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Department ofBotany

No. 172
October 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Central American Institute of Prehistoric and Traditional Cultures, located in the Cayo District of Belize, is in urgent need of emergency funds in order to salvage their extensive holdings of irreplaceable books, photographs, field notes, artifacts, and archival material. The cumulative effect of last year's rain storms damaged the library and archival storage area. Algae, microflora, worms, and dense tropical moisture penetrated the storage building, rapidly destroying parts of the collection. Presently, a portion of the damaged collection is in an air-conditioned storage facility in Miami awaiting immediate attention. However, another part of the collection remains in Belize, waiting for the additional funds needed to retrieve it. Through volunteer efforts, the decaying process has been temporarily slowed down. The continuing damage as a result of the decaying process however cannot be halted. Professional conservation measures are desperately needed to save the collection. It is with this major concern that the Institute has initiated the Library Rescue Operation to raise the required funds.

Recognized under the Ministry of Education of the Government of Belize, the non-profit research and educational institution was established for the purposes of promoting the preservation of ancient and traditional worldviews and material, and to act as a center for the dissemination of knowledge and interest in the study of such cultures. The Institute aims at preserving indigenous cultures through the preservation of traditional knowledge. The damaged library and archives form an integral part of its mission and activities. The Institute has amassed important data in the areas of consciousness studies, shamanism, rainforest and traditional healing techniques, and alternative medicine. The collection also consists of plant specimens and materials collected through ethnobotanical fieldwork, documenting and exploring the medicinal value of rain forest flora. Furthermore, the Institute's collection consists of some rare and out-of-print books, providing an extremely valuable resource to ethnologists, botanists, pharmacologists, historians, and others. The holdings also contain research and documentation about the Maya, Creole, and Garifuna populations of Belize and the neighboring regions. The data are not limited to Central America, but contain information on cultures around the world.

The intended rescue is to be carried out in three phases, and many funds are needed to complete phase one. The Emergency Fund goal is US$140,000. Presently a cadre of volunteers is waiting to begin the conservation task, but the extra funds are needed to subsidize the work. The Institute needs the aid of readers in order to disseminate this appeal -- from those interested in helping, to related organizations in the hopes of consolidating efforts to save the research and cultural resources.

The Institute can provide documentation of its non-profit and educational status, and a detailed breakdown of the allocation of funds. Further information about the Central American Institute of Prehistoric and Traditional Cultures can be obtained at their web site:

For more information or donations, contact: Emergency Fund, Central American Institute at Belize, 8033 Sunset Blvd., Suite 2040, Los Angeles, CA 90046; Tel.: (818) 344-8516; E-mail: Checks can be made payable to Central American Institute. Contributions will be formally recognized by the Institute, as well as on the homepage.


Every year The Garden Club of America offers a selection of unusual and excellent opportunities for further study to college and graduate students, doctoral candidates and Ph.D.s, as well as to landscape architects.

New this year is a grant to enable study in medical botany. Some other awards available are: a fellowship in landscape architecture at the American Academy in Rome; awards in tropical botany for Ph.D. candidates to pursue independent field study; a scholarship for graduate study in horticulture, botany, landscape architecture and environmental studies in Great Britain; a grant for graduate students in horticulture to conduct field research on the biology and management of rare flora; and regional scholarships for college or graduate students who wish to pursue the study of horticulure and related subjects.

For detailed information on the above awards and a list of other programs, contact: The Garden Club of America, 14 East 60th St., New York, NY 10022; Tel: (212) 743-8287.


The Center for Field Research invites proposals for the 1998-1999 field grants funded by its affiliate Earthwatch. Earthwatch is an international, non-profit organization dedicated to sponsoring field research and promoting public education in the sciences and humanities. Past projects have been successfully fielded in, but are not limited to, the following disciplines: animal behavior, biodiversity, ecology, ornithology, endangered species entomology, marine mammalogy, icthyology, herpetology, marine ecology, and resource and wildlife management. For more information contact: The Center for Field Research, 680 Mt. Auburn St., Watertown, MA 02272; Tel: (617) 926-8200; Fax: (617) 926-8532; E-mail:;


The SI/MAB Biodiversity Program will offer an environmental leadership course, "From Ideas to Reality", March 2-13, 1998. The course examines many of the essential skills and tools that are required to bring positive change and "create a world environment to which people want to belong". The skills and tools of "visionary leadership" will involve a process of self-exploration and discovery as well as interacting with others.

Designed for scientists and environmental professionals (people who are ready to make a difference and who are ready to learn how to get their programs implemented), it will teach the persuasive communications skills needed to get decision-makers to adopt and support programs.

Held 60 miles west of Washington D.C., bordering the Shenandoah National Park at the Smithsonian Conservation and Research Center, an exceptional selection of multi-disciplinary leaders will make presentations and share "their stories" and address questions regarding how they attained leadership. Facilitators will introduce exercises to challenge the participants to explore and practice the elements of creative leadership.

For more information, contact: SI/MAB Biodiversity Program, Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley Center, 1100 Jefferson Dr. S.W., MRC-705, Washington DC 20560; Tel: (202)-357-4792; Fax: (202) 786-2557; E-mail:;

The Road and Hydraulics Engineering Division (RHED) of Rijkswaterstaat, The Netherlands, in cooperation with the Delft University of Technology, is organizing an international course on ecologically sound banks in 1998. The course is of particular interest to professionals in the field of the ecology of the "wet infrastructure". For more information, contact: Rijkswaterstaatt, Hydraulic Engineering Division, Attn. ir. R. Boeters, P.O. Box 5044, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands; Tel. (31) 15-2699111; Fax: (31) 15-2611361; E-mail:

The SI/MAB Biodiversity Program will hold their annual course, "Biodiversity Measuring, Monitoring and Research Certification", May 10 - June 12, 1998 at the Smithsonian Conservation and Research Center, Front Royal, VA.

This intensive five-week course provides a unique opportunity for professionals to gain expertise in current methodology for developing, carrying out, and maintaining long- term biodiversity inventory, monitoring, and research programs. To date, over 110 participants from 45 countries have been trained through this course. The training will assist the participant to incorporate his work and ideas with the measuring and monitoring framework established by SI/MAB. In addition, techniques and examples of other biodiversity monitoring programs will be discussed.

For more information, contact: SI/MAB Biodiversity Program, Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley Center, 1100 Jefferson Dr. S.W., Washington, DC 20560; Tel: (202) 357-4792; Fax: (202) 786-2557; E-mail:;


Parkway Publishers of North Carolina has published a 14 chapter book on Mycology in Sustainable Development: Expanding Concepts, Vanishing Borders. Edited by Mary E. Palm, a mycologist at USDA, and Ignacio H. Chapela, the Scientific Coordinator of The Mycological Facility in Oaxaca, Mexico, the 305-page book discusses current research efforts on the use of fungi in sustainable development and summarizes scientific, social, political, and legal aspects. The chapters are contributed by internationally known mycologists from Mexico, Canada, and the United States, heralding an international cooperation in this area.

The illustrated book is $40.00, and available from: Parkway Publishers, Inc., P.O. Box 3678, Boone, NC, 28607; Tel.: (704) 265-3993; E-mail:


An extensive list of graduate and undergraduate programs in ethnobotany has been compiled by the editor of The Society for Economic Botany Newsletter, Trish Flaster. The list includes contacts and phone numbers for courses of study in the field from universities in the United States, Mexico, and Canada. Also available is an ethnobotany bibliography compiled by Will McClatchey. For either list, or both, contact, Trish Flaster, 1180 Crestmoor Dr., Boulder, CO, 80303; E-mail:


Mexico is the fourteenth largest country in the world and ranks third in biological diversity. In 1992, the President of Mexico created CONABIO (National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity) to promote and coordinate efforts being made by numerous institutions and groups in Mexico regarding the knowledge of the contry's biodiversity, sustainable use. In order to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge of the country's biodiversity, CONABIO has recently edited its first Catalog of Publications on Biodiversity.

The new catalog is divided into eight sections that correspond to the themes of botany, zoology, ecology, natural resources, conservation, sustainable use, natural history, and a section dedicated to other publications which include bulletins and magazines. Each section lists the books, manuals, atlases, references, videos and CD ROMs pertaining to the above themes. The 88-page catalog offers a bibliographic index of nearly 500 titles and 12 magazines of 22 national institutions and will be updated annually. For information on acquiring the new catalog, contact: Libreria Bonilla y Asociados S.A. de C.V., Francia 17, Col. Florida, 01030 Mexico, D.F., Mexico; Tel.: 6612203; Fax: 6611785; E-mail:


The Native Plant Conservation Initiative has a new web address:


Airi, S., Rawal, R., Dhar, U. and Purohit, A. 1997. Population studies on Podophyllum hexandrum Royle - a dwindling, medicinal plant of the Himalaya. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 110: 29-34.

Alford, R. and Richards, S. 1997. Lack of evidence for epidemic disease as an agent in the catastropic decline of Australian rain forest frogs. Conservation Biology 11(4): 1026-1029.

Alvard, M., Robinson, J., Redford, K. and Kaplan, H. 1997. The sustainability of subsistence hunting in the Neotropics. Conservation Biology 11(4): 977-982. (Peru)

Andreasen, L. and Jensen, B. 1997. Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(3): 16-18. (Southwestern USA)

Anon. 1997. Agency permits Conoco to drill near scenic area. Washington Post September 9: A9. (Grand Staircase- Escalante National Monument, Utah)

Anon. 1997. Central Africa's changing landscape poses conservation challenge. FOCUS 19(4): 1-2. (Congo, Zaire)

Anon. 1997. Growth requirements of the pink lady's-slipper. New England Wild Flower 1(2): 4-5, 38. (USA)

Anon. 1997. Imagine life on the moon. Center for Conservation Biology Update 10(1): 6-7. (Ecosystem management)

Anon. 1997. Preserving Darwin's legacy. FOCUS 19(4): 2-3. (Galapagos Islands)

Anon. 1997. Rate of wetland destruction continues to decline. Washington Post September 18: A3. (1.2 million acres of wetlands lost in US from 1985-1995)

Anon. 1997. WWF focuses international spotlight on sound forestry practices. FOCUS 19(4): 6.

Ash, A. 1997. Disappearance and return of plethodontid salamanders to clearcut plots in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Conservation Biology 11(4): 983-989. (North Carolina)

Balis-Larsen, M. and Sutterfield, T. 1997. Navy protects island monarch. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(3): 10-11. (Tinian monarch, Mariana Islands)

Bender, M. and Possardt, E. 1997. Seeking an accord with rattlesnakes. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(3): 14-15. (Timber rattlesnake conservation plan)

Biggins, R. and Ahlstedt, S. 1997. The return of the riversnails. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(3): 8-9. (North America)

Bonilla, H. 1997. Cabo Pulmo Reef: a new marine reserve in the Gulf of California. Conservation Biology 11(4): 838.

Boucher, N. 1997. How to have your wood and your forest too. Nat. Wildlife 35(5): 24-27. (Forest certification)

Brown, B. 1997. Coral bleaching: causes and consequences. Coral Reefs Supp. to Vol. 16: S129-S138.

Canick, M. 1997. Ode to Odonata: tiny treasures of Cranesville Swamp. The Nature Conservancy News 21(3): 5. (Conserving rare dragonfly habitat in Maryland)

Ceballos, G. 1997. Protecting biodiversity across the U.S.- Mexico border. Center for Conservation Biology Update 10(1): 8.

Chadwick, D. 1997. King of the mountain. Nat. Wildlife 35(5): 46-53. (Mountain goats in Colorado threaten habitat)

Chichester, P. 1997. Resurrection on the Rhine. Int. Wildlife 27(5): 28-33. (Return of Atlantic salmon)

Connell, J. 1997. Disturbance and recovery of coral assemblages. Coral Reefs Supp. to Vol. 16: S101-S114.

Cooke, A. 1997. Monitoring a breeding population of crested newts (Triturus cristatus) in a housing development. Herpetological J. 7: 37-41. (Threatened in Britain)

Czech, B. and Krausman, P. 1997. Public opinion on species and endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 14(5 & 6): 7-10. (USA)

Dean, W. and Siegfried, W. 1997. The protection of endemic and nomadic avian diversity in the Karoo, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 27(1): 11-21.

Delcourt, H. and Delcourt, P. 1997. Pre-Columbian Native American use of fire on southern Appalachian landscapes. Conservation Biology 11(4): 1010-1014.

DellaSala, D. and Hackman, A. 1997. Three quarters of US and Canadian forests threatened with extinction. Arborvitae 6: 9.

Demlong, M. 1997. Conservation spotlight: desert fish. End. Species UPDATE 14(5 & 6): 17-18. (USA)

Desender, K. and Baert, L. 1997. Conservation of terrestrial arthropods on Easter Island as exemplified by the beetle fauna. Conservation Biology 11(4): 836-838.

Dight, I. and Scherl, L. 1997. The international coral reef initiative (ICRI): global priorities for the conservation and management of coral reefs and the need for partnerships. Coral Reefs Supp. to Vol. 16: S139-147.

Dunn, E., Cadman, M. and Falls, J. (Eds). 1997. Monitoring Bird Populations: the Canadian Experience. Canadian Wildlife Service, Quebec, Canada. 60 pp. (Occasional Paper No. 95)

Findlay, C. and Houlahan, J. 1997. Anthropogenic correlates of species richness in southeastern Ontario wetlands. Conservation Biology 11(4): 1000-1009.

Garshelis, D. 1997. Sea otter mortality estimated from carcasses collected after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Conservation Biology 11(4): 905-916. (Alaska)

Goettle, B. 1997. A "living fossil" in California. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(3): 4-5. (Vernal pool tadpole)

Gomez, E. 1997. Reef management in developing countries: a case study in the Philippines. Coral Reefs Supp. to Vol. 16: S3-S8.

Gompper, M., Stacey, P. and Berger, J. 1997. Conservation implications of the natural loss of lineages in wild mammals and birds. Conservation Biology 11(4): 857-867. (North America)

Hanowski, J., Niemi, G. and Christian, D. 1997. Influence of within-plantation heterogeneity and surrounding landscape composition on avian communities in hybrid poplar plantations. Conservation Biology 11(4): 936-944. (Minnesota, Wisconsin, South Dakota)

Hatcher, B. 1997. Coral reef ecosystems: how much greater is the whole than the sum of the parts? Coral Reefs Supp. to Vol. 16: S77-S92.

Hero, J. and Gillespie, G. 1997. Epidemic disease and amphibian declines in Australia. Conservation Biology 11(4): 1023-1025.

Hsu, M. and Agoramoorthy, G. 1997. Wildlife conservation in Taiwan. Conservation Biology 11(4): 834-836.

Isle, D. 1997. Rediscovery of water howellia for California. Fremontia 25(3): 29-32. (Presumed extinct)

Kaiser, R. 1997. Forests of Borneo going up in smoke. Washington Post September 7: A18.

Kenworthy, T. 1997. Conservationists challenge ranchers hold on state lands. Washington Post September 9: A1-A12. (Grazing lands in western US)

Kenworthy, T. 1997. Wilderness vs. energy exploration in the "Thrust Belt". Washington Post August 25: A1, A8-A9. (Rocky Mountain Front, Montana)

Kokko, H., Lindstrom, J. and Ranta, E. 1997. Risk analysis of hunting of seal populations in the Baltic. Conservation Biology 11(4): 917-927.

Kremen, C. 1997. Biology and borders: designing a park. Center for Conservation Biology Update 10(1): 1, 3. (Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar)

Lajtha, K., Kolberg, K. and Getz, J. 1997. Ecophysiology of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) in the Saguaro National Monument: relationship to symptoms of decline. J. Arid Environments 36(4): 579-590.

Lambeck, R. 1997. Focal species: a multi-species umbrella for nature conservation. Conservation Biology 11(4): 849- 856.

Laurance, W., McDonald, K. and Speare, R. 1997. In defense of the epidemic disease hypothesis. Conservation Biology 11(4): 1030-1034.

Line, L. 1997. Into the Abyss? Int. Wildlife 27(5): 12-21. (Threatened penguins)

Littler, D. and Littler, M. 1997. An illustrated marine flora of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Bull. Biol. Soc. Washington 9: 1-149. (190 taxa; nearly one-fourth of the macrophyte flora is rare or uncommon)

Loeffler, W. and Morden, C. 1997. Effects of population fragmentation on genetic variation of Haplostachys haplostachys, an endangered Hawaiian mint. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Bot. Soc. 36(2): 42-46.

Mackay, G. 1997. Peruvian treasures. The Garden 122(8): 562-565. (Genetic resource for potato breeding)

Marvier, M. and Smith, D. 1997. Conservation implications of host use for rare parasitic plants. Conservation Biology 11(4): 839-848. (USA)

Maschinski, J., Frye, R. and Rutman, S. 1997. Demography and population viability of an endangered plant species before and after protection from trampling. Conservation Biology 11(4): 990-999. (Sentry milk vetch, Grand Canyon)

Matlack, G. 1997. Four centuries of forest clearance and regeneration in the hinterland of a large city. J. Biogeography 24(3): 281-295. (Wilmington, Delaware)

Matlack, G. 1997. Land use and forest habitat distribution in the hinterland of a large city. J. Biogeography 24(3): 297-307. (Wilmington, Delaware)

McManus, J. 1997. Tropical marine fisheries and the future of coral reefs: a brief review. Coral Reefs Supp. to Vol. 16: S121-S128.

Minnich, R. and Franco-Vizcaino, E. 1997. Mediterranean vegetation of northern Baja California. Fremontia 25(3): 3-12.

Minnich, R. and Franco-Vizcaino, E. 1997. Protecting vegetation and fire regimes in the Sierra San Pedro Martir of Baja California. Fremontia 25(3): 13-21.

Mulvey, M., Lydeard, C., Pyer, D., Hicks, K., Brim-box, J., Williams, J. and Butler, R. 1997. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias. Conservation Biology 11(4): 868-878.

Murphy, D. 1997. Private lands initiatives and reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act: recommendations. Center for Conservation Biology Update 10(1): 4-5. (USA)

Naiman, R. and Rogers, K. 1997. Large animals and system- level characteristics in river corridors. BioScience 47(8): 521-529.

Negussie, G. 1997. Sacred forests in Kenya. Arborvitae 6: 14. (Kaya forests)

Norquist, C. 1997. Life in a stone pool. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(3): 6-7. (Unique habitat of southeastern US)

Norris, V. 1997. Two rare endemics after the Vision Fire. Fremontia 25(3): 24. (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus and Marin manzanita)

O'Laughlin, J. 1997. Legislative mandates of the Endangered Species Act and a plea for consistent use of technical terms. End. Species UPDATE 14(5 & 6): 3-6.

Ornduff, R. and Norris, V. 1997. Rebirth of a Bishop pine forest: first year after the Mount Vision Fire. Fremontia 25(3): 22-28.

Pakeman, R. and Marshall, A. 1997. The seedbanks of the Breckland heaths and heath grasslands, eastern England, and their relationship to the vegetation and the effects of management. J. Biogeography 24(3): 375-390.

Palm, M. and Chapela, I. (Eds). 1997. Mycology in Sustainable Development: Expanding Concepts, Vanishing Borders. Parkway Publishers, Boone, North Carolina. 305 pp.

Pascual, M., Kareiva, P. and Hilborn, R. 1997. The influence of model structure on conclusions about the viability and harvesting of Serengeti wildebeest. Conservation Biology 11(4): 966-976. (Tanzania to Kenya)

Perlman, D. and Adelson, G. 1997. Biodiversity: Exploring Values and Priorities in Conservation. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts. 192 pp.

Pupek, D. 1997. Big-eared bat bounces back. End. Species Tech. Bull. 22(3): 12-13. (Virginia big-eared bat)

Rai, S. and Sundriyal, R. 1997. Tourism and biodiversity conservation: the Sikkim Himalaya. Ambio 26(4): 235-242.

Ratner, S., Lande, R. and Roper, B. 1997. Population viability analysis of spring chinook salmon in the South Umpqua River, Oregon. Conservation Biology 11(4): 879-889.

Regato, P. 1997. Non-timber forest products in the Mediterranean. Arborvitae 6: 10. (New WWF initiative)

Rieman, B. and Myers, D. 1997. Use of redd counts to detect trends in bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations. Conservation Biology 11(4): 1015-1018. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Rule, K. 1997. Eucalyptus macmahonii, a new and rare mallee species from western Victoria. Muelleria 10: 13-20. (Canada)

Samson, D. 1997. Maryland Heritage Program: our science source since 1979. The Nature Conservancy News 21(3): 9.

Schilling, T. 1997. Conservation in Nepal. IV. The Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) National Park. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 14(3): 153-166.

Seehausen, O., Witte, F., Katunzi, E., Smits, J. and Bouton, N. 1997. Patterns of the remnant cichlid fauna in southern Lake Victoria. Conservation Biology 11(4): 890-904. (East Africa)

Shah, N., Linden, O., Lundin, C. and Johnstone, R. 1997. Coastal management in Eastern Africa: status and future. Ambio 26(4): 227-234.

Shepherdson, D., Mellen, J. and Hutchins, M. (Eds). 1997. Second Nature. Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 336 pp.

Sogge, M., Tibbitts, T. and Petterson, J. 1997. Status and breeding ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher in the Grand Canyon. Western Birds 28(3): 142-157. (Endangered subspecies in USA)

Spain, G. 1997. Oregon embarks on bold recovery plan for Pacific salmon: should it be used as an alternative to ESA listing? End. Species UPDATE 14(5 & 6): 11-16. (USA)

Stevens, S. (Ed). 1997. Conservation Through Cultural Survival. Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 361 pp.

Suarez, A., Pfenning, K. and Robinson, S. 1997. Nesting success of a disturbance-dependent songbird on different kinds of edges. Conservation Biology 11(4): 928-935. (Indigo bunting, Illinois)

Taylor, N. 1997. 320. Rhipsalis pilocarpa (Cactaceae). Curtis's Bot. Mag. 14(3): 125-129. (Rare in Brazil's Atlantic Forest)

Thiollay, J-M 1997. Disturbance, selective logging and bird diversity: a Neotropical forest study. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(8): 1155-1173.

Turay, B. 1997. Medicinal Plants of Sierra Leone: A Compendium. Centre for the Cross-Cultural Study of Health and Healing, University of Alberta, Canada. 125 pp. (Case Studies in Health and Healing, No. 1)

Vucetich, J., Peterson, R. and Waite, T. 1997. Effects of social structure and prey dyanamics on extinction risk in gray wolves. Conservation Biology 11(4): 957-965.

Wasser, S., Bevis, K., King, G. and Hanson, E. 1997. Noninvasive physiological measures of disturbance in the northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 11(4): 1019-1022.

Weinberg, P., Valdez, R. and Fedosenko, A. 1997. Status of the Heptner's markhor (Capra falconeri heptneri) in Turkmenistan. J. Mammology 78(3): 826-829. (Endangered)

Weiss, S. 1997. Explaining butterfly booms and busts. Center for Conservation Biology Update 10(1): 9. (Threatened Bay checkerspot butterfly)

Wolff, J., Schauber, E. and Edge, W. 1997. Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the behavior and demography of gray-tailed voles. Conservation Biology 11(4): 945-956. (Oregon)

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