CD-ROMs, and database listings; listings of 552 books, reports, videos, and other resources; and 377 contacts for information, products, and networking.

The Guide to a Sustainable Future is published on disk in Macintosh and IBM editions and includes a user interface for reading and keyword searching. The disks, manual, and packaging (all made of 100% recycled content) costs $35 postpaid, US or International. Payment is by VISA/MC or a US bank check. Make sure to indicate preference for the Macintosh or IBM edition. Visit the Web site at for more information and to order online. Or write: The Green Disk, P.O.Box 32224, Washington, DC 20007; Tel./Fax toll-free 1-888- GRN-disk; E-mail .

Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice by ethnobotanist Mark Plotkin has just been published in Spanish by Emece Editores in Argentina. Plotkin has spent much of the last decade in the rain forests tracking the shamans whose knowledge of the curative powers of plants may hold the cure to some of today's devastating diseases. The book is an account of his apprenticeships to these powerful wise men, an anthropological adventure story that also vividly clarifies what destruction of the region's plant species may ultimately cost humanity. The Spanish edition can be ordered through the Emece Web site at

The World Directory of Environmental Organizations, a handbook of national and international organizations and programs - - governmental and non-governmental -- concerned with protecting the world's resources, has recently been released by the International Center for the Environment and Public Policy, at the California Institute of Public Affairs. This fifth edition, edited by Thaddeus C. Trzyna, Elizabeth Margold, and Julia K. Osborn, was completely revised, and lists 2,100 organizations in over 200 countries.

The book is divided into seven parts: introduction; who's doing what: problems, resources, and biomes; the world regions: key organizations in each region of the world; United Nations Systems; other intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations; and country and area listings.

The directory is published and distributed in North America by the International Center for the Environment and Public Policy, P.O. Box 189040, Sacramento, CA 95818; Tel.: (916) 442- 2472; Fax: (916) 442-2478; E-mail:; Web site: For orders outside North America contact Earthscan Publications, Ltd., 120 Pentonville Rd., London N1 9JN, England; Tel.: (44 171) 278 0433; Fax: (44 171) 278 1142; E-mail:; Web site: Available for $50, USA and Canada; $65 surface and $75 by airmail abroad, postpaid.

DECA, the Directorio de Ecologos y Cientificos Ambientales de America Latina, el Caribe, Espana y Portugal, has recently been published in book form. The 130 page edition contains a list of 2,600 people with their affiliated institutions, address, telephone, fax, and E-mail address. The price for the directory is US$15, in Latin America and the Caribbean; US$20 in other countries. Add $4 in Argentina, and US$7, for all other countries, for postage and handling.

For more information contact: Fundacion Sirena, Casilla 1395, Correo Central, (1000) Buenos Aires, Argentina; Tel./Fax: (54 021) 71-4762; E-mail:


April 8. The 2nd Annual International Wildlife Law Conference will take place in Washington, D.C. at the Georgetown University Law Center. The panels for this year's meeting will include: the precautionary principle and international wildlife treaty regimes; the International Whaling Commission and the aboriginal whaling exception; and The Convention on Biological Diversity: problems and prospects.

For more information and a registration form, contact Prof. David Favre, Detroit College of Law, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

April 24-26. The annual meeting of the Association for Systematic Collections (ASC) will be held in Atlanta, Georgia. The theme of the meeting, "The Collections-Based Mission of Natural History Collections," is meant to focus on the core mission of institutions with natural history collections, which is to maintain those collections, research and the education of a broad public constituency. The connection between the collections, research derived from the collections, and public programming will be explored by several nationally-known speakers, and will be the subject of a workshop session co- sponsored by the Education Committee of the American Association of Museums.

Information can be obtained through ASC's Web site ( or by E-mail (


Aksenov, D. 1996. What are the Russian forests? Russian Conservation News 9: 11-12.

Aleffi, M. and Schumacker, R. 1995. Check-list and red-list of the liverworts (Marchantiophyta) and hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) of Italy. Flora Mediterranea 5: 73-162.

Anon. 1996. Conservation spotlight: a butterfly ranch takes flight in Costa Rica. End. Species UPDATE 13(10 & 11): 12.

Anon. 1996. Final listing rules. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 24-26. (84 US plants listed as endangered or threatened)

Anon. 1996. National Fund for Nature Protection in Turkmenistan. Russian Conservation News 9: 31-32.

Anon. 1996. "Rare mammals" workshop in planning stages. Russian Conservation News 9: 39. (February or March 1997)

Ariyoshi, R. 1997. Halting a coral catastrophe. Nature Conservancy 47(1): 20-25. (Destruction of Indo-Pacific reef species)

Averyanov, L., Tien Hiep, N., Ke Loc, P. and Duc Huyen, D. 1996. Endangered Vietnamese paphiopedilums. Orchids 65(12): 1302-1308.

Baird, N. 1996. Saying "No" to Asian loggers. People & the Planet 5(4): 26-27. (Papua New Guinea)

Bakker, J., Poschlod, P., Strykstra, R., Bekker, R. and Thompson, K. 1996. Seed banks and seed dispersal: important topics in restoration ecology. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 45(4): 461-490.

Binder, G. 1996. Balancing population and conservation. CONSERVATION ISSUES 3(5): 1,3-10.

Boersma, P. 1996. Marine conservation: protecting the exploited commons. Soc. Conservation Biology Newsletter 3(4): 1, 6-7.

Boulon, R., Dutton, P. and McDonald, D. 1996. Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands: fifteen years of conservation. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2): 141-147.

Bowen, L. 1996. Restoring hope in the clouds. People & the Planet 5(4): 22-23. (Costa Rica/Panama Talamanca region)

Bright, P. and Morris, P. 1996. Why are dormice rare? A case study in conservation biology. Mammal Review 26(4): 157- 187. (Britain)

Bukreev. S. 1996. The past, present and future of the protection regime in Turkmenistan. Russian Conservation News 9: 5-7.

Bukreev, S. 1996. Zapovedniki and profit: endangered species earn money for their own preservation. Russian Conservation News 9: 32. (Hunting)

Byers, B. 1996. Understanding and Influencing Behaviors in Conservation and Natural Resources Management. WWF Biodiversity Support Program, Washington, D.C. (African Biodiversity Series No. 4)

Byfield, A. 1996. Reaping the rewards. The Garden 121(1): 686-687. (Bulb cultivation and conservation project in Turkey)

Canaday, C. 1996. Loss of insectivorous birds along a gradient of human impact in Amazonia. Biol. Conservation 77: 63-77. (Impacts of oil companies and settlers in NE Ecuador)

Cavalcanti, C. 1996. Special report: Brazil's new forests bring profit and pain. People & the Planet 5(4): 14-16.

Chan, E-H and Liew, H-C 1996. Decline of the leatherback population in Terengganu, Malaysia, 1956-1995. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2): 196-203.

Chaves, A., Serrano, G., Marin, G., Arguedas, E., Jimenez, A. and Spotila, J. 1996. Biology and conservation of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, at Playa Langosta, Costa Rica. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2): 184-189.

Civeyrel, L. and De Jong, J. 1996. Bat diversity in a lake archipelago in central Sweden. Biodiversity and Conservation 5(10): 1221-1230.

Coleman, W., Mattice, J. and Brocksen, R. 1996. Soule's conservation biology as the foundation for econometric ecosystem management. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1494-1499.

Cook, F. 1995. Economic Botany Data Collection Standard. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 146 pp.

Cushman, J. 1996. Rules on wetlands sharply tightened to curb developers. New York Times (Nat.) December 11: A1, B10. (USA)

Davis, W. 1996. One River. Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest. Simon & Schuster, New York, New York. 537 pp. (Ethnobotany)

Dovers, S., Norton, T. and Handmer, J. 1996. Uncertainty, ecology, sustainability and policy. Biodiversity and Conservation 5(10): 1143-1168.

Frankham, R. 1996. Relationship of genetic variation to population size in wildlife. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1500-1508.

Fridell, J. 1996. Recovery Plan for the Appalachian Elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana) Lea. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 44 pp.

Gaston, K. (Ed). 1996. Biodiversity: A Biology of Numbers and Difference. Blackwell Science, Oxford, England. 396 pp.

Gilmour, D. 1996. Where do we go from here? People & the Planet 5(4): 30-31. (Forests management)

Gilpin, M. 1996. Forty-eight parrots and the origins of population viability analysis. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1491-1493.

Gober, P. 1996. As goes the prairie dog... so goes the ferret. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 4-5. (USA)

Hanley, N., Kirkpatrick, H., Simpson, I., Oglethorpe, D. and MacDonald, A. 1996. Ecological-economic modelling of the conservation of threatened habitats: heather moorland in the Northern Isles of Scotland. Biodiversity and Conservation 5(10): 1207-1220.

Heinen, J. 1996. Teaching endangered species management. End. Species UPDATE 13(10 & 11): 7. (USA)

Hendrix, S. 1997. Bolivia's outpost of hope. Int. Wildlife 27(1): 12-19. (Ecotourism)

Hopper, D., Asquith, A. and Bruegmann, M. 1996. Hawaii's birds and bees. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 8-10. (80% of Hawaii's endangered and threatened plants are pollinated by bees)

Janssen, R. and Padilla, J. 1996. Valuation and Evaluation of Management Alternatives for the Pagbilao Mangrove Forest. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, England. 47 pp. (Philippines; CREED Working Paper Series No. 9)

Jaume, D. and Boxshall, G. 1996. Rare cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) from Mediterranean littoral caves. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. (Zoology) 62(2): 83-100. (Mallorca)

Joyal, E. 1996. The palm has its time: an ethnoecology of Sabal uresana in Sonora, Mexico. Econ. Bot. 50(4): 446-462. (Rare)

Joyal, E. 1996. The use of Sabal uresana (Arecaceae) and other palms in Sonora, Mexico. Econ. Bot. 50(4): 429- 445. (Rare)

Kemf, E. 1996. Vietnam's patient pioneer. People & the Planet 5(4): 28-29. (Vo Quy, conservationist)

Klubnikin, K. 1996. Species research at the Forest Service. End. Species Bull. 21(5): 12-15.

Kreuzberg, A. 1996. The "non-spotted" checkerspot: entomological rarity of the Fergana Valley. Russian Conservation News 9: 35-36.

Kuchli, C. 1996. Forests of hope. People & the Planet 5(4): 19. (People caring for the forests)

Kuchli, C. 1996. Tanzania: a second garden of Eden. People & the Planet 5(4): 20-21.

Kucuker, O. 1995. Contributions to the knowledge of some endangered Colchicum species of Turkey. Flora Mediterranea 5: 211-220.

Kust, G. 1996. Desertification in Russia: is there a problem? Russian Conservation News 9: 23-25.

Leme, E. 1996. Vriesea recurvata, a bromelia da capa. Bromelia 3(3): 9. (Species rare in Atlantic forests of Bahia, Brazil; protected in reserves)

Leon, B. and Young, K. 1996. Aquatic plants of Peru: diversity, distribution and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 5(10): 1169-1190.

Lewington, A. 1996. People of the monkey puzzle. People & the Planet 5(4): 18. (Chile)

Loppi, S. and de Dominics, V. 1996. Lichens as long-term biomonitors of air quality in central Italy. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 45(4): 563-570.

Matthes, P. 1996. Wildlife, people and contaminants. End. Species Bull. 21(5): 16-18. (USA)

McKerrow, A. 1996. Recovery Plan for Cumberland Sandwort (Arenaria cumberlandensis). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 42 pp.

McNeely, J. 1996. Helping people save the forests. People & the Planet 5(4): 6-7.

Mesta, R. 1996. Condors return to Arizona. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 16-17.

Mills, L. and Allendorf, F. 1996. The one-migrant-per- generation rule in conservation and management. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1509-1518.

Mitchell, K. and Carnes, C. 1996. The lupine and the butterfly. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 6-7. (Decline of the Karner blue butterfly, USA)

Moore, C. 1997. Warming up to hot new evidence. Int. Wildlife 27(1): 20-25.

Morozov, A. 1996. Politics vs. ecology: do foreigners want to plunder Russian forests? Russian Conservation News 9: 15.

Morozov, A. 1996. The Russian forest code: will the fourth round be the last? Russian Conservation News 9: 13-14.

Myers, N. 1996. Forests: a planetary treasure. People & the Planet 5(4): 8-11.

Naess, A. 1996. Living a life that reflects evolutionary insight. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1557-1559.

Neves, R. 1996. The mussel/fish connection. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 12-13.

Newmark, W. 1996. Insularization of Tanzanian parks and the local extinction of large mammals. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1549-1556.

Pedevillano, C. 1996. Stalking the snow leopard's haunts. Russian Conservation News 9: 37-38. (Seriously threatened in Russia)

Pokrovskaya, I. 1996. The Hypo-Arctic: Achilles' heel of the Arctic region. Russian Conservation News 9: 29-30.

Pokrovskaya, I. 1996. The secret of the barnacle goose. Russian Conservation News 9: 27-28. (Rare species)

Press, D. 1996. Soule bibliography. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1560-1562.

Press, D., Doak, D. and Steinberg, P. 1996. The role of local government in the conservation of rare species. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1538-1548.

Pridgeon, A. 1997. Orchid Action Plan launched. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 66(1): 55-56.

Ralls, K., Demaster, D. and Estes, J. 1996. Developing a criterion for delisting the southern sea otter under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1528- 1537.

Rangel Germano, S. and Cavalcanti Porto, K. 1996. Floristic survey of epixylic bryophytes of an area remnant of the Atlantic Forest (Timbauba-PE, Brazil). 1. Hepaticopsida (except Lejeuneaceae) and Bryopsida. Trop. Bryology 12: 21-28.

Reading, R., Clark, T., Vargas, A., Hanebury, L., Miller, B. and Biggins, D. 1996. Recent directions in black-footed ferret recovery. End. Species UPDATE 13(10 & 11): 1-6. (USA)

Rees, M. 1996. Always on the go: Kurgalski expedition in action. Russian Conservation News 9: 16-18.

Reynolds, R. 1996. Piping plovers can't hide. End. Species Bull. 21(5): 8-9. (Great Plains, threatened in US; endangered in Canada)

Roeloffs, J., Bobbink, R., Brouwer, E. and de Graaf, M. 1996. Restoration ecology of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation on non-calcareous sandy soils in The Netherlands. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 45(4): 517-542.

Ross, J. 1996. A few miles of land arose from the sea - and the world changed. Smithsonian 27(9): 112-121. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Center, Panama)

Sanjayan, M., Crooks, K., Zegers, G. and Foran, D. 1996. Genetic variation and the immune response in natural populations of pocket gophers. Conservation Biology 10(6): 1519-1527.

Saul, S. 1996. Pelican deaths linked to sick fish. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 14-15. (Salton Sea, California)

Sawhill, J. 1997. Pushing the boundaries. Nature Conservancy 47(1): 5-11. (The Nature Conservancy's international programs)

Schwartzman, S. 1996. Struggle for the Indian Amazon. People & the Planet 5(4): 17.

Shea, A. and Roulston, T. 1996. Recovery Plan for Cumberland Rosemary (Conradina verticillata). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 54 pp.

Shreeve, T., Dennis, R. and Pullin, A. 1996. Marginality: scale determined processes and the conservation of the British butterfly fauna. Biodiversity and Conservation 5(10): 1131-1142.

Spotila, J., Dunham, A., Leslie, A., Steyermark, A., Plotkin, P. and Paladino, F. 1996. Worldwide population decline of Dermochelys coriacea: are leatherback turtles going extinct? Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(2): 209-222.

Stine, P. 1996. GIS technology and sage scrub habitat. End. Species Bull. 21(5): 4-6.

Stolzenburg, W., Green, M. and McEnany, A. 1997. Parks empowered. Nature Conservancy 47(1): 12-19. (Parks in Peril project profiles: Latin America and Caribbean)

Sunquist, F. 1997. Where cats and herders mix. Int. Wildlife 27(1): 26-32. (Snow leopards in Tibet and Mongolia)

Tinker, J. 1996. Saving the wilderness. People & the Planet 5(4): 24-25. (British Columbia, Canada)

Trzyna, T., Margold, E. and Osborn, J. (Eds). 1996. World Directory of Environmental Organizations. California Institute of Public Affairs, Sacramento, California. 263 pp. (Fifth Edition)

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1995. Recovery Plan for the Ka'u Silversword (Argyroxiphium kauense). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 76 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Recovery Plan for Marsilea villosa. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 70 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Recovery Plan for Hibiscadelphus distans. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 60 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Recovery Plan for Nineteen Florida Scrub and High Pineland Plant Species - Revision. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 148 pp.

Valdes-Cogliano, S. 1996. A lost piece of the puzzle. End. Species Bull. 21(6): 11. (Relationship between the dodo and the tambalacoque tree on Mauritius)

Vasiliev, A. and Trombitsky, I. 1996. Moldovan NGOs in defense of vulnerable nature. Russian Conservation News 9: 18-19.

Voeks, R. 1996. Tropical forest healers and habitat preference. Econ. Bot. 50(4): 381-400.

Waddell, W. 1996. AZA Species Survival Plan profile: red wolves. End. Species UPDATE 13(10 & 11): 10-11. (USA)

World Wildlife Fund. 1996. Building Bridges Between American Indians and Conservation Organizations. WWF, Washington, D.C.

Zonn, I. 1996. Who's who in the battle with desertification. Russian Conservation News 9: 20-22.

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