Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Website Search Box

Department ofBotany

No. 173
November 1997

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


A team of Smithsonian scientists and colleagues from the United States and Mexico will launch a study of the mangrove forests that lay in the path of Hurricane Gilbert in 1988. The study will determine the level of damage the mangrove stands suffered during that storm and estimate the potential of these forests to recover the ecological functions associated with intact mangrove ecosystems. The study comes at a time when Mexico is considering developing the Yucatan coast from the Sian Kan reserve north to Cancun, an area one-third of the coastline.

Mangroves are an important part of coastal systems that protect shorelines from erosion and storm damage, provide rich habitats and nurseries for a diversity of organisms, and sustain adjacent coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Hurricanes are a frequent and natural form of intense disturbance to these systems and are thought to play a major role in their organization.

Dr. Ilka Feller, leader of the Smithsonian team and an ecologist at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC), first became interested in mangrove reactions to hurricane damage as an outgrowth of extensive work in Belize focussed on the reef and mangrove systems. Turneffe Atoll, Belize was struck by Hurricane Hattie in 1961 and the extent of the damage was documented by world renowned scientist Sir David Stoddard. The study in Puerto Morelos will provide important observations on the recovery processes and enable scientists to distinguish between natural oscillations and unidirectional trends in these coastal ecosystems. For more information, contact Marsha Sitnik, Science Program Administrator, Biodiversity Programs, National Museum of Natural History, MRC 180, Washington, DC 20560; Tel: (202) 786-2821; E-mail:


The Rainforest Alliance's Catalyst Grants Program assists in increasing the effectiveness of under-funded and under-networked, community-based tropical conservation initiatives throughout the world. It responds to and assists individuals and organizations living or working in tropical forest areas that exhibit great potential for effective conservation and the sound management of natural resources. In addition to general conservation projects, the Catalyst Grants Program recognizes that women play a pivotal role as conservationists and seeks to support women's conservation programs worldwide. Grants range from $50 to $3,000.

No formal application is necessary. However, a description of the project and an explanation of the funding needed (no more than two pages in length, in English), along with one recommendation from a respected conservationist or organization attesting to the feasibility of the project should be submitted. If selected for funding, a grantee will be required to submit a report of the project's activities along with any documentation, such as photographs or printed materials.

Applications are accepted throughout the year and can be sent to: Ina F. Chaudhury, Catalyst Grants Coordinator, Rainforest Alliance, 65 Bleecker St., New York, NY 10012.


Cambridge University Press announces a new journal, Animal Conservation, which will be launched in 1998. The journal will bring together rigorous scientific studies of the factors which influence the conservation of animal species and their habitats. The journal will be essential reading for conservation biologists working in universities, research institutes, governmental and non-governmental wildlife agencies, and zoos. Papers will be published on: 1) ecology, behavioral ecology and wildlife biology; 2) wildlife disease and epidemiology; 3) evolutionary ecology and genetics; 4) population biology; 5) systematic biology and phylogenetics; 5) biodiversity and biogeography; and 6) management.

For more information, including instructions for contributors, contact: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211; Tel.: (914) 937-9600; Fax: (914) 937-4712;


World Wildlife Fund (WWF), an international organization for the conservation of nature, is looking for a creative and talented intern to join the Environmental Education department. This is a paid internship and is located in Washington, DC.

The position will assist with the development and implementation of a national environmental education program called "Windows on the Wild". Job responsibilities will include curriculum development, research, pilot testing, writing and editing, evaluation, training, and special projects.

Requirements: A Bachelor's degree in science education, environmental education, natural history, conservation biology with an emphasis in education, or related field. (A Master's degree preferred, or candidate currently completing graduate course work).

WWF is looking for full-time candidates who can work 6 months starting February 1998. Interested persons should send a resume and cover letter including names of three references to: WWF, Human Resources Department 811A, 1250 24th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Attention: EE Intern. For additional information, contact: Eddie Gonzalez at (202) 361-8371; E-mail:


The Center for Conservation Biology at the University of California, Riverside (UCR), is recruiting for a director, who will hold a senior faculty position in the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences. The position is available July 1, 1998 and carries a 100% instruction and research appointment. The new Center seeks an internationally recognized scholar to develop an active research and teaching program in support of conservation biology as well as to lead and develop research opportunities for the Center.

Duties will include identification of gaps in the scientific information needed to make effective decisions about conservation-related issues and to develop mechanisms for funding the acquisition and use of that information through the interaction with UCR faculty and external agencies. The Director will also work with Center faculty and technical committees to design appropriate research strategies to solicit proposals from appropriate scientists, and to coordinate the implementation and review of the resulting research.

Interested applicants should send a curriculum vitae, a list of four references, and a summary of research, teaching, and administrative goals to: Search Committee, Director, Center for Conservation Biology, College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Review of applications will begin November 30, 1997 and will continue until the position is filled.

The Defenders of Wildlife in Washington, D.C. is seeking a wildlife conservation biologist with practical experience in programs to conserve wildlife and biodiversity in the US. The preferred candidate should have a strong science background, with an advanced degree in wildlife management, conservation biology or related field. Familiarity with population biology and GIS would be helpful. The position is responsible for providing scientific guidance to program staff and ensuring scientific accuracy of formal comments, testimony, legal positions and reports. Program emphasis is likely to be on conservation and recovery of selected endangered or at-risk species. Candidates should also have at least two years experience with wildlife management or policy, either at the state or federal level, and must be interested in working in the D.C. area for at least three years. Salary is commensurate with experience.

Interested candidates should send a resume, cover letter and salary history to Science Search, Defenders of Wildlife, 1101 Fourteenth St., NW, Suite 1400, Washington, DC 20005.

The National Audubon Society (NAS) has an opening for a director of its Latin American and Caribbean Program located in Miami, Florida. With more than 20 years of history working with Audubon chapters and partners in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela and recognizing the importance of these countries to the conservation of birds and their habitat, The Audubon Society has recently created the Latin American and Caribbean Program.

The director of the Latin American and Caribbean Program will promote the NAS's mission of conserving birds, other wildlife and their habitat in Latin America and the Caribbean. He/she will plan, direct, manage and raise funds for all aspects of the program and work with partners to determine strategies and priorities. Candidates should have: 1) an advanced degree in wildlife conservation, environmental studies, Latin American studies, or a related field and/or equivalent combination of education and experience; 2) minimum of 5 years experience working in Latin America and/or the Caribbean with grassroots organizations on bird conservation, wildlife or environmental issues; 3) substantial experience in the strategic planning and direction of field programs; 4) expert knowledge within the environmental field, including issues in Latin American and the Caribbean; and 5) successful experience working with a wide variety of volunteers.

Interested candidates should send a resume with cover letter, three professional references and salary history to: Director, Latin American Program Search, National Audubon Society, 555 Audubon Place, Sacramento, CA 95825, and a copy to: Dr. Stuart Strahl, NAS, 444 Brickell Ave., Suite 850, Miami, FL 33131-2450; Tel.: (305) 371-6398; Fax: (305) 371-6398; E-mail: Resume review begins September 1997.


The Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group (TWSG) was established in October 1990 and is coordinated from The Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust at Slimbridge, UK, as part of the IUCN- SSC/Wetlands International waterbird network. The TWSG and its bulletin aims to identify those Antidae taxa across the world that are threatened with extinction, to gather and exchange information on these taxa and to promote their conservation. The latest edition (TWSG News 10) of the bulletin is available on the web at: http://www/

Some organizations interested in bird conservation: Panama Audubon Society (; Union de Ornitologos de Chile (; and Pan American Office of BirdLife International (


Anon. 1997. Another new mammal species discovered in Vietnam. FOCUS 19(5): 3. (Muntjac, large deer)

Anon. 1997. Efforts to conserve an IBA. BirdLife in the Americas 2(2): 2. (Fundacion Moises Bertoni, Paraguay supports local NGO working in San Rafael National Park, the last relict of Inland Atlantic Forest of considerable size)

Anon. 1997. Energy resources and biodiversity conservation. Russian Conservation News 12: 11.

Anon. 1997. First South American IBA. BirdLife in the Americas 2(2): 4. (Mindo-Nambillo Protection Forest, Ecuador, designated as Important Bird Area)

Anon. 1997. Important elephant debate marks CITES. FOCUS 19(5): 1, 6.

Anon. 1997. The next step for Niagara: a conservation plan. BirdLife in the Americas 2(2): 3. (Niagara River Corridor, USA/Canada)

Anon. 1997. Oregon gears up to fight weed that devastates marine life. New York Times (National) September 7: 40. (Hydrilla, invasive species)

Anon. 1997. PROARCA-COSTAS protects Latin America's coastal and marine resources. FOCUS 19(5): 3. (Management and protection of marine ecosystems in Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua)

Anon. 1997. Reserve in great danger. BirdLife in the Americas 2(2): 1. (Imataca Reserve, Venezuela, open for gold and diamond mining)

Anon. 1997. Russia responds to WWF 2000: the "Living Planet" Campaign. Russian Conservation News 12: 34-35.

Anon. 1997. Saving one of Asia's enduring wildlife symbols: the Asian elephant. FOCUS 19(5): 7. (Asian Elephant Conservation Act)

Anon. 1997. Species in danger: bleak prospects. Nature Canada 26(3): 47. (Henslow's sparrow in North America)

Anon. 1997. World Bank and WWF join forces to conserve Earth's forests. FOCUS 19(5): 1-2. (Establishment of a network of protected areas covering at least 10% of each of the world's forest types by the year 2000 and management of certified forests by 2005)

Austen, C. 1997. Endangered species legislation in limbo. Nautre Alert 7(3): 2.

Badridze, J., Gurielidze, Z. and Butkhuzi, L. 1997. Population assessment of the striped hyena in Georgia. Russian Conservation News 12: 29. (Threatened or critically endangered)

Beardsley, D., Davies, T. and Hersh, R. 1997. Improving environmental management: what works, what doesn't. Environment 39(7): 6-9, 28-35.

Bengtsson, J., Jones, H. and Setala, H. 1997. The value of biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12(9): 334- 336.

Bragg, R. 1997. In the war on kudzu, a scientific strategy. New York Times (National) September 7: 24. (Introduction of soybean looper caterpillars which eat this invasive species)

Brown, P. 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States. A Field Guide. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York. 236 pp.

Carter, J. 1997. Crown jewel of the Caribbean. Wildlife Conservation 100(4): 36-41, 64. (Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize declared a World Heritage Site)

Cohen, P. 1997. Sustainable human habitats in South Africa. Roots 14: 24-26. (Tlholego Development Project)

Coomes, O. and Barham, B. 1997. Rain forest extraction and conservation in Amazonia. The Geographical J. 163(2): 180- 188.

Coomes, O. and Burt, G. 1997. Indigenous market-oriented agroforestry: dissecting local diversity in western Amazonia. Agroforestry Systems 37: 27-44.

Craib, C. 1997. The ecology, distribution and status of late winter, spring and early summer flowering grass aloes. Excelsa 17: 53-58.

Cunningham, A. 1996. People, Park and Plant Use. Recommendations for Multiple-use Zones and Development Alternatives around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. People and Plants Initiative, Paris, France. 58 pp. (People and Plants Working Paper No. 4)

Davis, G., Wilt, C. and Barkenbus, J. 1997. Extended product responsibility: a tool for a sustainable economy. Environment 39(7): 10-15, 36-38.

Davis, K. 1997. Our declining fisheries: the conservation challenge. Marine Conservation News 9(3): 11-13.

Davison, G. 1997. Conservation: limestone conservation in the Kinta Valley. Malayan Naturalist 50(4): 26-29.

Delany, M. 1997. Florida's prairie. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 14-15.

Firsov, G. 1997. Allium regelianum A. Beck: a rare Russian endemic. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 41-42.

Freitag, S., Van Jaarsveld, A. and Biggs, H. 1997. Ranking priority biodiversity areas: an iterative conservation value- based approach. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 263-272. (South Africa)

Graedel, T. and Crutzen, P. 1997. Atmosphere, Climate, and Change. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, New York. 196 pp.

Guthrie, A. 1997. Trails into the interior. Roots 14: 16-17. (Botanic Park, Grand Cayman, protects disappearing interior woodland)

James, E. and Ashburner, G. 1997. Intraspecific variation in Astelia australiana (Liliaceae) and implications for the conservation of this Australian species. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 253-262.

Jennings, M. and Anderson, A. 1997. The Wyoming toad. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 16-17.

Khabibrakhmanov, R. 1997. Prospects for the creation of biosphere reserves in Kazakhstan. Russian Conservation News 12: 10-11.

Kimberley, M. (Compiler). 1997. Succulent Plants of Zimbabwe and their Conservation. Aloe, Cactus and Succulent Society of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. 209 pp. (Excelsa No. 18)

Kluge, J. and Burrows, J. 1997. An African rain forest in a South African botanical garden. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 31-33. (Lowveld National Botanical Garden, Nelspruit, South Africa)

Kolesnikova, V. 1997. Caspian pipeline consortium threatens Black Sea ecosystems. Russian Conservation News 12: 12-13.

Krajick, K. 1997. The riddle of the Carolina Bays. Smithsonian 28(6): 44-55. (Home to endangered species)

Kriel, K. 1997. North Dakota's tallgrass prairie. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 10-11.

Krivoruchko, V. 1997. Botanical Garden of the Kyrgis Academy of Sciences, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 34-35.

Kunin, W. 1997. Sample shape, spatial scale and species counts: implications for reserve design. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 369-378.

Leahy, S. 1997. Hi-tech hawks. Nature Canada 26(3): 24-28. (Scientists using satellite-linked transmitters to find out why Swainson's hawk populations are declining)

Line, L. 1997. Phantom of the plains. Wildlife Conservation 100(4): 20-27, 67. (Black-footed ferret)

Mac Nally, R. 1997. Monitoring forest bird communities for impact assessment: the influence of sampling intensity and spatial scale. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 355-368.

Mashkin, P. 1997. Teaching children the "ins and outs" of biomonitoring. Russian Conservation News 12: 22-23. (Monitoring water quality)

Matchett, R. 1997. Charles M. Russell/UL Bend National Wildlife Refuges. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 22-23. (Montana)

Mattheisen, S. 1997. Ford Foundation supports Caribbean Program. Marine Conservation News 9(3): 5. (Survey of information needs at selected institutions in the Caribbean islands)

Mavi, S. and Shava, S. 1997. Traditional methods of conserving medicinal plants in Zimbabwe. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 36-37.

McShea, W., Underwood, H. and Rappole, J. (Eds). 432. The Science of Overabundance. Deer Ecology and Population Management. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Meadows, R. 1997. Takhi: the last wild horse. Zoogoer 26(5): 16-21. (Przewalski's horse in Mongolia)

Melo, I. and Telleria, M. 1997. Preliminary list of the Apphyllophorales (Fungi, Basidiomycetes) of three protected areas in southern central Portugal. Portugaliae Acta Biol., Ser. B. Sist. 17(1-4): 111-153. (Portugal)

Menner, A. 1997. Russian forests under seige: green NGOs unite. Russian Conservation News 12: 16.

Mitchell, A. and Wells, L. 1997. The threatened birds of Cuba project report. Cotinga 7: 69-71.

Moll, G. 1997. America's urban forests: growing concerns. Am. Forests 103(3): 14-18. (As cities sprawl, tree cover diminishes)

Montgomery, K. 1997. Restoring Virginia's wildlife: a self- help process. Virginia Wildlife 59(8): 18-21.

Moran, D., Pearce, D. and Wendelarr, A. 1997. Investing in biodiversity: an economic perspective on global priority setting. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(9): 1219-1244.

Murimba, E. 1997. The cycad collection of Vumba Botanical Garden, Zimbabwe. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 46- 47.

Nikiforov, V. 1997. Gold mining threatens Koryakski Nature Reserve. Russian Conservation News 12: 20. (One of the largest habitats for ducks and geese in northeast Asia)

O'Shea, B. 1997. The mosses of Sub-Saharan Africa 2. Endemism and biodiversity. Trop. Bryology 13: 75-85.

Othman, A. 1997. Homely bats need protection too. Malayan Naturalist 50(4): 31.

Pandey, S. and Wells, M. 1997. Ecodevelopment planning at India's Great Himalayan National Park for biodiversity conservation and participatory rural development. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(9): 1277-1292.

Panov, I. 1997. Les-na-Vorskle standing tall in its third century. Russian Conservation News 12: 8-10. (Central Russia's forest steppe zone)

Pearce-Higgins, J. and Yalden, D. 1997. The effect of resurfacing the Pennine Way on recreational use of blanket bog in the Peak District National Park, England. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 337-343.

Plunkett, S. 1997. Fifteen new species at risk in Canada. Nautre Alert 7(3): 1.

Price, L. 1997. Caves need protection. Malayan Naturalist 50(4): 30.

Pruitt, L. 1997. From bombs to bird songs. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 18-19. (Nearly 99% of US tallgrass prairie has been lost)

Reading, R. 1997. Mongolia's biodiversity. Zoogoer 26(5): 23-27.

Rees, M. 1997. Inventory of Karelian forests aims to protect old-growth. Russian Conservation News 12: 17-18.

Reid, W. 1997. Strategies for conserving biodiversity. Environment 39(7): 16-20. 39-43.

Richardson, M. 1997. Alice Springs Desert Park - Australia's first biopark. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 44-45. (Arid center of Australia)

Rouphael, A. and Inglis, G. 1997. Impacts of recreational SCUBA diving at sites with different reef topographies. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 329-336.

Rudge, J. 1997. Model management plans for protected areas. Russian Conservation News 12: 7. (Management project for 3 protected areas in Russia)

Ruellan, L. 1997. Un sentier d'interpretation sur la sauvegarde des plantes menacees de disparition. Roots 14: 34-36. (National Botanical Conservatory of Brest, France first botanic garden committed to the preservation of threatened plants)

Samways, M. 1997. Classical Biological Control and biodiversity conservation: what risks are we prepared to accept? Biodiversity and Conservation 6(9): 1309-1316.

Sarmiento, F. 1997. Arrested succession in pastures hinders regeneration of tropandean forests and shreds mountain landscapes. Environ. Conservation 24(1): 14-23. (Ecuador)

Sarmiento, F. 1997. Landscape regeneration by seeds and successional pathways to restore fragile tropandean slopelands. Mountain Research and Development 17(3): 239-252. (Ecuador)

Sarmiento, F. 1997. The mountains of Ecuador as a birth- place of ecology and endangered landscape. Environ. Conservation 24(1): 3-4.

Schultz, C. 1997. Beaverhill Lake IBA Site. Nature Alert 7(3): 3. (Globally Important Bird Area, Canada)

Searle, R. 1997. Riding Mountain mystery. Nature Canada 26(3): 34-39. (Manitoba, Canada wolf population in decline)

Sergio, C., Cras, R., Burgues, M. and Casas, C. 1997. Flora e vegetacao briologica do Parque Natural da Serra de S. Mamede. Portugaliae Acta Biol., Ser. B. Sist. 17(1-4): 5-46. (Portugal)

Shilin, N. 1997. Rare and endangered fish species in Russia. Russian Conservation News 12: 26-28. (Red Data Book in preparation)

Sieg, C. 1997. The mysteries of a prairie orchid. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 12-13. (Platanthera praeclara)

Smith, M. 1997. Scientists discover new life forms during Caribbean expeditions! Marine Conservation News 9(3): 4. (New marine invertebrates off Cuba)

Springuel, I., Sheded, M. and Murphy, K. 1997. The plant biodiversity of the Wadi Allaqi Biosphere Reserve (Egypt): impact of Lake Nasser on a desert wadi ecosystem. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(9): 1259-1276.

Thomas, R., Kirby, K. and Reid, C. 1997. The conservation of a fragmented ecosystem within a cultural landscape - the case of ancient woodland in England. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 243-252.

Thomas, T. 1997. Prairie restoration in western Washington. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 5-7.

Tishko, A. 1997. Russia is preparing a national strategy on biodiversity. Russian Conservation News 12: 32-33.

Tkachenko, K., Pautova, I. and Korobova, M. 1997. The introduction nursery for food, crop and medicinal plants at the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences: its role in the conservation of biodiversity. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 38-40.

Walsh, N. 1997. Creating a High Plains Partnership. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 8-9. (Declining wildlife species in Great Plains, US)

Warren, M., Barnett, L., Gibbons, D. and Avery, M. 1997. Assessing national conservation priorities: an improved red list of British butterflies. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 317-328.

Warren, R. 1997. Deer overabundance. Wildlife Soc. Bull. Special Issue 25(2): 213-500.

Warrick, J. 1997. Tiny plants threaten bounty of seas. Washington Post September 23: A1, A10. (Diatoms threaten marine species in Mexico's Sea of Cortez)

Werner, K. 1997. On the fringe of the prairie. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 20-21. (Missouri bladder-pod, endangered due to prairie destruction)

West, J. 1997. A vanishing ecosystem. End. Species Bull. 22(4): 4. (Northern Tallgrass Prairie Habitat Preservation Area, Minnesota & Iowa)

White, P., Gregory, K., Lindley, P. and Richards, G. 1997. Economic values of threatened mammals in Britain: a case study of the otter Lutra lutra and the water vole Arvicola terrestris. Biol. Conservation 82(3): 345-354.

Wild, R. and Mutebi, J. 1996. Conservation Through Community Use of Plant Resources. Establishing Collaborative Management at Bwindi Impenetrable and Mgahinga Gorilla National Parks, Uganda. People and Plants Initiative, Paris, France. 45 pp. (People and Plants Working Paper No. 5)

Wolseley, P. and Aguirre-Hudson, B. 1997. The ecology and distribution of lichens in tropical deciduous and evergreen forests of northern Thailand. J. Biogeography 24(3): 327- 343.

Wolseley, P. and Aguirre-Hudson, B. 1997. Fire in tropical dry forests: corticolous lichens as indicators of recent ecological changes in Thailand. J. Biogeography 24(3): 345-362.

Wyse Jackson, P. 1997. Botanic gardens and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 26-30.

Wyse Jackson, P., Hernandez Bermejo, E. and Rae, D. 1997. Report on "eurogard97", the First International European Botanic Gardens conference. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(8): 18-25.

Zlatogorskaya, L. 1997. The living bustard vs. mythical oil- dollars: will the fate of Saratovski Zakaznik become typical for all Russian Zakazniki? Russian Conservation News 12: 14- 15. (Special purpose nature preserve established to protect the bustard's nesting grounds is threatened by oil exploration)

[ TOP ]