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Department ofBotany



No. 174
December 1997


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


SOUTH AFRICAN BOTANICAL DIVERSITY NETWORK


The ten countries which constitute southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe) comprise less than two percent of the world's land area, but contain over 10% of the global flora, i.e. over 30,000 species of flowering plants and ferns, including 38% of the world's succulents and the whole of one of the world's six floristic kingdoms - the Cape Floristic Region, in an area of around 6,000,000 sq. km. In response to the urgent need to document, describe and conserve this incredible floral wealth, the Southern African Botanical Diversity Network (SABONET), a network of professional botanists from around the region, was officially established in southern Africa in March 1996. Co- funded by GEF/UNDP and USAID/IUCN ROSA, the objective of SABONET is to develop a strong core of professional botanists, taxonomists, horticulturists and plant diversity specialists within the ten countries of southern Africa, competent to inventory, monitor, evaluate and conserve the botanical diversity of the region in the face of specific development challenges, and to respond to the technical and scientific needs of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

The project is guided by a Steering Committee (Chairperson: Prof. Brian Huntley, CEO of South Africa's National Botanical Institute) comprising representatives of each participating country, and coordinated by a Project Coordinator based at the National Herbarium in Pretoria, South Africa. National Working Groups, with broad representation from relevant organizations, have been set up in each participating country to manage the project on a national level and make recommendations to the Steering Committee. Some of the activities of the project include workshops, collaborative collecting expeditions into under collected areas within the region, as well as the computerization of national and regional herbaria. Regional training courses (for primarily staff of southern African herbaria and botanical gardens) on herbarium management, threatened plants, identification of specific plant groups (such as ferns, grasses), botanical garden management and horticulture (the botanical garden component of the project will become fully operational in 1998) amongst others, form an integral part of the program.

The project produces a newsletter, SABONET News, published three times per year (April, August and December) and distributed free-of-charge currently to over 1200 individuals in over 60 countries around the world, as well as an occasional SABONET Report series. Two numbers in this report series have so far been published (Southern African National Herbaria: Status Reports, 1996; and Index Herbariorum: Southern African supplement).

For more information about the project and/or its publications, please contact the Coordinator (Christopher Willis), SABONET, c/o National Botanical Institute, Private Bag X101, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Tel.; (27) 12 804 3200; Fax: (27) 12 804 3211; E-mail: ckw@nbipre.nbi.ac.za.


PROTECTION OF WORLD FORESTS


World Wildlife Fund and the World Bank have announced a global partnership for forest protection and environmentally sound management. Both organizations will work to establish a network of protected areas covering at least 10% of each of the world's forest types by the year 2000, and also cooperate to ensure that 200 million hectares of forest are "certified" as well managed by 2005.

Deforestation has increased dramatically in the past five years, with tropical forests disappearing at the rate of nearly 1% per year. The annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon has increased 34% since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Almost half of the earth's original forest cover is gone, much of it destroyed within the past three decades. Seventy-five percent of the world's large intact forests in the temperate and tropical regions are now threatened. WWF and the World Bank will share four specific programs as part of this project: 1) the identification and establishment of forest protected areas; 2) promote investment in, and purchase of, products from well- managed forests; 3) mobilize the many groups both organizations work with around the world to try to move priority countries from broad forest conservation commitments to specific agreements based on sound biological information; and 4) develop innovative approaches to forest conservation, such as "transition funds" that will encourage local communities to invest in sound forest management.

So far this year, 20 countries are committed to the target of the establishment of an ecologically representative network of protected areas, so hopefully by the year 2000 at least 10% of each of the worlds' forest types will be protected.


SCHOLARSHIPS


Bat Conservation International (BCI) has scholarships available for students conducting conservation-relevant research on bats. Students from any college or university worldwide are eligible to apply. Applicant must be enrolled as a student before the submission deadline of January 15, 1997.

The main goal of this program is to support student research that will contribute new knowledge essential to conserving bats. Only projects with direct conservation relevance will be considered for funding. In the 1998 round of awards the foundation plans to award 10-12 grants of up to $2,500 each. The hope is that students will use these funds to pursue opportunities for matching grants from other conservation organizations, government agencies, private foundations and corporations.

It is imperative that the proposal be developed by the applicant. While BCI will fund research that is part of a larger project, the student must demonstrate that the proposal was researched primarily by the student applying.

Interested students may obtain copies of BCI's standard application forms by contacting BCI's Educational Resource Coordinator well in advance of the deadline.

For application and/or more information please address all correspondence to: Bat Conservation International, Educational Resource Coordinator, P.O. Box 162603, Austin, TX 78716-2603; Tel.: (512) 327-9721; Fax: (512) 327-9724: E-mail: aengland@batcon.org.


INFORMATION HIGHWAY HI-LITES


The Mamiraua Project in Brazil, which began managing the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (and Ramsar site) five years ago, now has created a website for the project and other activities of the Sociedade Civil Mamiraua. The project has developed an innovative community based management approach to sustainable resource use and biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian varzea.

The address for the site is: http://www.cnpq.br\mamiraua\mamiraua.htm.


NEW PUBLICATIONS


The Biodiversity Support Program has published a handbook, What's Your Role?: Training for Organizational Impact, which is designed to help training officers improve the effectiveness of protected area organizations through in-service training of the staff. The author, Ralph Stone, synthesizes lessons learned from pilot activities in three African regions under the USAID-funded Protected Area Conservation (PARCS) project. PARCS is a four-year project jointly implemented by World Wildlife Fund, African Wildlife Foundation and Wildlife Conservation Society.

The manual is packed with creative ideas and information on effective training approaches, fund raising, monitoring and evaluation, and building a future for training within organizations. If you work as a training officer for a natural resource management or environmental authority, nongovernmental organization, or integrated conservation and development program, this handbook is an indispensable tool. It is available through the Biodiversity Support Program, 1250 24th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037.

A new report, The State of the Climate: A Time for Action, released by World Wide Fund for Nature, identifies the most compelling evidence available that global warming is underway and is not a distant threat. The report includes a large array of data from all over the world to indicate that a shift in our planet's weather patterns, and changes in climate, are happening today, including: droughts, melting glaciers and ice caps, dramatic ocean warming, regional increases in extreme and violent storms, and dozens of other key indicators. It also highlights initiatives available now to combat climate change, such as the Government of Denmark's commitment to build 500 offshore windmills by 2005. More information on this report and the Danish effort can be found in the Climate Change Campaign web site at http://www.panda.org/climate.


JOB OPPORTUNITIES


The School for Field Studies (SFS) seeks candidates for Center Director of the SFS Center for Rainforest Studies in Queensland, Australia. The Center offers spring and fall semester programs and two consecutive one month summer programs. Candidates should have a strong background (including applied research and some teaching experience) in a field directly related to rain forest conservation and management. The Director will lead a Program Director and two full-time multidisciplinary faculty in developing and teaching a curriculum of highly integrated and practically oriented case studies, addressing conservation in relation to resource economics, management, policy, and ecology.

Qualifications include: Ph.D. or Masters in a relevant field, 5+ years of demonstrated upper level management experience, entrepreneurial ability, and proven experience with the following: institution building; fund raising; teaching college aged students; budget management; giving presentations; and heading environmental issue driven projects. Candidates must have the desire and drive to develop and head a school; ability to travel up to 50% of the time; and have in-country and regional experience.

To apply: send a CV along with a letter explaining experience and management approach to: Australian CD Search, The School of Field Studies, 16 Broadway, Beverly, MA 01915; Tel.: (978) 922-7200 ext. 304: Fax: (978) 927-5127.

The Nature Conservancy is seeking a regional ecologist for its Asia/Pacific program in Honolulu, Hawaii. The regional ecologist provides scientific leadership and helps recruit technical expertise for the Asia/Pacific region to advance conservation through strategic planning, policy initiatives, and site-based conservation, with a special emphasis on forest resources.

Requirements include: graduate degree in ecology, natural resource management, forestry or related field (Ph.D. preferred); demonstrated knowledge of forest ecosystems, conservation and resource use issues in the Asia/Pacific region; successful record of grant writing and fund raising; and excellent skills in developing partnerships and working well with people of different backgrounds. For more information, contact Ms. Donna Roberts, The Nature Conservancy, 1116 Smith St., Suite 201, Honolulu, HI 96817; E-mail: donna_roberts@tnc.org.


FUTURE MEETINGS


February 16-20. The Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT) is presenting a major conference on the conservation and use of medicinal plants in Bangalore, India. The conference hopes to bring together people from diverse disciplines who are concerned about the future of medicinal plants and are keen to forge viable forms of regional and international cooperation that will influence policies and promote strategic action. For more information, contact Darshan Shankar, FRLHT, No. 50, 2nd Stage, MSH Layout, Anandnagar, Bangalore - 560024, India; Tel.: 91 80-333 6909; Fax: 91 80-333 4167; E-mail: root@frlht.ernet.in.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Aengst, P., Anderson, J., Chamberlin, J., Grunewald, C., Loucks, S., Wheatley, E. and Yaffee, S. 1997. Introduction to habitat conservation planning. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 5-9.

Andrews, E. 1997. In Germany, humble herb is a rival to Prozac. New York Times (Science Times) September 9: C1, C7. (St. John's wort, antidepressant)

Angeles, M. 1997. Advances in the management of recreational use of Huascaran National Park, Peru. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 24-32.

Baker, B. 1997. Washington watch: new regulations protect sharks. BioScience 47(10): 663.

Barcan, V. 1997. Environmental Values and Ethics in the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 67-68.

Baur, D. 1997. The no surprises policy: stepping away from sound bites and getting down to business. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 63-64.

Bentley, J. and Catterall, C. 1997. The use of bushland, corridors, and linear remnants by birds in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1173- 1189.

Bonnie, R. 1997. Strategies for conservation of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker on private lands. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 45-47.

Bowen, L. and Van Vuren, D. 1997. Insular endemic plants lack of defenses against herbivores. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1249-1254. (Santa Cruz Island, California)

Bruemmer, F. 1997. Promised land of the ostrich. Int. Wildlife 27(6): 20-25. (Israel)

Buchanan, J. 1997. Adaptive management and other management efforts: habitat conservation planning in the Pacific Northwest. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 32-34.

Case, F. and Case, R. 1997. Trilliums. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 285 pp. (Threatened, USA)

Ceska, J., Affolter, J. and Hamrick, J. 1997. Developing a sampling strategy for Baptisia arachnifera based on allozyme diversity. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1133-1139. (Georgia, USA)

Chapman, W. 1997. Orchids of the Northeast. A Field Guide. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York. 200 pp. (Lists rarity)

Claridge, M., Dawah, A. and Wilson, M. (Eds). 1997. Species. The Units of Biodiversity. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 456 pp. (Systematics Association Special Volume Series)

Coghlan, A. 1997. Muck into medicine. New Scientist 156(2102): 8. (Lichens and soil bacteria, potential sources of chemical compounds)

Corn, M. 1997. HCPs: the light of yesterday? End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 12-14.

Costa, R. 1997. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife's red-cockaded woodpecker private lands conservation strategy: an evaluation. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 40-44.

Cullinan, T. 1997. Habitat conservation plans in industrial forests of the Pacific Northwest: mitigation and public participation. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 29-31.

Damania, A. and Valkoun, J. 1997. Linkages between modern plant breeding and the origins of agriculture and crop domestication in the Near East explored. DIVERSITY 13(2 & 3): 5-8. (Establishment of a Near East center for the conservation and centralization of archival archaeobotanical material in danger of being lost)

Davis, G. 1997. "America's best idea": a review of Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History by Richard West Sellars. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 72- 75.

Desrochers, A. and Hannon, S. 1997. Gap crossing decisions for forest songbirds during the post-fledging period. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1204-1210. (Canada)

Dohner, C. and Smith, E. 1997. Habitat conservation plans and the incidental take permit planning process: the U.S. Fish and Wildlife perspective. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 10-11.

du Puy, D. 1997. Mapping Madagascar's vegetation. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. October: 1055. (Mapping of existing primary vegetation and orchid checklist)

du Puy, D. 1997. Orchid conservation project. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. October: 1053. (Kew Gardens and Parc de Tsimbazaza Botanical Garden, Madagascar)

Egan, T. 1997. Wide open spaces, but hardly untouched. New York Times September 14: 3. (Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument)

Farino, T. 1997. Picos in peril. BBC Wildlife 15(10): 27. (Parque Nacional de los Picos de Europa, Spain)

Fogden, M. and Fogden, P. 1997. Survival in a harsh place. Int. Wildlife 27(6): 48-57. (Namibia)

Forbes, S. and Boyd, D. 1997. Genetic structure and migration in native and reintroduced Rocky Mountain wolf populations. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1226-1234.

Frias, R. 1996. El zapatismo y la conservacion biologica de La Selva Lacandona, Mexico. Yungas 6(1): 18-19.

Fuccillo, D., Stapleton, P. and Sears, L. (Eds). 1997. Biodiversity in Trust. Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources in CGIAR Centres. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 384 pp.

Galicia, E. and Baldassarre, G. 1997. Effects of motorized tourboats on the behavior of nonbreeding American flamingos for management in Yucatan, Mexico. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1159-1165.

Germosen-Robineau, L. (Ed). 1996. Farmacopea Caribena. Ediciones Emile Desormeaux, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 370 pp. (Primera Edicion)

Gildart, B. 1997. Hunting for their future. Nat. Wildlife 35(6): 20-29. (Proposed oil drilling in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska)

Gilligan, D., Woodworth, L., Montgomery, M., Briscoe, D. and Frankham, R. 1997. Is mutation accumulation a threat to the survival of endangered populations? Conservation Biology 11(5): 1235-1241.

Grau, H. 1996. Ecologia del gradiente altitudinal y conservacion de las laderas humedas del noroeste Argentino. Yungas 6(1): 3-5.

Hermans, J. and Hermans, C. 1997. Oeonia. A unique genus from Madagascar. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. October: 1050-1055.

Hicks, L. 1997. Plum Creek's Cascades Habitat Conservation Plan: a corporate approach to ecosystem management. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 35-39.

Hosack, D., Hood, L. and Senatore, M. 1997. Expanding the participation of academic scientists in the HCP planning process. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 60-62.

Human, K. and Gordon, D. 1997. Effects of Argentine ants on invertebrate biodiversity in northern California. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1242-1248.

Hunt, D. and Watson, J. 1997. Importing orchid plants. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. October: 1036-1039.

Hutchinson, T. and Vankat, J. 1997. Invasibility and effects of Amur honeysuckle in southwestern Ohio forests. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1117-1124.

Jackson, J. 1997. Niche concepts and habitat conservation planning. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 48-50.

Johns, A. 1997. Timber Production and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Rain Forests. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 283 pp.

Kappelle, M. and Juarez, M. 1996. Conservacion y desarrollo sostenible de un bosque montano centroamericano: el caso de la Reserva Forestal Los Santos, Costa Rica. Yungas 6(1): 15- 17.

Kappelle, M. and Juarez, M. 1997. Land use changes directed towards sustainable development in Los Santos Forest Reserve, Costa Rica. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 49-53.

Karp, A., Ingram, D. and Issac, P. (Eds). 1997. Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity. Plants and Animals. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 224 pp. (Laboratory-based manual)

Kelly, P. and Larson, D. 1997. Effects of rock climbing on populations of presettlement Eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) on cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment, Canada. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1125-1132.

Kerr, J. 1997. Species richness, endemism, and the choice of areas for conservation. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1094- 1100.

Kim, K. 1997. Preserving biodiversity in Korea's demilitarized zone. Science 278(5336): 242-244.

Kostyack, J. 1997. Habitat conservation planning: time to give conservationists and other concerned citizens a seat at the table. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 51-55.

Leveque, C. 1997. Biodiversity Dynamics and Conservation. The Freshwater Fish of Tropical Africa. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 451 pp.

Levy, S. 1997. Pacific salmon bring it all back home. BioScience 47(10): 657-660.

Lewontin, R. and Santos, M. 1997. Current trends in intellectual property rights protection pose serious threats to future innovations in agricultural sector. DIVERSITY 13(2 & 3): 25-27.

Lindenmayer, D. and Franklin, J. 1997. Managing stand structure as part of ecologically sustainable forest management in Australian mountain ash forests. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1053-1068.

Line, L. 1997. Eating on the run. Nat. Wildlife 35(6): 46-51. (Bird migration)

Lipske, M. 1997. Forests rise, woodcocks fall? Nat. Wildlife 35(6): 30-35.

Lombard, A., Cowling, R., Pressey, R. and Mustart, P. 1997. Reserve selection in a species-rich and fragmented landscape on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1101-1116.

Miles, H. 1997. Treading softly. BBC Wildlife 15(10): 12-19. (Puma in Chilean Andes)

Moss, C. 1997. Africa's secret elephants. BBC Wildlife 15(10): 64-70.

Mueller, T. 1997. Natural community conservation planning: preserving species or developer interests? End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 26-28.

Natenzon, C. 1996. Gestion de areas naturales protegidas. El Parque Nacional Baritu. Yungas 6(1): 9-14. (Argentina)

Ocampo, A. and Calderon, A. 1997. The Rio Abiseo National Park, Peru. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 54-58.

O'Connell, M. 1997. Improving habitat conservation planning through a regional ecosystem-based approach. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 18-21.

Ojeda, R. and Navarro, M. 1996. Vulnerabilidad de los mamiferos de las Yungas: un enfoque regional. Yungas 6(1): 6.

Ormond, R., Gage, J. and Angel, M. (Eds). 1997. Marine Biodiversity. Patterns and Processes. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 350 pp.

Ortega Varela, R., Ortega Varela, Z. and Glass, C. 1997. Rescue operations of threatened species in the hydroelectric project at Zimapan, Mexico. British Cactus & Succ. J. 15(3): 123-128.

Pearman, P. 1997. Correlates of amphibian diversity in an altered landscape of Amazonian Ecuador. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1211-1225.

Phillips, C. 1997. Effective outside participation in the HCP process: lessons from watershed analysis. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 56-59.

Plater, Z. 1997. HCPs and the embattled social utilities of the Endangered Species Act. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 15-17.

Prior, K., Gibbs, H. and Weatherhead, P. 1997. Population genetic structure in the black rat snake: implications for management. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1147-1158. (Hawaii)

Ratter, J., Ribeiro, J. and Bridgewater, S. 1997. The Brazilian cerrado vegetation and threats to its biodiversity. Annals of Botany 80(3): 223-230.

Reynolds, J. and Schonewald, C. 1997. Box 65: Commentary from the GWS Office and Our Members. Protected areas, science, and the 21st century. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 5-11.

Richter, B., Braun, D., Mendelson, M. and Master, L. 1997. Threats to imperiled freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1081-1094. (USA)

Robbins, J. 1997. Yellowstone's microbial riches lure eager bioprospectors. New York Times October 14: C3. (Microbes potential for economic use)

Robichaux, R., Friar, E. and Mount, D. 1997. Molecular genetic consequences of a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction of the Mauna Kea silversword, [Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae)]. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1140-1146. (Hawaii)

Roosenburg, W., Cresko, W., Modesitte, M. and Robbins, M. 1997. Diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) mortality in crab pots. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1166-1172. (North America)

Rosenberg, D., Noon, B. and Meslow, E. 1997. Biological corridors: form, function, and efficacy. BioScience 47(10): 677-687.

Sarmiento, F. 1997. Latin American mountain protected areas: an introduction. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 12-14.

Sarmiento, F. 1997. The Quijos River Valley: a protected landscape as best management practice for conservation and development in Tropandean Ecuador. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 59-66.

Schemo, D. 1997. Rising forces renew threat to Amazon. New York Times (International) November 2: 16.

Sharpe, C. and Rodriquez, I. 1997. Discovering the Lost World: Canaima National Park and World Heritage Site, Venezuela. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 15-23.

Shepherdson, D., Mellen, J. and Hutchins, M. (Eds). 1997. Second Nature. Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 336 pp.

Sher, V. and Weiner, H. 1997. Why HCPs must not undermine recovery. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 67-69.

Silver, M. 1997. Natural community conservation planning: 1997 interim report. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 22-25.

Steinitz-Kannan, M. 1997. The lakes in Andean protected areas of Ecuador. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 33-53.

Stevens, W. 1997. Experts on climate change ponder: how urgent is it? New York Times (Science Times) September 9: C1-C2.

Sunquist, M. 1997. What I've learned about tigers. Int. Wildlife 27(6): 12-19.

Suplee, C. 1997. El nino preparing for the worst. Washington Post September 21: A1, A16.

Swartz, P. 1997. Re-establishment of Aloe suzannae in Madagascar. Part 2. Groundwork on the Red Island. British Cactus & Succ. J. 15(3): 149-155. (Endangered species)

Thornton, R. 1997. The no surprises policy is essential to attract private dollars for the protection of biodiversity. End. Species UPDATE 14(7 & 8): 65-66.

Tutin, C., White, I. and Mackanga-Missandzou, M. 1997. The use of rain forest mammals of natural forest fragments in an Equatorial African savanna. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1190-1203. (Lope Reserve, Gabon)

Udvardy, S. and Sandoval, A. 1997. Proceedings from the Workshop on Biological and Cultural Diversity of the Lower Urubamba, Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 185 pp. (Workshop held 2-5 September 1996)

Urbanska, K., Webb, N. and Edwards, P. (Eds). 1997. Restoration Ecology and Sustainable Development. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 385 pp.

Vancura, V. 1997. Land ownership and park management: a note on the experience of Tatra National Park, Slovak Republic. The George Wright Forum 14(3): 69-71.

Wildt, D., Rall, W. and Critser, J. 1997. Genome resource banks. BioScience 47(10): 689-698.

With, K. 1997. The application of neutral landscape models in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1069- 1080.

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