Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 166
April 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


A team of scientists from the American Museum of Natural History in New York and Claremont McKenna College in California announced the discovery of the only monkey known to have gone extinct in the past 500 years. Fossils of the monkey, known as Xenothrix mcgregori, were recovered during a paleontological expedition to Jamaica led by Donald A. McFarlane, associate professor of biology at Claremont, and Ross D.E. MacPhee, chairman and curator of the Department of Mammalogy at the Museum.

The discovery is important for several reasons. It was only recently suspected that Jamaica once supported a native population of primates. (Monkey species living in the West Indies today are descendants of African or South American monkeys introduced in the eighteenth century or later). A small group of primate fossils had been discovered in Jamaica in the 1920s but was not identified as belonging to a new, native species until the 1950s. The researchers discovered a partial skull with several teeth preserved, a piece of an upper jaw and one of the bones of an arm in a cave shaft named Mantrap Hole.

Xenothrix, related to such South American species as the organ-grinder's monkey, was an unusual primate. Its limb bones suggest that it was a slow-moving animal with very mobile joints. A startling aspect of the discovery was the age of the fossils. Other fragments of the monkey were found sandwiched between strata bearing jaw bones of the European black rat, first brought to the New World aboard Columbus's ships. This brought significance to the find since Xenothrix became extinct after European contact.


The U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program has supported development of the standardization of biological inventory data which will facilitate the sharing of important scientific information among nature preserves.

MABFauna and MABFlora are computer programs designed to allow users to input, edit, retrieve, and create checklists and reports of vertebrate and vascular plant inventories data. Both programs use master lists but are easily customized and allow input of new sites and species.

Currently there are two versions of MABFauna and MABFlora, one for Canada and the U.S. which uses the PLANTS Database as its master list, and one for Europe, which uses Flora Europaea.

MABFauna and MABFlora come with a companion program, Observe, which allows the user to input, manage, and retrieve information on individual observations of vertebrates or vascular plants such as location of observation, habitat, appearance, etc. Observe is designed for biologists who are monitoring populations through time and is highly user-configurable.

You may download the three programs from, or for a free copy of MABFauna with manual (English and Spanish versions) and "Quick Start" (English, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Bahasa versions) and/or MABFlora (English version only), contact U.S. MAB, OES/ETC/MAB, SA 44C, Department of State, Washington, DC, 20522-4401; Tel.: (202) 776-8318; Fax: (202) 776-8367; E-mail:

Biota, the Biodiversity Database Manager created by Robert K. Colwell, a Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut, helps manage specimen- based biodiversity and collections data by providing an easy-to- use graphical interface to a fully relational database structure. With a comprehensive, profusely illustrated manual to back up intuitive menus and screens, Biota offers a rich array of user- tested tools for rapid data input, update, maintenance, analysis, and reporting. Biota's capable Import Editor helps convert existing data sets to Biota's relational structure, and a wide array of text and image file export tools provides easy access to data for analysis and publication using other applications.

Biota's features include unlimited user-definable fields; recursive specimen relations (e.g., herbivore-plant, parasite-host, DNA-specimen); automatic maintenance of a specimen determination "audit-trail"; flexible barcode/manual input for record entry, record retrieval, and loan management; and a password security system with multiple privilege levels.

Biota is available in two formats. BiotaApp is a stand-alone, single-user application with integrated database engine (4D engine). No additional software is needed to run BiotaApp.

The alternative format, Biota4D, intended for multiuser, networked environments runs in true client/server mode under 4D Server (ACI, INC.).

BiotaApp and Biota4D are available now for the Macintosh operating system. BiotaApp for Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 operating systems, and mixed client-platform versions of Biota4D for both Windows and Macintosh servers are expected to be released in the spring of 1997.

For price list and other information, please contact: Sinauer Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 407, 23 Plumtree Rd., Sunderland, MA 01375-0407; Tel.: (413) 549-4300; Fax: (413) 549-1118; E-mail:; Web site:


The Biodiversity Support Program, a U.S.A.I.D.-funded consortium of World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, and World Resources Institute, is pleased to announce its new publication, Understanding and Influencing Behaviors in Conservation and Natural Resources Management, by Dr. Bruce Byers. This report presents the findings and conclusions of a four-year study on approaches and methods for understanding and influencing human behavior in conservation and natural resources management. Aimed primarily at planners and managers of people- oriented conservation and natural resources management programs, the report also provides field-level implementers and environmental educators with much useful information. Although most of the examples presented are from Africa, the findings can be applied to other developing regions, and even to developed- country situations.

This useful reference includes more than 100 people from academia, government, and non-governmental organizations, including many managers of conservation projects and field-based practitioners, contributing their knowledge and insights into this study. An extensive literature review was also undertaken and several workshops were conducted during the study.

For orders, or more information, contact: BSP Africa Program, World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037; Tel.: (202) 778-9795; Fax: (202) 861-8324; E-mail: A French version of the report is also available.

The 1997 edition of the Green Volunteers Guide has just been published. It includes more than 100 projects and organizations worldwide, where enthusiasts can volunteer from one week to one year, to study or care for a whole range of species, from marine mammals to primates, in a variety of habitats, from African savanna to tropical rainforests, from the Alps to the Mediterranean, from the Andes to the Pacific shores. A wide choice of no-cost projects and research opportunities for students is also listed. Volunteers are seen more and more as an important resource for supporting projects, both financially and with their work. Green Volunteers can be an excellent instrument also to find graduate students and in general to communicate about your projects.

Through the Green Volunteers Club, the guide gives its readers the choice to receive constant updates. If you have a project to submit, you do not need to wait for the 1998 edition, you can send it at any time. For those interested, the directory can be ordered for $US16, plus postage, through E-mail at:


The Directory for Medicinal Plant Conservation is jointly published by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation and the IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. It aims at providing information for policy makers, scientists, and technical experts in the management of medicinal plant resources. The 156-page paperback directory provides information on more than 200 networks, organizations and projects worldwide dealing with research, management, policy making, and conservation. Key journals and databases in the field are highlighted.

The Directory, edited by M. Kasparek, A. Groger, and U. Shippmann, is available from the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation at BfN-Schriftenvertrieb, im Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, Postfach, 48 02 49, D-48079 Munster, Germany; Tel.: 02501/801-118; Fax: 02501/801-204.

The Medical Plant Conservation Bibliography (MPCB), Volume 1, has also just been released by the same conservation group. This 61-page IUCN/SSC publication, with 774 references and 71 reviews is indexed by general, geographic and taxonomic keywords.

The MPCB is designed to collect information on distribution, life history, biology, population status, levels of extraction and trade, and resource management of taxa. The first volume includes references mainly of the years 1990 to 1996 published in monographs, journals and serial publications. For most papers of 1996, short reviews with a summary of the contents have been drafted. Members of the IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plants Specialist Group have contributed literature references to this bibliography.

The Medicinal Plant Conservation Bibliography will be can be obtained for US$11.50, ringbound, printed copy; US$11.50, 3.5" Diskette (ASCII and DBF file); US$19.00, printed copy and diskette, plus postage. For orders write to: Dr. Andreas Groger, c/o Bundesamt fur Naturschutz, Konstantinstrasse 110, D-53179, Bonn, Germany; Fax: 49/228/9543-470. This publication is also available through IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Rd., Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK; Fax: 44/1223/277175.


June 15-20. The Association for Tropical Biology (ATB) 1997 Annual Meeting, "Tropical Diversity: Origins, Maintenance, and Conservation" will be held in San Jose, Costa Rica. The meeting will include symposia, contributed paper and poster sessions, workshops, field trips, social events, and business meetings. The Faculty of Biology of the University of Costa Rica will host a symposium celebrating its 40th anniversary. In recognition of a singular scientist, mentor, and teacher, ATB has established the Alwyn Gentry Award for Best Student Paper presented at the annual meeting. Students should be the first author on the paper and should be reporting substantially on their own.

For more information, contact: ATB Program Chair, Dr. Jorge Jimenez, Organization for Tropical Studies, 676-2050 San Pedro, San Jose, Costa Rica; E-mail:


Adams, J. 1997. Saving the tiger. CONSERVATION ISSUES 4(1): 1, 3-10.

Affolter, J. 1996. Georgia plant conservation alliance formed. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 35-36. (USA)

Anathea Brooks, L. and VanDeveer, S. D. (Eds). 1997. Saving the Seas: Values, Scientists and International Governance. Maryland Sea Grant, College Park, Maryland. 480 pp.

Anderson, C., Gittleman, J., Koepfli, K. and Wayne, R. 1996. Sea otter systematics and conservation: which are critical subspecies? End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 6-10.

Anon. 1997. Community involvement in forest management. Arborvitae 5: 14. (New IUCN working group)

Anon. 1997. Conservation efforts in Nepal pay off for tigers and rhinos. FOCUS 19(2): 1-2. (Illegal trade)

Anon. 1997. The Global 200. FOCUS 19(2): 5. (Key ecoregions of the world for conservation)

Anon. 1997. IUCN World Conservation Congress adopts important forest resolutions. Arborvitae 5: 7.

Anon. 1996. The Lancetilla Botanical Garden and Research Center in Honduras. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 31-32.

Anon. 1997. Preserving the alpine meadows of the Andes. FOCUS 19(2): 6.

Anon. 1996. Report from the 4th International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources, Leipzig, June 1996. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 29-30.

Anon. 1996. The Sancti Spiritus Botanic Garden in Cuba. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 45.

Anon. 1997. Western clam poses threat, study finds. New York Times March 16: 34. (Invading species that soaks up pollutants is threatening wildlife in San Francisco Bay)

Anon. 1997. Will the world run out of wood? Arborvitae 5: 8. (Report from the European Forest Institute and the Norwegian Forest Research Institute)

Averyanov, L., Hiep, N., Loc, P. and Huyen, D. 1997. Endangered Vietnamese Paphiopedilums. Part 3. Paphiopedilum malipoense. Orchids 66(2): 150-155.

Baker, B. 1997. Washington watch: global information network. BioScience 47(4): 214.

Bard, D. 1997. Double the park, cut the carbon. Nature Conservancy 47(2): 30. (Carbon mitigation project at Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivia)

Baur, D., Meade, A. and Rotterman, L. 1996. The law governing sea otter conservation. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 73-78.

Benz, C. 1996. Evaluating attempts to reintroduce sea otters along the California coastline. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 31-35.

Benz, C. 1996. The second southern sea otter recovery plan. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 36-37.

Bergman, C. 1997. Spain's wolf wars. Int. Wildlife 27(2): 22-29.

Biskupic, J. and Warrick, J. 1997. Court rules landowners can use Endangered Species Act to fight protections. Washington Post March 20: A11. (Bennett v. Spear)

Bodkin, J. and Ballachey, B. 1996. Monitoring the status of the wild sea otter population: field studies and techniques. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 14-19.

Bonnell, M., Ford, R. and Brody, A. 1996. Assessing the threat of oil spills to southern sea otters. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 38-42.

Borong, P. 1996. Turpan Eremophyte Botanic Garden, Academia Sinica, China. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 20-22. (Conservation of arid desert plants)

Brennan, E. and Houck, J. 1996. Sea otters in captivity: the need for coordinated management as a conservation strategy. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 61-67.

Broekhoven, G. and Tessema, Y. 1997. Ethiopia: forests on the brink. Arborvitae 5: 9.

Budowski, G. 1997. Cloud forests of Guatemala. Arborvitae 5: 12. (Protection of 800 hectares in Quiche mountains)

Buhler, W. 1997. People and forests. Forests in Latvia : 10-12. (Special Supplement to Arborvitae)

Byers, B. 1996. Understanding and Influencing Behaviors in Conservation and Natural Resources Management. Biodiversity Support Program, Washington, D.C. 125 pp. (African Biodiversity Series, No. 4)

Clark, J. 1996. Overview of the legislative mandates and the agencies responsible for implementation of southern sea otter protection under the Endangered Species Act. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 28-30.

Cohn, J. 1997. Sex and violence among lion tamarins. BioScience 47(4): 210-214. (Brazil)

Conservation Committee. 1997. The practicalities of conservation. British Cacti & Succ. J. 15(1): 26-28.

Coulston, L. 1997. A forest runs through it, too. Nature Conservancy 47(2): 31. (Blackfoot River, Montana)

Davis, R. Jr. 1997. The Evolving Coast. Scientific American Library, New York, New York. 233 pp.

DeMaster, D., Marzin, C. and Jameson, R. 1996. Estimating the historical abundance of sea otters in California. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 79-81.

Dowler, R. and Carroll, D. 1996. The endemic rodents of Isla Fernandina: population status and conservation issues. Noticias de Galapagos 57: 8-13. (Oryzomys & Nesoryzomys)

Downs, P. 1996. Conservation corner. British Cacti & Succ. J. 14(4): 198-199. (Protection of Aloe suzannae, Madagascar)

Dudley, N. 1997. Community forestry in Kalimantan. Arborvitae 5: 12.

Dudley, N. 1997. The timber trade. Forests in Latvia: 6-7. (Special Supplement to Arborvitae)

Duffield, D., Chamberlin-Lea, J. and Antrim, J. 1996. A complex chromosome rearrangement in the karyotype of a wild- caught male sea otter. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 68-72.

Estes, J., Doak, D., Bodkin, J., Jameson, R., Monson, D., Watt, J. and Tinker, M. 1996. Comparative demography of sea otter populations. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 11-13.

Faltera, P., Dovholuk, A., King, T. and Sokolski, K. 1997. Saving Cypripedium reginae. Orchids 66(2): 138-143. (Restoration program for N. A. terrestrial orchid)

Faurot-Daniels, E. and Baur, D. 1996. The role of Friends of the Sea Otter in resource protection. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 47-49.

Fitz Maurice, W., Fitz Maurice, B. and Glass, C. 1997. Mammillaria marcosii, a new species of series Stylothelae from northeastern Guanajuato, Mexico. Cactus & Succ. J. (U. S.) 69(1): 10-14. (Critically endangered)

Geetha, K. 1996. The Botanical Garden, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, Bangalore, India. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 41-43.

Glass, C. 1997. The Geohintonia circus. Cactus & Succ. J. (U.S.) 69(1): 1-7.

Glass, C. and Arias, S. 1996. A new subspecies of _Strombocactus_ from the Sierra Gorda in the northeastern portion of the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. British Cacti & Succ. J. 14(4): 200-204.

Goodman, S. and Patterson, B. (Eds). 1997. Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 448 pp.

Green, M. 1997. Aces high, turtles wild. Nature Conservancy 47(2): 32. (Tidelands in Mississippi)

Green, M. 1997. The flight of the butterfly. Nature Conservancy 47(2): 6. (Butterfly ranching in Indonesia)

Guertin, D., Easterling, W. and Brandle, J. 1997. Climate change and forests in the Great Plains. BioScience 47(5): 287-294. (USA)

Hinrichsen, D. 1997. Requiem for reefs? Int. Wildlife 27(2): 12-20.

Howard, S. 1997. Forest ecology and conservation. Forests in Latvia : 4-5. (Special Supplement to _Arborvitae_)

Hubbuch, C. and Michal, S. 1996. Can we conserve the palms of Haiti? - a search for _Copernicia ekmanii_ and _Attalea crassispatha_. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 39-40.

Ingersoll, R., Seastedt, T. and Hartman, M. 1997. Computers in biology: a model information management system. BioScience 47(5): 310-316.

Jarman, W., Bacon, C., Estes, J., Simon, M. and Norstrom, R. 1996. Organochlorine contaminants in sea otters: the sea otter as a bio-indicator. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 20-22.

Jeanrenaud, S. 1997. Perspectives in people-oriented conservation. Arborvitae 5(Supplement): 1-6.

Jeanrenaud, S. and Jeanrenaud, J. 1997. Community forestry management in Scotland. Arborvitae 5: 16.

Jessup, D., Mazet, J. and Ames, J. 1996. Oiled wildlife care for sea otters and other marine animals in California: a government, university, private sector, non-profit cooperative. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 53-56.

Jordan, G. 1997. Evidence of Pleistocene plant extinction and diversity from Regatta Point, western Tasmania, Australia. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 123(1): 45-71.

Kearns, C. and Inouye, D. 1997. Pollinators, flowering plants, and conservation biology. BioScience 47(5): 297- 307.

Kembelo, K. 1996. The botanic gardens of Zaire and the present state of biodiversity in Zaire. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 25-28.

Klugel, D. 1997. Sea turtle action plan published. Marine Conservation News 9(1): 15.

Labanc, J. 1996. Notes on the collection of the Arboretum Borova Hora, Slovakia and its approach to genetic conservation. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 37-38.

Lambert, B. 1997. A voracious bug is changing L.I.'s south shore. New York Times March 2: 29. (Black turpentine beetle on Long Island, New York)

Lecoufle, M. 1997. The destruction of forests in Madagascar for rice production. Orchid Review 105(1213): 41-42.

Long, J., Larson, S. and Wasser, S. 1996. Safeguarding diversity: challenges in developing a genome resource bank for the California sea otter. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 57- 60.

Mamgain, S., Goel, A. and Sharma, S. 1996. Frerea indica Dalz. an endangered palaeoendemic moving towards extinction: an attempt at ex situ conservation. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 44. (Western Ghats, India)

Mauchamp, A. 1996. Scalesia atractyloides: one bite from extinction. Noticias de Galapagos 57: 24-25.

Mauchamp, A. and Munoz, M. 1996. A kudzu alert in Galapagos: the urgent need for quarantine. Noticias de Galapagos 57: 22-23. (Pueraria sp.)

McManus, K. 1997. Demilitarized zones. Washington Post March 21: A1, A14. (Wildlife flourishes at refuges created from former bases)

Mei, L. 1996. News from Chinese botanic gardens. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 33-34.

Nikolaev, M. 1997. Sakha Republic conserves 2 per cent of the world's forests. Arborvitae 5: 4. (Russia)

Ostolaza Nano, C. 1996. A closer look at the conservation status of cacti in the vicinity of Lima, Peru. British Cacti & Succ. J. 14(4): 158-174.

Reaka-Kudla, M., Wilson, D. and Wilson, E. (Eds). 1996. Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C. 560 pp.

Reed, H. 1996. Caviar trade threatens Caspian Sea sturgeon. TRAFFIC USA 15(4): 1-3.

Robbins, C. 1996. Goldenseal - a candidate for CITES Appendix II? TRAFFIC (USA) 15(4): 5-6.

Rotberg, U. 1997. The Mezole Project. Forests in Latvia : 8-9. (Special Supplement to Arborvitae)

San Martin, F. and Rogers, J. 1997. A preliminary list of xylariaceous fungi of El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Acta Bot. Mex. 37: 23-32.

Saunders, R. T. 1996. Does "sanctuary" mean secure? End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 43-46.

Schlegel, F. and Tangan, F. 1996. The Philippine Bambusetum. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 49-50. (Ex situ conservation of Philippine bamboo species)

Shields, T. 1997. Eel poachers try to slither past police. Washington Post March 31: B3. (Maryland fish, a delicacy in Asia)

Smith, D. 1996. A rescue plan for the threatened tree fern thicket of Diana's Peak National Park, St Helena. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 46-48.

Snell, H. 1996. It is Scalesia atractyloides! Noticias de Galapagos 57: 2. (Thought to be extinct in the wild)

Stein, B. and Flack, S. 1997. 1997 Species Report Card: the State of U.S. Plants and Animals. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 26 pp.

Stolzenberg, W. 1997. The jaguar's umbrella. Nature Conservancy 47(2): 8-9. (New Mexico)

Stolzenburg, W. 1997. Wings of the Americas. Nature Conservancy 47(2): 16-23. (Saving habitat for birds)

Thomas, N. and Cole, R. 1996. The risk of disease and threats to the wild population. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 23-27.

VanBlaricom, G. 1996. Saving the sea otter population in California: contemporary problems and future pitfalls. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 85-91.

VanderGragt, M. 1997. Australia: a world leader in forest and woodland destruction. Arborvitae 5: 11.

Vandermeer, J., Boucher, D., Perfecto, I. and Granzow de la Cerda, I. 1996. A theory of disturbance and species diversity: evidence from Nicaragua after Hurricane Joan. Biotropica 28(4a): 600-613.

Walker, B. and Steffen, W. 1996. Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 620 pp.

Wallace, R., Painter, R., Taber, A. and Ayres, J. 1996. Notes on a distributional river boundary and southern range extension for two species of Amazonian primates. Neotropical Primates 4(4): 149-151.

Warrick, J. 1997. Coral reef off Florida Keys caught in wave of deadly disease. Washington Post February 9: A3. (White pox)

Warrick, J. 1997. Oil company wants to drill in new Utah preserve. Washington Post Feb. 12: A12. (Conoco request concerning canyon land angers environmental groups)

Watson, J. and Root, T. 1996. Introduction to the special issue: why southern sea otters? End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 4-6.

Webster, D. 1997. The looting and smuggling and fencing and hoarding of impossibly precious, feathered and scaly wildthings. New York Times Magazine Feb. 16 (Sect. 6): 26-33, 48-49, 53, 61.

Weeks, W. 1996. Beyond the Ark: Tools for an Ecosystem Approach to Conservation. Island Press, Covelo, California. 208 pp.

Weeks, W. 1997. Beyond the ark. Nature Conservancy 47(2): 10-15. (Excerpts from new book)

Weiss, R. 1997. Interior Dept. probes deal that could put dump near Joshua Tree Park. Washington Post February 2: A13. (California)

Wendell, F. 1996. The state of California's role in the conservation of sea otters and other aquatic resources. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 82-84.

Wenjiang, O. 1996. The Xinjiang Service Center for Scientific Expeditions (XSCSE), China. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 23. (Trekking expeditions)

Whiteman, L. 1997. Rhinos from horn to hoof. Zoogoer 26(1): 5-12. (Breeding of greater one-horned Asian rhinos at National Zoo)

Williams, M. 1996. Russia and Northern Eurasia: the last frontiers for biodiversity conservation. Natural Areas News 1(2): 1-5.

Williams, R., Kirwan, G. and Bradshaw, C. 1997. The status of the black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata in the Dominican Republic. Cotinga 6: 29-30. (Threatened)

Williams, T. and Williams, T. 1996. The role of rehabilitation in sea otter conservation efforts. End. Species UPDATE 13(12): 50-52.

Willson, M., Gende, S. and Marston, B. 1997. Wildlife habitat models and land management plans: lessons from the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in Tongass National Forest. Nat. Areas J. 17(1): 26-29. (Alaska)

Woolbright, L. 1996. Disturbance influences long-term population patterns in the Puerto Rican frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactlylidae). Biotropica 28(4a): 493-501.

Wyse Jackson, P., Payne, B. and Smirnov, I. 1996. Managing botanic gardens in the former Soviet Union - report on a workshop held in Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(7): 17-19.

Young, N. 1997. Saving whales and dolphins, one fishery at a time. Marine Conservation News 9(1): 11.

Zhuang, X. and Corlett, R. 1996. The conservation status of Hong Kong's tree flora. Chinese Biodiversity 4 (suppl.) : 36-43. (Status of 333 native tree species)

Zimmerman, J., Willig, M., Walker, L. and Silver, W. 1996. Introduction: disturbance and Caribbean ecosystems. Biotropica 28(4a): 414-423.

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