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Department ofBotany

No. 169
July 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The official list of the world's most endangered bryophytes was first published by The International Association of Bryologists (IAB) and IUCN in the Bryological Times (No.77, 1994), with the purpose of generating publicity to promote bryophyte conservation on a worldwide basis. The list contains 50 of the most threatened species (24 mosses and 26 hepatics) in the world, representing several monotypic families and genera as well as endemics of various biomes and floristic provinces of the world. For each species, information on locality and range, habitat, threat(s), and sources of information are given.

The selection of the world's most endangered bryophytes is updated every two years. The IAB committee is currently accepting additions and/or corrections for the new list which will be published by the end of the year. The three important criteria used in the selection of a species for the current red list are: 1) the species must be threatened on a worldwide scale; 2) the species must be confined to a threatened habitat; 3) the species should be narrowly distributed (but not as a consequence of under-collection); and/or 4) possess a unique morphology/biology among bryophytes, or occupy a special position in the evolution of bryophytes.

Dr. Benito C. Tan is in charge of monitoring and compiling the endangered mosses, while Dr. P. Geissler at Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques of Geneva, Switzerland, is in charge of the endangered liverworts. For inquiries or to provide information for the updated list, write to: Dr. T. Hallingback, Chairman of IAB Committee on Endangered Bryophytes, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7072, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden, or Dr. Benito C. Tan, Department of Botany, School of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260.


The American Bird Conservancy's Projects Council has a small endowment that allows it to make a few grants each year for projects related to avian conservation. These are used for conservation in the Western Hemisphere with an emphasis on Latin America and the Caribbean. Priorities include conservation actions for threatened species and their habits; research on threatened species and their habitats; joint conservation or management efforts by Latin Americans/West Indians and those from outside the region; and training and environmental education. Grants provided in recent years have ranged from $100 to $5,000.

Proposals can be in English, Spanish or Portuguese. Proposals received before September 30 will be considered in December. For application guidelines and further information, contact the Projects Council, American Bird Conservancy, 1250 24th St., NW, Suite 220, Washington, DC, 20037; Tel.: (202) 467- 8348; Fax: (202) 467-8352; E-mail:


With the importance given to marine environmental issues on the interantional stage, and the slow migration of the majority of the world's population to coastal regions, it is right to believe that the fields of marine and coastal science and management should be key professions in the future. Marine Science Careers: A Sea Grant Guide to Ocean Opportunitieshas been published by the National Sea Grant College Program and is geared to junior high and high school students interested in pursuing a career in a marine-related field. To respond to the diversity of today's younger generation versus the current workforce, the book also attempts to attract more women and minorities into the fields of marine and coastal sciences through personal comments made by the 38 marine scientists and professionals profiled in the guide.

The guide, written by Tracey Crago and Steve Adams, is divided into four major career areas: marine biology, oceanography, ocean engineering and closely related fields. The 40-page publication is available from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute's Sea Grant Program, 193 Oyster Pond Rd., MS#2, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1525; Tel.:(508) 289-2398; E-mail:

The Worldwatch Institute is one of the leading publishers of information and analysis of global environmental trends throughout the world. The Worldwatch Database Disk offers full datasets used by the Institute's researchers. Worldwatch researchers often summarize their results in tables or graphs appearing in the Institute's annual publications such as State of the World and Vital Signs as well as in the bimonthly magazine World Watch, the Environmental Alert Book series, and the Worldwatch Papers.

Now this wealth of data on environmental trends-- long term time series, country data sets, comparative graphs of trends--are available on disk. Researchers have instant access to the same data compiled by researchers to produce the Institute's up-to- date reportage and in-depth analysis of the issues.

There are more than 250 tables and graphs covering a range of environmental topics grouped under agriculture, atmosphere, ecology, economy, energy, food, materials, military, social, and transportaion. This data has a wide range of applications, clarifying the analysis done by institute staff, as well as allowing the researcher to conduct individual analysis and comparisions of trends, from changes in use and cost of solar energy, to recent data on population growth and grain yields.

The Worldwatch Database is updated twice a year-- January and June. Subscribers will receive two disks during their subscription period - the current edition followed by an update six months later. To use this program, one must have a spreadsheet program already installed. Subscription price is $89. For more information, visit the World Watch Institute's web site at:


World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is seeking a Team Leader for their Vietnam Cat Tien National Park Conservation Project, an area totaling 80,000 hectares located at the juncture of Dong Nai, Lam Dong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in southern Vietnam. Considered a "biodiversity hotspot", the large forest complex includes some of the last remaining tropical semi-evergreen lowland forests found anywhere in Vietnam, along with a mixture of freshwater wetlands and riverine habitats.

The WWF Project Team Leader (TL) will advise and collaborate with his/her Vietnamese counterpart, the National Project Director (NPD), in the overall management of the project and of its activities during the first three years of the project implementation period.

The TL must be the technical coordinator for the natural resource inventories and planning, protection programs and re- afforestation, community development programs, community baseline assessments, and maintain a gender neutral, culturally sensitive approach to all project operations. The TL will also be technically and administratively responsible for technical and financial reporting to WWF and the Netherlands Government.

Qualifications include: 1) MSc degree in forestry, nature conservation, ecology or a related field; 2) five years of working experience in community development and nature conservation; 3) be conversant in Vietnamese (or demonstrate a willingness to learn); and 4) have a strong character, as living conditions in the duty station are difficult.

The assignment will be for an initial one year, likely to extend three years or longer. The position is available from 1 January 1998, although an earlier start-date might be sought in consultation with the Government counterparts.

Applicants should send a cover letter and CV to WWF Vietnam Country Representative, Int., P.O. Box 151, Hanoi, Vietnam. Deadline for applications is 30 August 1997.

WWF is also seeking a Program Director for its Latin America and Caribbean Program (LA/C) based in the WWF-US office in Washington, D.C. The Program Director is responsible for the prioritization of the WWF-US portfolio in LA/C and makes recommendations regarding WWF-US funding in the region; oversees the development of regional, country, and thematic strategies; and plays a lead role in the monitoring and evaluation of the LA/C Program.

Interested applicants should possess a Ph.D. in natural resources management, biological sciences, or a related field, or a master's degree and equivalent work experience. This position requires eight years experience in Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of nature conservation with demonstrated success in designing and managing large and complex programs. Experience in the development of fundraising plans and public relations is essential. Diplomatic and cultural skills to work with a broad array of individuals and institutions and excellent oral and written communication skills, in Spanish and English, are required. Portuguese language skills are desirable.

Applicants should fax a cover letter and resume in reference to position #579 to Twig Johnson, World Wildlife Fund, (202) 296- 5348.


The Conservation and Development Forum (CDF) ONLINE is a suite of Internet tools for communicating themes and products of the Conservation and Development Forum. The Forum is a partnership between the Ford Foundation, the University of Florida, and a wide community of practitioners and scholars throughout the world. These links will help the researchers explore, understand, and contribute to this learning process.

The basis for the partnership can be found in myriad experiments in conservation and sustainable development, which offer the opportunity to reflect upon current trends of thought pertaining to future paths of sustainability. The CDF will contribute to the emerging field of conservation and development by facilitating an ongoing dialogue that fosters research, mutual learning, evaluation, and adaptive practice.

CDF's community-based approach conceptualizes "communities" in terms of multiple users and multiple boundaries. This approach values heterogeneity, building on specific experiences in the field without necessarily imputing universal modes. The Forum will highlight experiences that demonstrate particularly novel approaches; treat apparently intractable problems; and emphasize knowledge unlikely to appear elsewhere. For more information on The Conservation and Development Forum visit their home page at


Affolter, J. 1997. Protecting one of the world's richest floras. South African Botanical Gardens. Public Garden 12(2): 18-21, 49.

Akcakaya, H. and Atwood, J. 1997. A habitat-based metapopulation model of the California gnatcatcher. Conservation Biology 11(2): 422-434.

Amsberry, K. and Meinke, R. 1997. Restoring the popcorn- flower. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 12-13. (Plagiobothrys hirtus, in Oregon)

Anon. 1997. Deer thriving in new Chinese home. FOCUS 19(3): 3. (Pere David's deer in eastern China)

Anon. 1997. "Gifts to the Earth" help protect WWF's Global 200. FOCUS 19(3): 1. (Global 200: strategy to ensure outstanding habitats)

Anon. 1997. Habitat conservation key to panda's survival. FOCUS 19(3): 6.

Anon. 1997. Home to the panda - and much more. FOCUS 19(3): 6. (Sichuan/Yunnan Temperate Forest Ecoregion)

Anon. 1997. Illegal and excessive trade continues to threaten many species. FOCUS 19(3): 4-5. (Issues at CITES conference)

Anon. 1997. U.S., Canadian forests face extreme threat with little protection. FOCUS 19(3): 3. (Three-quarters of these forest regions are at risk of extinction)

Anon. 1997. WWF surveys migratory birds in the Pantanal. FOCUS 19(3): 3. (Project in Brazil)

Austen, C. 1997. Evaluating the proposed Canadian Endangered Species Act. End. Species UPDATE 14(3 & 4): 5-8.

Barden, L. 1997. Historic prairies in the piedmont of North and South Carolina, USA. Natural Areas J. 17(2): 149-152.

Belsky, A. and Blumenthal, D. 1997. Effects of livestock grazing on stand dynamics and soils in upland forests of the interior West. Conservation Biology 11(2): 315-327.

Bodmer, R., Eisenberg, J. and Redford, K. 1997. Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammals. Conservation Biology 11(2): 460-466.

Bolger, D., Scott, T. and Rothenberry, J. 1997. Breeding bird abundance in an urbanizing landscape in coastal southern California. Conservation Biology 11(2): 406-421.

Bolido, L. and White, A. 1997. Reclaiming the island reefs. People & Planet 6(2): 22-23. (Philippines)

Brooks, T., Pimm, S. and Collar, N. 1997. Deforestation predicts the number of threatened birds in Insular Southeast Asia. Conservation Biology 11(2): 382-394.

Camp, R. and Knight, R. 1997. Cliff bird and plant communities in Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA. Natural Areas J. 17(2): 110-117.

Cardel, Y., Rico-Gray, V., Garcia-Franco, J. and Thien, L. 1997. Ecological status of Beaucarnea gracilis, an endemic species of the semiarid Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. Conservation Biology 11(2): 367-374.

Ceska, J. 1997. Conservation research collections. Public Garden 12(2): 38-39. (State Botanical Garden of Georgia, USA)

Challinor, D. 1997. Southern exposure. Zoogoer 26(3): 17-23. (Cruising from Buenos Aires, Argentina to Puerto Montt, Chile)

Chittenden, E. 1997. Endangered and threatened plants of Michigan: a rare plant collection with conservation value. Public Garden 12(2): 39-41. (W.J. Beal Botanical Garden at Michigan State University)

Coblentz, B. 1997. Subsistence consumption of coral reef fish suggests non-sustainable extraction. Conservation Biology 11(2): 559-561.

Cote, I. and Sutherland, W. 1997. The effectiveness of removing predators to protect bird populations. Conservation Biology 11(2): 395-405.

Crago, T. and Adams, S. 1996. Marine Science Careers. A Sea Grant Guide to Ocean Opportunities . Sea Grant Program, Woods Hole, MA. 40 pp.

Creel, S., Creel, N. and Monfort, S. 1997. Radiocollaring and stress hormones in African wild dogs. Conservation Biology 11(2): 544-548.

Fimbel, C. and Fimbel, R. 1997. Rwanda: the role of local participants. Conservation Biology 11(2): 309-310.

Fischer, R., Martin, C., Trame, A-M and Harper, M. 1997. Managing plant communities. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 18-19. (On U.S. Department of Defense military installations)

France, R. 1997. Macroinvertebrate colonization of woody debris in Canadian shield lakes following riparian clearcutting. Conservation Biology 11(2): 513-521.

Ge, S., Zhang, D., Wang, H. and Rao, G. 1997. Allozyme variation in Ophiopogon xylorrhizus, an extreme endemic species of Yunnan, China. Conservation Biology 11(2): 562- 565. (Plant)

Ginsburg, R. and Kiene, W. 1997. What price a reef-fish dinner? People & Planet 6(2): 12-13. (International Year of the Reef)

Godt, M., Walker, J. and Hamrick, J. 1997. Genetic diversity in the endangered lily Harperocallis flava and a close relative, Tofieldia racemosa. Conservation Biology 11(2): 361-366. (Florida)

Greenberg, C., Crownover, S. and Gordon, D. 1997. Roadside soils: a corridor for invasion of xeric scrub by nonindigenous plants. Natural Areas J. 17(2): 99-109. (Florida)

Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., Angon, A. and Reitsma, R. 1997. Bird populations in shade and sun coffee plantations in central Guatemala. Conservation Biology 11(2): 448-459.

Gross, C. 1997. Teaming up for PV blues. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 24-25. (Palos Verde blue butterfly in California)

Gunn, S. 1996. Alabama Streak-Sorus Fern (Thelypteris pilosa var. alabamensis) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 38 pp.

Hale, L. 1997. Putting an end to coral mining. People & Planet 6(2): 20-21. (Sri Lanka)

Harris, L., Shaw, W. and Schelhas, J. 1997. Urban neighbors' wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors near federally protected areas in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Natural Areas J. 17(2): 144-148.

Hart, T. and Hart, J. 1997. Conservation and civil strife: two perspectives from Central Africa. Conservation Biology 11(2): 308-309.

Hatziolos, M. 1997. Coral reefs and the World Bank. People & Planet 6(2): 30-31.

Higgs, E. 1997. What is good ecological restoration? Conservation Biology 11(2): 338-348.

Hinrichsen, D. 1997. Coral reefs in crisis. People & Planet 6(2): 6-11.

Jennings, M. 1997. The treasures of Lake Wales Ridge. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 14-16. (Central Florida Ridge, center of plant diversity and many rare and endemic plants)

Kelleher, G. 1997. Australian treasure. People & Planet 6(2): 17-19. (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park)

Kennish, M. (Ed). 1997. Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 544 pp.

Kindscher, K. and Scott, N. 1997. Land ownership and tenure of the largest land parcels in the Flint Hills of Kansas, USA. Natural Areas J. 17(2): 131-135. (Largest area of tallgrass prairie in North America)

Kopytoff, V. 1997. A fly changes California builders' plans. New York Times(Real Estate) June 1: 38. (Endangered Delhi Sands flower-loving fly in San Bernandino)

Kretzmann, M., Gilmartin, W., Meyer, A., Zegers, G., Fain, S., Taylor, B. and Costa, D. 1997. Low genetic variability in the Hawaiian monk seal. Conservation Biology 11(2): 482-490.

Laurance, W. 1997. Effects of logging on wildlife in the tropics. Conservation Biology 11(2): 311-312.

Lewis, J. 1997. Alerting the birds. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 22-23. (Power lines kill birds)

Lumpkin, S. 1997. Wildlife on the Web. Zoogoer 26(3): 14-15.

Lutz, P. and Musick, J. (Eds). 1997. The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 448 pp.

Makoloweka, S. and Shurcliff, K. 1997. Silencing the dynamite fisheries. People & Planet 6(2): 24-25. (Tanga, Tanzania)

Marmontel, M., Humphrey, S. and O'Shea, T. 1997. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976-1991. Conservation Biology 11(2): 467-481.

McDonnell, M. and Roy, E. 1997. Using ecological science to understand the spread of exotic species. Special Supplement to Public Garden 12(2): 28-29.

Meilleur, B. 1997. Center for Plant Conservation. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 17. (U.S. consortium of 28 botanical gardens and arboreta) Meilleur, B. 1997. Cooperation versus competition in plant conservation. Public Garden 12(2): 11-13.

Mellen, J. and Wildt, D. 1997. AZA Taxon Advisory Group profile: felids. End. Species UPDATE 14(3 & 4): 15-16. (37 species of cats worldwide are all virtually threatened or endangered in at least some portion of their original range)

Morales, J., Andau, P., Supriatna, J., Zainuddin, Z. and Melnick, D. 1997. Mitochondrial DNA variability and conservation genetics of the Sumatran rhinoceros. Conservation Biology 11(2): 539-543.

Morin, N. 1997. Safe places for plants. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 8-9. (Botanical gardens and arboreta)

Moulton, M. and Sanderson, J. 1997. Predicting the fates of passeriform introductions on oceanic islands. Conservation Biology 11(2): 552-558.

Moulton, M. and Sanderson, J. 1997. Wildlife Issues in a Changing World. St. Lucie Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 368 pp.

Olsen, S. and Ngoile, M. 1997. The ethic of coastal care. People & Planet 6(2): 32.

Oren, C. and Struhsaker, T. 1997. Foreign aid and conservation of tropical forests: an action plan for change. Conservation Biology 11(2): 312.

Parsons, B. 1997. Holden's rare plant conservation program. Public Garden 12(2): 43-44. (Ohio)

Pastakia, M. 1997. Taming the seahorse trade. People & Planet 6(2): 28-29.

Peters, D. 1995. American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 66 pp.

Ragone, D. 1997. Conservation of breadfruit germplasm. Public Garden 12(2): 41-43. (National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii)

Raven, P. 1997. A look at the big picture. Public Garden 12(2): 6-10, 30. (Opening remarks to the 1996 American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta)

Reichard, S. 1997. Learning from the past. Special Supplement to Public Garden 12(2): 25-27. (Biological invasions)

Renard, Y. and Smith, A. 1997. Building a sense of stewardship. People & Planet 6(2): 26-27. (Caribbean)

Rice, C. 1997. DoD's wildlife R & D. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 20. (U.S. Department of Defense manages habitats for endangered species)

Rodriguez, J., Roberts, W. and Dobson, A. 1997. Where are endangered species found in the United States? End. Species UPDATE 14(3 & 4): 1-4.

Rosenbaum, H., Walsh, P., Razafindrakoto, Y., Vely, M. and DeSalle, R. 1997. First description of a humpback whale wintering ground in Baie d'Antongil, Madagascar. Conservation Biology 11(2): 312-314.

Rykken, J., Capen, D. and Mahabir, S. 1997. Ground beetles as indicators of land type diversity in the Green Mountains of Vermont. Conservation Biology 11(2): 522-530.

Sather, N., Freeman, C., Manske, L., Milton, J., Potts, L. and Hull Seig, C. 1996. Platanthera praeclara (Western Prairie Fringed Orchid) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 118 pp.

Shuey, J. 1997. Conservation status and natural history of Mitchell's satyr, Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii French (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Natural Areas J. 17(2): 153-163.

Skelly, D. and Meir, E. 1997. Rule-based models for evaluating mechanisms of distributional change. Conservation Biology 11(2): 531-538.

Skerl, K. 1997. Spider conservation in the United States. End. Species UPDATE 14(3 & 4): 9-14.

Slater, K. 1997. With an impact outside the garden walls. Public Garden 12(2): 32-34. (Volunteer rare plant monitors)

Smith, A., Horning, N. and Moore, D. 1997. Regional biodiversity planning and lemur conservation with GIS in western Madagascar. Conservation Biology 11(2): 498-512. Sotham, M. 1997. Nurturing native plants. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 4-7. (Native Plant Conservation Initiative)

Staley, K. 1997. Life on the windiest peak. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 10-11. (Robbins' cinquefoil battling extinciton on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire)

Timm, R., Salazar, R. and Peterson, A. 1997. Historical distribution of the extinct tropical seal, Monachus tropicalis (Carnivora: Phocidae). Conservation Biology 11(2): 549-551.

Tomiuk, J., Bachmann, L., Leipoldt, M., Ganzhorn, J., Ries, R., Weis, M. and Loeschcke, V. 1997. Genetic diversity of Lepilemur mustelinus ruficaudatus, a nocturnal lemur of Madagascar. Conservation Biology 11(2): 491-497.

Toth, L. 1997. Student restoration projects. Public Garden 12(2): 34-36. (Programs at Missouri Botanical Garden)

Trettin, C., Grigal, D., Jurgensen, M., Gale, M. and Jeglum, J. (Eds). 1997. Northern Forested Wetlands. Ecology and Management. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. 512 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) Recovery Plan: Second Revision. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 176 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Recovery Plan for Beach Jacquemontia (Jacquemontia reclinata). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 30 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Revised Recovery Plan for the U.S. Breeding Population of the Wood Stork. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 74 pp.

Vickerman, L. 1997. Dyck Arboretum of the Plains. Public Garden 12(2): 52-53. (Kansas)

Victor, M. (Ed). 1996. Income Generation Through Community Forestry. Regional Community Forestry Training Center, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. 259 pp. (RECOFTC Report 13: Proceedings of a seminar in Oct., 1995)

Weiss, R. 1997. Forest Service compromises on Tongass. Washington Post May 24: A1, A20. (Management plan for Tongass National Forest, Alaska)

Wells, S. 1997. Protecting a marine wonderland. People & Planet 6(2): 14-16. (Belize Barrier Reef)

White, D., Minotti, P., Barczak, M., Sifneos, J., Freemark, K., Santelmann, M., Steinitz, C., Kiester, A. and Preston, E. 1997. Assessing risks to biodiversity from future landscape change. Conservation Biology 11(2): 349-360.

White, P. 1997. A bill falls due: botanical gardens and the exotic species problem. Special Supplement to Public Garden 12(2): 22-25.

Wilson, C., Reid, R., Stanton, N. and Perry, B. 1997. Effects of land-use and tsetse fly control on bird species richness in southwestern Ethiopia. Conservation Biology 11(2): 435-447.

Winter, K. and Higgins, T. 1997. The Shrine Pool. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(2): 21. (Vernal pool near San Diego, California, habitat for threatened Parish's meadowfoam)

Wolf, P. and Sinclair, R. 1997. Highly differentiated populations of the narrow endemic plant Maguire primrose (Primula maguirei). Conservation Biology 11(2): 375- 381. (Utah)

Wyse Jackson, P. 1997. Convention on Biological Diversity. Public Garden 12(2): 14-17.

Yaffee, S. 1997. Why environmental policy nightmares recur. Conservation Biology 11(2): 328-337.

Yin, Y., Nelson, J. and Lubinski, K. 1997. Bottomland hardwood forests along the Upper Mississippi River. Natural Areas J. 17(2): 164-174.

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