Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 171
September 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Canada is the largest country in the Western Hemisphere and is a confederation of 10 provinces and 2 territories. It contains over 3200 native vascular plant species of which more than 1000 are rare in Canada, and only ten percent of these have been studied in detail to determine whether they are at risk of extinction. A list of vascular plants, mosses and lichens considered to be at risk nationally in Canada has been compiled by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). Information on flowering herbs, shrubs and trees and ferns and their allies can be accessed through COSEWIC's web site at Also available is information on vascular plants not at risk, candidate species at risk, references to status reports, and threats by exotic plants. Two areas under development include medicinal plants at risk and centers of rare vascular plants in Canada.

With the recent emphasis on increasing the knowledge on other groups of organisms that are likely at risk, the Subcommittee has established a specialist group on mosses and lichens which is presently developing a candidate list of nationally rare and potentially at risk mosses and lichens. The Canadian Botanical Conservation Network can be reached at P.O. Box 399, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3H8; Tel.: (905) 527-1158, ext. 309; Fax: (905) 577-0375; E-mail:


The State of the World's Forests 1997 (SOFO 1997) presents information on the current status of the world's forests, major developments over the reporting period (1995-97), and recent trends and future directions in the forestry sector. The demands for forestry today are complex and challenging, and the debate on the role of forests in society - their purpose, their benefits and their beneficiaries - is as vigorous as ever.

SOFO 1997 presents new information on global forest cover including: the area of forests in 1995, change since 1990, and revised estimates for forest cover change between 1980 and 1990, all derived from the FAO Forest Resources Assessment programme. The area of the world's forests, including natural forests and plantations, is estimated to have been 3,454 million hectares in 1995 (Greenland and Antarctica excepted), slightly more than half of which was in developing countries. Between 1990 and 1995, there was an estimated net loss of 56.4 million hectares of forests worldwide. More than 60% of the world's forests are located in seven countries: the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, Unted States, China, Indonesia and Zaire.

Recent information on the nature and causes of change in forest cover in the tropics suggest that expansion of subsistence agriculture in Africa and Asia, and large economic development programs involving resettlement, agriculture and infrastructure in Latin America and Asia, are key factors behind forest cover change. In the coming decades, pressure for increased food production is expected to lead to continued conversion of forest land to agriculture in many developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan and Latin America where other options to meet food needs are limited.

English, French and Spanish versions of the executive summary of SOFO 1997 can be found on FAO's web site at The report is available in Adobe Acrobat PDF format suitable for downloading, printing, duplication and distribution.


Scientists conducting research in Eastern and Western Europe are invited to submit papers to the magazine, Quaderni della Stazione di Ecologia. Papers should deal with the ecology of animals of wetlands (especially invertebrates) and problems in conservation of wetlands as a tool for preserving invertebrate species. Papers will be published in a special section of the magazine. Instructions can be obtained from Dr. Carla Corazza, Stazione di Ecologia, Museo di Storia Naturale, Via L. De Pisis, 24, 44100 Ferrara, Italy; Tel.: 532-203381; Fax: 532-210508; E- mail:


Plant Collectors in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands by Laurence J. Dorr has just been published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The information has been compiled since 1983 when Dorr established a program of botanical research and exploration in Madagascar while employed by the Missouri Botanical Garden. Presently he is an associate curator of botany at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and involved in a collaborative project to prepare a flora of a national park in the Venezuelan Andes.

Madagascar and the Comoro Islands have an unusual, highly diverse, endemic and rich flora. The area covered in the book corresponds to that of the Flore de Madagascar et des Comores . This single volume serves as a guide to the collections and literature relating to this unique and vanishing plant life. The book provides biographical and bibliographical information on over 1000 individuals who have collected herbarium specimens in these islands. Entries contain references to portraits, itineraries, collecting companions and examples of handwriting, as well as information on the location of exsiccatae, herbarium specimens and manuscript materials. In addition, the book is illustrated by two maps and approximately 250 portraits of botanists, many of which have not been published before. This will be a vital resource for those carrying out research on the plants of Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.

The book is available with a free multi platform read-only CD or as a full CD version only from the Mail Order Department, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, England or from Balogh Scientific Books, 1911 North Duncan Rd., Champaign, IL 61821 USA; Tel.: (217) 355-9331; Fax: (217) 355-9413; E-mail:;


The Student Conservation Association, Inc. is dedicated to contributing to the resources available for student and professionals looking to further their careers. Various publications are available including Earth Work: Resource Guide to Nationwide Green Jobs. This guide outlines the necessary steps in any job search, and provides tools and information for pursuing a career path in the environmental field. It can be ordered for $15 (plus $4.25 for shipping/handling) from SCA, Career Resources Dept., P.O. Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603-0550; Tel.: (603) 543-1700; Fax: (603) 543-1828;


The Ecological Society of America has just launched its first on-line journal. Conservation Ecology is an electronic, peer-reviewed, scientific journal devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research. Content of the journal ranges from the applied to the theoretical. Topics covered include the ecological bases for: 1) the conservation of ecosystems, landscapes, species, populations and genetic diversity; 2) the restoration of ecosystems and habitats; and 3) the management of resources. Papers on the above topics that also integrate the biological and physical sciences, the natural and social sciences, and science policy are also encouraged. All papers are rapidly reviewed via electronic mail. Accepted papers will be copyedited and published immediately after acceptance. Each issue of the journal will be open for six months, with papers continually added as they are completed. At the end of six months, the issue will be closed and all subscribers will receive an e-mail of the final table of contents. All back issues will always be available on the site. During the first year of publication, Conservation Ecology will be available free- of-charge to everyone.

To view the first issue or obtain information on how to submit a manuscript, Conservation Ecology can be accessed at


October 27-30. "Forum on Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World" will be held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. The main goal of this forum is to improve the mutual understanding about how biodiversity supports us and its potential to further enhance our lives and livelihood among leaders in science, industry, public policy, and the media. Registration fee: 1 or 2 days: $35/day; 3 days: $100. For more information, contact: Forum on Biodiversity, National Research Council, Room NAS 315, 2101 Constitution Ave. N.W., Washington, DC 20418; Tel.: (202) 334-2215; E-mail:

November 16-21. The Conservation and Development Forum will sponsor a four-day international conference designed to review experiments in conservation and development over the past decade, highlight the most pressing practical problems in this field, and facilitate the creation of new North-South and South-South partnerships for mutual understanding and effective action. "Forum 97: New Linkages in Conservation and Development" will be held in Istanbul, Turkey. For more information, contact: Conservation and Development Forum, University of Florida, P.O. Box 115531, Gainesville, FL 32611-5531; Tel.: (352) 392-0085; E- mail:;

December 3-7. "The 3rd International Conference on Wildlife Management in Amazonia" will be held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The meeting is being co-sponsored by the School of Agricultural Science of the Universidad Autonoma "Gabriel Ren Moreno", the Natural History Museum "Noel Kempff Mercado", and the Tropical Conservation and Development Program of the University of Florida. This event will be a forum for practitioners, students, researchers and other professionals from all parts of Central and South America to evaluate approaches, share knowledge and exchange ideas about wildlife and fisheries, conservation and management, biodiversity, the environment and sustainable development along with other themes intimately linked with Amazon wildlife. For more information, contact: Tropical Conservation and Development Program, University of Florida, P.O. Box 115531, Gainesville, FL 32611-5531; Fax: (352) 392-0085; E-mail: or visit the event homepage at

December 18-20. "The European Conference on Environmental and Societal Change in Mountain Regions" will be held in Oxford, England. The conference will encourage networking of those actively involved in natural and social science research, policy, and practice in mountain regions, and assess relevance of ongoing and proposed research activities. Registration deadline: November 28. For registration form, visit the web site at or write Mountain Conference Secretariat, Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford, 11 Bevington Road, Oxford OX2 6NB, England; Tel: (44) 1865 274709; Fax: (44) 1865 515194; E-mail:

January 14-17, 1998. "The Third Congress on Conservation of Caribbean Biodiversity" will be held at the Autonomous University of Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic. Abstracts for papers and posters must be submitted by October 30, 1997. Contact Felicita Heredia L., Lourdes Rojas, Beatriz Rola or Julia M. Mota, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biologia, Ciudad Universitaria, Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic; Tel.: (809) 686-3346.


Akeroyd, J. 1997. Antique land of plant diversity. Plant Talk 10: 20-24. (Crete)

Anders, A., Deaborn, D., Faaborg, J. and Thompson III, F. 1997. Juvenile survival in a population of neotropical migrant birds. Conservation Biology 11(3): 698-707. (Wood thrush in Missouri)

Anon. 1997. International hemp association leads various efforts to preserve Cannabis for intensified medical and industrial research. DIVERSITY 13(1): 14-15.

Anon. 1997. Lottery boost for world's biggest greenhouse. Plant Talk 10: 15. (New-style botanic garden in Cornwall, England)

Anon. 1997. Major East African centre of plant diversity protected. Plant Talk 10: 38-39. (Usambara Mountains, Tanzania)

Anon. 1997. Medicinal plants: World Bank interest. Plant Talk 10: 11. (New study)

Anon. 1997. North African countries unite to save medicinal plants. Plant Talk 10: 12.

Anon. 1997. North American forests on the map. Plant Talk 10: 14. (WWF Forest Map)

Anon. 1997. Plants in the wrong place. Plant Talk 10: 16. (Non-natives invade English countryside)

Anon. 1997. Proyecto de Recursos Tarahumara: the NS/S Sierra Madre Project. Seedhead News 57: 6-7. (Preservation of a megacenter of biological diversity in Mexico)

Anon. 1997. Russian Red Data. Plant Talk 10: 13. (Red Data Book of Plant Communities in the former USSR)

Anon. 1997. Threat to Turkish bulb mountain. Plant Talk 10: 17. (Taurus Mountains developed for tourism)

Anon. 1997. What future for tropical peatlands? Plant Talk 10: 18. (New book on Southeast Asia biodiversity)

Atwood, J., Christenson, E., Cribb, P., Fischer, J., Head, C., Hillerman, F., Koopowitz, H., Nash, N. and Williams, N. 1997. Conservation: informal perspectives. Orchid Digest 61(3): 108-119. (Experts discuss conservation issues facing international horticultural community)

Barr, N. 1997. Endangered Species. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, New York. 306 pp.

Bartlein, P., Whitlock, C. and Shafer, S. 1997. Future climate in the Yellowstone National Park region and its potential impact on vegetation. Conservation Biology 11(3): 782-792. (USA)

Basinger, M., Huston, J., Gates, R. and Robertson, P. 1997. Vascular flora of Horseshoe Lake Conservation Area, Alexander County, Illinois. Castanea 62(2): 82-99.

Belson, N. 1997. Marketing biodiversity: the U.S. regulatory structure for natural products. DIVERSITY 13(1): 18-21.

Bennett, J. and Course, J. 1997. The vascular flora of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ross County, Ohio. Rhodora 98(894): 146-167. (Two rare and threatened species)

Birkeland, C. (Ed). 1997. Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 416 pp.

Brookes, M., Graneau, Y., King, P., Rose, O., Thomas, C. and Mallet, J. 1997. Genetic analysis of founder bottlenecks in the rare British butterfly Plebejus argus. Conservation Biology 11(3): 648-661.

Bruce, K., Cameron, G., Harcombe, P. and Jubinsky, G. 1997. Introduction, impact on native habitats, and management of a woody invader, the Chinese tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 255-260. (China)

Brunton, B. 1997. Forest areas identified to have high biodiversity values. Brukim Bus Nius 7(4): 3. (Papua New Guinea)

Buchert, G., Rajora, O., Hood, J. and Dancik, B. 1997. Effects of harvesting on genetic diversity in old-growth eastern white pine in Ontario, Canada. Conservation Biology 11(3): 747-758.

Carlson, T., Iwu, M., King, S., Obialor, C. and Ozioko, A. 1997. Medicinal plant research in Nigeria: an approach for compliance with the Convention on Biological Diversity. DIVERSITY 13(1): 29-33.

Claridge, M., Dawah, A. and Wilson, M. (Eds). 1997. Species. The Units of Biodiversity. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 456 pp. (Systematics Association Special Volume Series)

Cummings, S., Brannon, E., Adams, K. and Thorgaard, G. 1997. Genetic analyses to establish captive breeding priorities for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. Conservation Biology 11(3): 662-669. (North America)

Di Silvestro, R. 1997. Steelhead trout: factors in protection. BioScience 47(7): 409-414.

Dillon Jr., R. and Ahlstedt, S. 1997. Verification of the specific status of the endangered Anthony's river snail, Atearnia anthonyi, using allozyme electrophoresis. The Nautilus 110(3): 97-101.

Downes, S., Handasyde, K. and Elgar, M. 1997. The use of corridors by mammals in fragmented Australian eucalypt forests. Conservation Biology 11(3): 718-726.

Dudenhoefer, D. 1997. Costa Rica conference focuses on nexus between business and biodiversity conservation. DIVERSITY 13(1): 7-8.

Dunwiddie, P. 1997. Long-term effects of sheep grazing on coastal sandplain vegetation. Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 261- 264. (Massachusetts)

Eaton, D. and Sarch, M. 1997. The Economic Importance of Wild Resources in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Nigeria. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, England. 41 pp. (CREED Working Paper Series No. 13)

Fernandez-Duque, E. and Bravo, S. 1997. Population genetics and conservation of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) in Argentina: a promising field site. Neotropical Primates 5(2): 48-50.

Fernandes, F. 1997. Restoration programme for Madeira's endangered plants. Plant Talk 10: 19.

FAO. 1997. State of the World's Forests. FAO, Rome, Italy, 200 pp.

Ferreira, L. and Laurance, W. 1997. Effects of forest fragmentation on mortality and damage of selected trees in Central Amazonia. Conservation Biology 11(3): 797-801.

Fiedler, P. and Kareiva, P. (Eds). 1997. Conservation Biology for the Coming Decade. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 528 pp. (Second Edition)

Fischer, M. and Stocklin, J. 1997. Local extinctions of plants in remnants of extensively used calcareous grasslands 1950-1985. Conservation Biology 11(3): 727-737. (Central Europe)

FitzMaurice, W. and FitzMaurice, B. 1997. Fieldnotes: Mammillaria tezontle - a long term study. Cactus & Succ. J. (U.S.) 69(4): 190-194. (Critically endangered in San Luis Potosi, Mexico)

Folsom, J. 1997. The issues and ethics of public plant collections. Orchid Digest 61(3): 100-107.

Gamradt, S., Kats, L. and Anzalone, C. 1997. Aggression by non-native crayfish deters breeding in California newts. Conservation Biology 11(3): 793-796.

Geatz, R. 1997. Mo'omomi Preserve, Island of Molokai, Hawaii. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 38. (Rare species)

Glass, C. 1997. Mexico takes steps against illegal extraction of cacti. British Cactus & Succ. J. 15: 83-84.

Goldingay, R. and Price, M. 1997. Influence of season and a sympatric congener on habitat use by Stephens' kangaroo rat. Conservation Biology 11(3): 708-717. (Endangered species, California)

Guan, R.-Z. and Wiles, P. 1997. Ecological impact of introduced crayfish on benthic fishes in a British lowland river. Conservation Biology 11(3): 641-647.

Hecnar, S. and McCloskey, R. 1997. Spatial scale and determination of species status of the green frog. Conservation Biology 11(3): 670-682. (Canada)

Herman, K., Masters, L., Penskar, M., Reznicek, A., Wilhelm, G. and Brodowicz, W. 1997. Floristic quality assessment: development and application in the state of Michigan (USA). Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 265-279.

Hill, S. 1997. The flora of Latimer Point and vicinity, New London County, Connecticut. Rhodora 98(894): 180-216. (Two endangered species)

Holing, D. 1997. The coastal sage scrub solution. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 16-24. (California)

Hughes, L. 1997. Two rare plants of the Arizona strip. Desert Plants 13(1): 25-27. (Rosa stellata and Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii)

Hurlbert, K. 1997. Finding the building blocks of new medicines. Missouri Botanical Garden Bull. 85(4): 16-17. (Bioprospecting for National Cancer Institute)

Jacobson, S. and Marynowski, S. 1997. Public attitudes and knowledge about ecosystem management on Department of Defense land in Florida. Conservation Biology 11(3): 770-781.

Jaka, C. 1997. New map of "biodiversity hotspots" aids targeting of conservation efforts. DIVERSITY 13(1): 27-29. (Conservation International)

Kapke, P., Jorgensen, H. and Rothschild, M. 1997. Unique collaborative conservation effort scores a win for America's rarest swine breed. DIVERSITY 13(1): 24-25. (Pigs)

Kinch, J. 1997. Font of life. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 29. (Dominican Republic)

Kinch, J. 1997. A mountain of a deal. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 25. (Davis Mountains, Texas)

Kinch, J. 1997. Nesting down. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 26. (Cumberland Island, Georgia)

Kinch, J. 1997. Pulling together. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 28. (Mackinaw River project, Illinois)

Kinch, J. 1997. Reservoir deals. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 27. (Area along San Pedro River to support endangered southwestern willow flycatcher in Arizona)

Kunin, W. and Gaston, K. (Eds). 1997. The Biology of Rarity. Causes and Consequences of Rare-Common Differences. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 296 pp. (Population and Community Biology Series, Vol. 17)

Labat-J.N. and Du Puy, D. 1997. A revision of Pettiera, a new, poorly known and probably extinct genus of Leguminosae (Papilionoideae - Robinieae) from Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Adansonia 19(1): 93-100.

Lambert, J., Srivastava, J. and Vietmeyer, N. 1997. Medicinal Plants: Rescuing a Global Heritage. World Bank, Washington, D.C. (Technical Paper No. 355)

Lee, S., Kim, S., Kwon, H. and Kim, Z. 1997. Republic of Korea responds to UNCED treaty obligations with new conservation strategies for forest tree resources. DIVERSITY 13(1): 11- 13.

Lineham Jr., T. 1997. Book review: Bromelias da Reserva Ecologica Rio das Pedras. J. Bromeliad Soc. 47(4): 150- 151. (Brazil)

Lips, K. 1997. Recent amphibian declines in lower Central America. FROGLOG 22: 2-3. (Costa Rica, Panama)

Lopez-Uriate, E., Escofet, A., Palacios, E. and Gonzalez, S. 1997. Migrant shorebirds at sandy beaches located between two major wetlands on the Pacific Coast of Baja California (Mexico). Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 212-218.

Marsh, H. 1997. Going, going, dugong. Nature Australia 25(9): 50-57. (Endangered species)

Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B. and Hawkes, J. (Eds). 1997. Plant Genetic Conservation. The In Situ Approach. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 472 pp.

Maxwell, J. and Jamieson, I. 1997. Survival and recruitment of captive-reared and wild-reared takahe in Fiordland, New Zealand. Conservation Biology 11(3): 683-691. (Endemic flightless rail)

Morat, P. and Lowry II, P. 1997. Floristic richness in the Africa-Madagascar region: a brief history and prospective. Adansonia 19(1): 101-115.

Musch, R. 1997. Plans to save Puya raimondii in Bolivia. J. Bromeliad Soc. 47(4): 178-179.

Niemela, J. 1997. Invertebrates and boreal forest management. Conservation Biology 11(3): 601-610.

Norton, D. and Reid, N. 1997. Lessons in ecosystem management from management of threatened and pest loranthaceous mistletoes in New Zealand and Australia. Conservation Biology 11(3): 759-769.

Packard, S. and Mutel, C. (Eds). 1997. The Tallgrass Prairie Restoration Handbook for Prairies, Savannas and Woodlands. Island Press, Covelo, California. 463 pp.

Pennock, D. and Dimmick, W. 1997. Critique of the evolutionarily significant unit as a definition for "distinct population segments" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 11(3): 611-619.

Pickett, S., Ostfeld, R., Shachak, M. and Likens, G. (Eds). 1997. The Ecological Basis of Conservation. Heterogeneity, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 432 pp.

Poulsen, A. 1997. Plant diversity in forests of Western Uganda and eastern Zaire (preliminary results). AAU Reports 36: 1-76.

Pryde, P. 1997. Creating offshore island sanctuaries for endangered species: the New Zealand experience. Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 248-254.

Raupp, W., Friebe, B., Wilson, D., Cox, T. and Gill, B. 1997. Kansas state's Wheat Genetics Resources Center provides unique oasis for germplasm research. DIVERSITY 13(1): 21- 23.

Rieley, J. and Page, S. (Eds). 1997. Biodiversity and Sustainability of Tropical Peatlands. Samara Publishing, Dyfed, England. 370 pp.

Roll, J., Mitchell, R., Cabin, R. and Marshall, D. 1997. Reproductive success increases with local density of conspecifics in a desert mustard (Lesquerella fendleri). Conservation Biology 11(3): 738-746. (Southwest USA & northern Mexico)

Roovers, L. and Shifley, S. 1997. Composition and dynamics of Spitler Woods, an old-growth remnant forest in Illinois (USA). Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 219-232.

Rydin, H., Diekmann, M. and Hallingback, T. 1997. Biological characteristics, habitat associations, and distribution of macrofungi in Sweden. Conservation Biology 11(3): 628-640.

Schneider, H. 1997. Geese may be sacrificed to restore ecosystem. Washington Post August 20: A1, A22. (Explosion in the population of geese on Canada's tundra)

Schwartz, M. (Ed). 1997. Conservation in Highly Fragmented Landscapes. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 448 pp.

Seidensticker, J. 1997. Saving the tiger. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 25(1): 6-17. (Efforts in Asia)

Smith, G. and Swartz, P. 1997. Re-establishment of Aloe suzannae in Madagascar. Part 1. The way to the Red Island. British Cactus & Succ. J. 15: 88-93. (Threatened species)

Stolzenburg, W. 1997. Andean ambassador. Nature Conservancy 47(4): 10-15. (Andean bear)

Taylor, V. and Dunstone, N. (Eds). 1997. The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 440 pp.

Thackway, R. 1997. Significant trends in nature conservation in Australia. Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 233-240.

Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I. 1997. A bioregional framework for planning the national system of protected areas in Australia. Nat. Areas J. 17(3): 241-247.

Vorhies, F. 1997. Environmental economics explained. Part 2: Incentive measures for biodiversity conservation. Plant Talk 10: 25-27.

Wardell-Johnson, G. 1997. Tingle tail-flower. Nature Australia 25(9): 20-21. (Rare species)

Winker, K., Escalante, P., Rappole, J., Ramos, M., Oehlenschlager, R. and Warner, D. 1997. Periodic migration and lowland forest refugia in a "sedentary" neotropical bird, Wetmore's bush-tanager. Conservation Biology 11(3): 692- 697. (Veracruz, Mexico)

Worthington, L. 1997. Department of Defense adds biodiversity conservation to U.S. arsenal. DIVERSITY 13(1): 16-18. (Ecosystem management on military bases)

Yeager, C. 1997. Orangutan rehabilitation in Tanjung Puting National Park, Indonesia. Conservation Biology 11(3): 802- 805.

Zobel, M. 1997. The relative role of species pools in determining plant species richness: an alternative explanation of species coexistence? Ecology & Evolution 12(7): 266-269.

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