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Department ofBotany

No. 168
June 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


On May 9, 1997 the government of Tanzania legally decreed the Amani Nature Reserve in the East Usambara mountains for the protection of the biodiversity of these sub-montane rain forests. The East Usambara rain forests are one of the most valuable conservation areas in Africa and one of the biodiversity hotspots and centers of plant diversity in the world. Their biological significance has been compared to the Galapagos Islands. According to Centers of Plant Diversity Volume 1, the flora of the East Usambaras consists of 1921 indigenous vascular plant taxa, 64 of which are strict endemics, with an additional 41 taxa known elsewhere only from the West Usambaras. Many endemic animals are also found in some groups of molluscs, amphibians and reptiles, and birds. The rain forests secure the water supply for 200,000 people in Tanga, and local people in the mountains depend on the forests for their daily needs.

The East Usambara Catchment Forest Project (EUCFP) has worked in the East Usambara mountains since 1990 with the mission to protect these natural forests. The establishment of a nature reserve in Amani, the area with the most endemic plants, was officially proposed in 1988; in 1992 the EUCFP prepared a plan for the establishment and management of the Amani Nature Reserve with the survey and mapping being completed in 1994. The total area of the reserve will be 8,380 hectares, which includes 1,065 hectares of forests owned by private tea companies, and the Amani Botanical Garden, one of the largest in Africa.

One of the major tasks of the EUCFP will be to prepare a management plan for the reserve, involving local people and other land owners in the East Usambara area. It is hoped that in the future the reserve will gain status as a Man and the Biosphere Reserve or Global Heritage Site. For more information, contact East Usambara Catchment Forest Project, P.O. Box 5869, Tanga, Tanzania; Tel.: 255-53-43820; Fax: 255-53-43820; E-Mail:


Plants have always been and still are utilized in various ways: not only for food, fuel and construction material, but also as raw materials for the spice, cosmetics and medicinal plant industries. Europe as elsewhere is a major consumer of wild plants with Germany playing a significant role in the international trade in these commodities. The majority of these resources are obtained through wild-harvesting and not by cultivation or agricultural production. To assess the impact on the natural resources and to develop conservation strategies, it is important to get more detailed information on the trade.

Recently, a new study, Trade Survey of Medicinal Plants in Germany, by Lange and Schippmann, describes the national and international structures of the trade in plant drugs, and provides an overview of the plant species identified, their trade commodities and uses. The analysis of imports and exports from 1991 to 1994 emphasizes the important role of Germany in the international trade regime. This study was published by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation and can be obtained by writing: BfN-Schriftenvertrieb im Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, Postfach 480249, D-48079 Munster, Germany; Tel.: 02501/801-118; Fax: 02501/801-204.

Stretching from the redwoods of California to the vast stands of spruce and hemlock in southeast Alaska, coastal temperate rain forests have been for thousands of years home to one of the highest densities of human settlements on the North American continent. Given its mild climate, magnificent scenery, and abundant natural resources, the region should continue to support robust economies and vibrant communities for many years to come. However, the well-being of this region is increasingly threatened by diminishing natural capital, declining employment in traditional resource-based industries, and outward migration of young people to cities.

A new book, The Rain Forest of Home. Profile of a North American Bioregion edited by Schoonmaker, von Haugen and Wolf, brings together a diverse array of thinkers - conservationists, community organizers, botanists, anthropologists, zoologists, Native Americans, ecologists, and others - to present a multilayered multidimensional portrait of the coastal temperate rain forests and its people. Interspersed among the chapters are 24 compelling profiles of community-level initiatives and programs aimed at restoring damaged ecosystems, promoting sustainable use of resources and fostering community- based economic development. The Rain Forest of Home is available from Island Press, Box 7, Dept. 2PR, Covelo, CA 95428; Tel.: 800-828-1302.


The Wings of the Americas Program has an opening for an intern who will assist Wings staff in implementation of Neotropical migratory and resident bird database research/development, workshops, and on-the-ground conservation activities. The candidate should have: 1)a bachelor's degree in zoology, conservation biology, environmental science or related field; 2) familiarity with migratory birds, resident birds of Latin America and the Caribbean; 3) strong computer skills, including working knowledge of Excel, Word, and Access; 4) ability to work both independently and with a team in an organized and efficient manner with attention to detail; and 5) strong written, verbal and analytical skills. For application procedures, contact Paul Martin, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209.

The Latin American & Caribbean Division of The Nature Conservancy is looking for a chief zoologist for the Conservation Science and Stewardship Department who will be responsible for the zoology program and for coordinating zoology research activities related to information for conservation action, in situ conservation, and outreach. Qualifications include: 1) advanced degree in zoology, preferably a Ph.D., with a good working knowledge of vertebrate systematics, animal ecology, and conservation science; 2) minimum of three years of Latin American field experience; 3)competency with database software, animal survey methods, and uses of geographic information systems required; 4) written and spoken fluency in English and Spanish; 5) excellent speaking and writing abilities; 6) demonstrated fund-raising track record; and 7) willingness to travel overseas for extended periods of time. For more information, contact Paul Martin, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 North Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209.

The Latin America and Caribbean Division is also looking for a manager of the Noel Kempff Climate Action Project. The candidate will manage the technical and administrative elements of the Conservancy's activities on a large, pilot climate action project being initiated in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Requirements include: 1) Master's degree in natural resources or project management and at least two years of project management experience or equivalent field experience in the areas of protected areas management, sustainable forestry and/or rural development; 2) excellent verbal and written communications skills; 3) excellent organization skills; 4) fluency in English and Spanish; and 5) willingness to travel 10-20% of the time. For more information, contact: Jennifer Diaz, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209.

The Cayos Cochinos Marine Biological Reserve in Honduras has an opening for a reserve manager who will be involved in planning, directing and coordinating the management of the marine reserve. The candidate should have: 1) experience in marine reserve management, coastal policy making, resource management, fisheries management or related fields; 2) at least a Master's degree in field of specialization; 3) demonstrated success in administration and management of a natural resource institution or project; 4) experience with natural resource management and government policy in Central America; 5) fluency in reading and speaking both English and Spanish; and 6) willingness to relocate and reside within the reserve. Candidates with scientific backgrounds related to the marine sciences and/or with experience in working with indigenous groups will be given preference. Interested candidates should send their curriculum vitae to: Monica Jain, AVINA Inc., 1500 Monza Ave., #339, Miami, FL 33146; Fax: (305) 661-7199.

The American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) has an opening for an assistant director. Primary responsibilites include: 1) coordinating and helping to improve the AZA Species Survival Plan, a cooperative captive breeding and conservation program for 130 endangered and threatened species in North American zoos and aquariums; 2) working cooperatively with other AZA staff to assure coordination between AZA's Conservation and Science and Conservation Education programs; 3) facilitating the work of AZA member institutions in all aspects of cooperative animal management; and 4) training population managers. The candidate should have: 1) Master's or Ph.D. in the biological sciences or wildlife conservation; 2) advanced training in population genetics and demography is preferred; 3) written and verbal communication skills; 4) organizational, administrative and teaching skills; and 5) ability to work in a team-oriented environment. Starting salary is in the mid-40s to low 50s depending on experience. To apply, please send a letter of application and curriculum vitae to: AZA Executive Office/Conservation Center, 7970-D Old Georgetown Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.


August 1-6. The annual meeting of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology will be held in Aruba. The meeting will include workshops on wetlands rehabilitation, Caribbean seabird ecology and conservation, and recent advances in the study of evolution of Caribbean birds and the implications for conservation. For further information, contact: Roeland E. de Kort, Vice President, Society of Caribbean Ornithology, Directorate of Housing, Physical Development and Environment, Frankrijkstraat #7, Oranjestad, Aruba; Fax: 297 8-32342.

August 10-14. The annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America (ESA) will be held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in conjunction with The Nature Conservancy. The theme is "Changing Ecosystems: Nature and Human Influences". For meeting information see the ESA Homepage at: or contact: ESA, 2010 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036; Tel.: (202) 833-8773.

August 27-30. The 24th Annual Natural Areas Association Conference and Exotic Pest Plant Council Conference will be held in Portland, Oregon. The theme, "Bridging Natural and Social Landscapes", will provide new and useful information to land managers, research scientists, resource and stewardship specialists and others interested in natural area and biodiversity management. For registration fees and more information, write: 1997 NAA/EPPC Conference, P.O. Box 23712, Tigard, OR 97281-3712.


Ainley, D., Podolsky, R., DeForest, L. and Spencer, G. 1997. New insights into the status of the Hawaiian petrel on Kauai. Colonial Waterbirds 20(1): 24-30. (Endangered)

Akeroyd, J. 1997. West Cork yields its floral treasure. Plant Talk 9: 19. (Ireland)

Allendorf, F., Bayles, D., Bottom, D., Currens, K., Frissell, C., Hankin, D., Lichatowich, J., Nehlsen, W., Trotter, P. and Williams, T. 1997. Prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation. Conservation Biology 11(1): 140-152. (Pacific Northwest)

Anon. 1997. Assessing American oaks. Plant Talk 9: 16. (IUCN-SSC's Temperate Broadleaved Trees Specialist Group identifies 30 oaks as Vulnerable in US and Mexico)

Anon. 1997. Beefing up Canada's Endangered Species Act. Plant Talk 9: 11.

Anon. 1997. Heathland plants fade away. Plant Talk 9: 17. (Dorset, England)

Anon. 1996. Mesoamerican biological corridor project. Mesoamericana 1(1): 6. (Protected areas and buffer zones)

Anon. 1997. Moroccan forest under threat. Plant Talk 9: 15. (Mamora)

Anon. 1997. New protected area in Guatemala. MESOAMERICANA 2(1): 20. (Cerro San Gil National Protected Area)

Anon. 1997. A recovery plan for plant taxonomy. Plant Talk 9: 3.

Anon. 1997. Tasmanian forests under threat. Plant Talk 9: 14.

Anon. 1997. Who does what in mangrove management? Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 36-37.

Anstett, M., Hossaert-McKey, M. and McKey, D. 1997. Modeling the persistence of small populations of strongly interdependent species: figs and fig wasps. Conservation Biology 11(1): 204-213.

Arita, H., Figueroa, F., Frisch, A., Rodriguez, P. and Santos-del-Prado, K. 1997. Geographical range size and the conservation of Mexican mammals. Conservation Biology 11(1): 92-100.

Bacon, P. 1997. The role of the Ramsar Convention in mangrove management. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 25-26.

Benthem, W., Chuyen, N., van Lavieren, L. and Verheught, W. 1997. Rehabitating the mangrove forests of the Mekong Delta. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 9. (Vietnam)

Berger, J. 1997. Population constraints associated with the use of black rhinos as an umbrella species for desert herbivores. Conservation Biology 11(1): 69-78. (Namibia)

Bingham, B. and Noon, B. 1997. Mitigation of habitat "take": application to habitat conservation. Conservation Biology 11(1): 127-139. (USA)

Blackstock, T. and Jones, R. 1997. Juncus capitatus Weigel (Juncaceae) rediscovered near its original locality in Anglesey (v.c. 52). Watsonia 21: 277-278. (Rare)

Bodero, A. and Robadue, D. 1997. Ecuador working toward a national strategy for mangrove management. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 27-28, 30.

Brunner, R. and Clark, T. 1997. A practice-based approach to ecosystem management. Conservation Biology 11(1): 48-58.

Burt, M. and Hudson, B. 1997. User groups play key role in St. Lucia. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 8. (Lesser Antilles mangrove project)

Byfield, A. and Pearman, D. 1996. Dorset's Disappearing Heathland Flora. Plantlife and Royal Society for the Protection on Birds, Sandy Beds, England. 37 pp.

Cade, T. and Woods, C. 1997. Changes in distribution and abundance of the loggerhead shrike. Conservation Biology 11(1): 21-31. (North America)

Callicott, J. and Mumford, K. 1997. Ecological sustainability as a conservation concept. Conservation Biology 11(1): 21-41.

Cerovsky, J. 1997. Disaster on Goat Slope. Plant Talk 9: 32-22. (Moravia)

Clancy, P. 1997. Feeling the pinch. The troubled flight of America's crayfish. Nature Conservancy 47(3): 10-15. (Half of the nearly 330 known species are endangered or imperiled)

Clay, J. 1997. Market opportunities for addressing the environmental and social impacts of wild-captured and pond- produced shrimp. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 18.

Cordova, B., Chalukian, S. and Colon, W. 1996. Identificacion, recoleccion y propagacion de germoplasma para la conservacion de especies nativas con potencialidades medicinales. MESOAMERICANA 1(2-3): 3. (Honduras)

De Roy, T. 1997. New Zealand's bizarre un-bird. Int. Wildlife 27(3): 38-43. (Kiwi population declining)

Echelle, A. and Echelle, A. 1997. Genetic introgression of endemic taxa by non-natives: a case study with Leon Springs pupfish and sheepshead minnow. Conservation Biology 11(1): 153-161.

Everett, S. 1997. EU's Natura 2000 falls behind schedule. Plant Talk 9: 13. (European network of protected areas)

Field, C. 1997. The restoration of mangrove ecosystems. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 11-12.

Fisher, J. 1997. To ban or not to ban? Int. Wildlife 27(3): 36-37. (Prohibition on selling elephant parts)

Gale, G., Hanners, L. and Patton, S. 1997. Reproductive success of worm-eating warblers in a forested landscape. Conservation Biology 11(1): 246-250. (New England)

Ganewatte, P. 1997. Collaborative management at Rekawa Lagoon, Sri Lanka. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 7-8.

Gatz, A. and Komar, O. 1997. Cinco anos de investigaciones biologicas en Honduras, 1986-1990. MESOAMERICANA 2(1): 7- 15.

Gayton, D. 1997. Terms of endangerment. Canadian Geographic May/June: 30-41. (Saving habitats saves species)

Gerdes, D. 1996. Partnership for conservation between the Lake States National Forests and La Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala. MESOAMERICANA 1(2-3): 12.

Gibbons, B. 1997. Flowers in focus: ten tips towards better plant photography. Plant Talk 9: 20-23, 34.

Glick, D. 1997. Private use on public lands? Nat. Wildlife 35(4): 46-51. (USA)

Goerck, J. 1997. Patterns of rarity in the birds of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conservation Biology 11(1): 112-118.

Golodetz, A. and Foster, D. 1997. History and importance of land use and protection in the North Quabbin region of Massachusetts (USA). Conservation Biology 11(1): 227-235.

Gomez, D. and Miller, G. 1997. Mangrove training workshop in Belize. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 29.

Gopinath, N. and Gabriel, P. 1997. Management of living resources in the Matang Mangrove Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 23-24.

Grant, P. and Grant, B. 1997. The rarest of Darwin's finches. Conservation Biology 11(1): 119-126. (Galapagos Islands)

Green, E., Mumby, P., Edwards, A. and Clark, C. 1997. A comparative assessment of remote sensing for mangroves. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 19.

Groombridge, B. and Jenkins, M. (Eds). 1996. Assessing Biodiversity Status and Sustainability. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, England. 104 pp. (WCMC Biodiversity Series No. 5)

Grumbine, R. 1997. Reflections on "What is ecosystem management?". Conservation Biology 11(1): 41-47.

Hammer, M. and Bean, A. 1997. Madagascar's "forgotten" periwinkle. Plant Talk 9: 30-31. (Catharanthus coriaceus)

Hayes, J. and Steidl, R. 1997. Statistical power analysis and amphibian population trends. Conservation Biology 11(1): 273-275.

Hodges, L. 1997. Protected natural areas of Honduras. MESOAMERICANA 2(1): 5-6.

Jensen, D. 1997. The Ecosystem Research Program: good science for good conservation. Biodiversity Network News 10(1): 1-2. (The Nature Conservancy)

Jessop, J. 1997. Research on the Roanoke. Biodiversity Network News 10(1): 6-8, 10. (North Carolina)

Khurshid, N. and Rasool, F. 1997. Mangrove replantation project in Pakistan. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 12.

Kiesecker, J. and Blaustein, A. 1997. Influences of egg laying behavior on pathogenic infection of amphibian eggs. Conservation Biology 11(1): 214-220.

Kinch, J. 1997. Great expectations. Nature Conservancy 47(3): 24-29. (The Conservancy's efforts in the Great Lakes ecoregion)

Kinch, J. 1997. Mayan country adventure. Nature Conservancy 47(3): 32. (Sierra de Lacandon National Park, Guatemala)

Kinch, J. 1997. Resurrecting the Kankakee. Nature Conservancy 47(3): 33. (Restoration of a prarire in Indiana)

Kinch, J. 1997. A road not taken. Nature Conservancy 47(3): 30. (Valensin Ranch incorporated into Cosumnes River Preserve, California)

Kinch, J. 1997. Transplanted Californians. Nature Conservancy 47(3): 31. (California bighorn sheep reintroduced into Idaho)

Kiviat, E. 1997. Where are the reptiles and amphibians of the Hudson River? Part 1. News from Hudsonia 12(2 & 3): 1- 5.

Klinkenberg, J. 1997. Surviving on a wing and a prayer. Nat. Wildlife 35(4): 36-41. (Endangered Schaus swallowtail butterfly makes a comeback in Florida)

Komar, O. 1996. Sobre el uso correcto de nombres de aves de Mesoamerica, con una revision de cambios recientes en la taxonomia hecho por la Union Americana de Ornitologos. Mesoamericana 1(1): 12-18.

Komar, O. and Gatz, A. 1996. Cinco anos de investigaciones biologicas en Honduras, 1991-1995. MESOAMERICANA 1(2-3): 26-35.

Kunin, W. and Shmida, A. 1997. Plant reproductive traits as a function of local, regional, and global adundance. Conservation Biology 11(1): 183-192.

Kuomei, F. 1996. Rare and Precious Wildflowers of China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, China. 145 pp.

Lange, D. 1997. Report looks into health of medicinal plants. Plant Talk 9: 12.

Lange, D. and Schippmann, U. 1997. Trade Survey of Medicinal Plants in Germany. A Contribution to International Plant Species Conservation. Bundesamt fur Naturschutz, Munster, Germany. 162 pp.

Lantz, G. 1997. Coneflower's popularity: prescription for trouble? Nat. Wildlife 35(4): 12-13. (Echinacea's value as a medicinal)

Lewis, D. and Alpert, P. 1997. Trophy hunting and wildlife conservation in Zambia. Conservation Biology 11(1): 59-68.

Lugo, A. 1997. Old-growth mangrove forests in the United States. Conservation Biology 11(1): 11-20. (Pacific Northwest region)

Mauchamp. A. 1997. Threats from alien plant species in the Galapagos Islands. Conservation Biology 11(1): 260-263.

McCarthy, M., Lindenmayer, D. and Drechsler, M. 1997. Extinction debts and risks faced by abundant species. Conservation Biology 11(1): 221-226.

Monks, V. 1997. Children at risk. Nat. Wildlife 35(4): 18-27. (Traces of pollutants can affect brain development)

Morris, D. and Heidinga, L. 1997. Balancing the books on biodiversity. Conservation Biology 11(1): 287-289.

Myers, J. 1997. Mitigating the effects of land-use change on tropical aquatic systems. Biodiversity Network News 10(1): 3-4, 8-11. (The Nature Conservancy)

Neitlich, P. and McCune, B. 1997. Hotspots of epiphytic lichen diversity in two young managed forests. Conservation Biology 11(1): 172-182. (Oregon)

Ochoa, E. 1997. Majagual: the tallest mangroves in the world. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 17. (Ecuador)

Olsen, R., De Leon, D. and White, A. 1997. Mangrove resources decline in the Philippines: government and community look for new solutions. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 4-5, 38.

Oren, C. and Struhsaker, T. 1997. Foreign aid and conservation of tropical forests: an action plan for change. Neotropical Primates 5(1): 14-15.

Owens, M. and Owens, D. 1997. Can time heal Zambia's elephants? Int. Wildlife 27(3): 28-35. (Poaching)

Pearman, D. 1997. Presidential address, 1996. Toward a new definition of rare and scarce plants. Watsonia 21: 231- 251. (Britain)

Pisey, O. 1997. Mangrove forests in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 33-34, 43.

Rachlow, J. and Berger, J. 1997. Conservation implications of patterns of horn regeneration in dehorned white rhinos. Conservation Biology 11(1): 84-91. (Asia, Africa)

Ramirez, M. and Froehlig, J. 1997. Minimal genetic variation in a coastal dune arthropod: the trapdoor spider Aptostichus simus (Cyrtaucheniidae). Conservation Biology 11(1): 256-259.

Rasolofoharinoro, M., Blasco, F. and Denis, J. 1997. Aquaculture in Madagascar's Mahajamba Bay. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 15-16.

Rebholz, W. and Harley, E. 1997. Cytochrome b sequences from the endangered Saudi gazelle (Gazella saudiya) suggest hybridization with Chinkara (G. bennetti). Conservation Biology 11(1): 251-255.

Reed, J. and Blaustein, A. 1997. Biologically significant population declines and statistical power. Conservation Biology 11(1): 281-282.

Reichard, S. and Hamilton, C. 1997. Predicting invasions of woody plants introduced into North America. Conservation Biology 11(1): 193-203.

Rigby, R. and Christie, P. 1997. The coastal area monitoring project at Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 6.

Saenger, P., Sankare, Y., Baglo, M., Isebor, C., Armah, A. and Nganje, M. 1997. The Gulf of Guinea Project: managaing mangroves to protect biodiversity in West Africa. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 34-35.

Schoonmaker, P. von Hagen, B. and Wolf, E. 1997. The Rain Forests of Home. Profile of a North American Bioregion . Island Press, Covelo, California. 480 pp.

Shah, N. 1997. The status of mangroves in the Seychelles. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 30.

Sheffer, R., Hedrick, P., Minckley, W. and Velasco, A. 1997. Fitness in the endangered Gila topminnow. Conservation Biology 11(1): 162-171. (USA)

Siddiqi, N. 1997. Management of resources in the Sundarbans mangroves of Bangladesh. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 22-23.

Sigala, P. 1997. Reunion faces up to weed invaders. Plant Talk 9: 16. (Alien weeds threaten native species)

Spalding, M. 1997. The global distribution and status of mangrove ecosystems. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 20-21.

Stein, B. and Flack, S. 1997. Conservation priorities: the state of U.S. plants and animals. Environment 39(4): 6-11, 34-39.

Steuter, A. and Hamilton, B. 1997. Herbivore-fire interactions in grassland ecosystems. Biodiversity Network News 10(1): 5, 11. (The Nature Conservancy)

Stevenson, N. and Burbridge, P. 1997. Abandoned shrimp ponds: options for mangrove rehabilitation. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 13-14, 16.

Stokland, J. 1997. Representativeness and efficiency of bird and insect conservation in Norwegian boreal forest reserves. Conservation Biology 11(1): 101-111.

Streever, B. 1997. Research and rehabilitation in Australia. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 10.

Swart, M. and Ferguson, J. 1997. Conservation implications of genetic differentiation in southern African populations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Conservation Biology 11(1): 79-83.

Taylor, K. 1997. New life for Scotland's ancient forest. Plant Talk 9: 24-27. (Caledonian Forest)

Thurston, H. 1997. Last look at paradise? Int. Wildlife 27(3): 12-21. (Galapagos Islands)

Timyan, J. 1997. BWA YO! Important Tress of Haiti. South-East Consortium for International Development, Washington, D.C. 418 pp.

Twilley, R. 1997. The diversity of mangrove wetlands and ecosystem management. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 31-32.

Vannucci, M. 1997. Supporting appropriate mangrove management. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 1, 3, 42.

Vega, N. 1997. Marenco Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Neotropical Primates 5(1): 20-21.

von Dorrien, C. 1997. Mangrove management in Brazil. Intercoast Network Special Edition 1: 26.

Vorhies, F. 1997. Environmental economics explained. Part 1: how economic valuation can help pay for conservation. Plant Talk 9: 28-29.

Webb, A. 1997. The Disney Wilderness Preserve, Florida. Nature Conservancy 47(3): 38.

Weeks, P. and Packard, J. 1997. Acceptance of scientific management by natural resource dependent communities. Conservation Biology 11(1): 236-245.

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