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Department ofBotany

No. 175
January 1998

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Human population growth, "invader" species, and commercial fishing threaten to destroy the fragile ecological balance in the world famous Galapagos Islands, according to a new study released recently by World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

The study, which comes 115 years after Charles Darwin's death, is the most comprehensive analysis of the environmental, social and political factors affecting the islands.

Although 97% of the islands' land area has National Park status, the population of the islands has more than doubled in the last ten years, mainly due to migration from the Ecuadorian mainland. With this migration, many foreign plant and animal species are being introduced. Their estimated numbers have grown from about 77 in 1971 to more than 260 today. The most serious threat comes from wild goats and pigs that threaten the food supply of the magnificent Galapagos tortoises, and rats that eat the eggs of birds and reptiles that have lived without natural predators since the beginning of time. Guava plants also have recently blanketed the islands, strangling the range of some native plants. Offshore, a dramatic increase in international commercial fishing is reducing sea cucumber and shark populations.

WWF is supporting the government of Ecuador in formulating a strong legal framework to protect these irreplaceable islands. WWF recommends among other measures: a ban on all commercial fishing; increased protection for the waters around the Galapagos by designating them a protected area; strict limits on migration to the islands; and creation of a system of inspection and quarantine to control the number of introduced species. In addition, WWF recommends the establishment of appropriate limits on tourist numbers and that a greater percentage of tourism revenue go toward conserving the islands' wild animal and plant species, many of which can be found nowhere else on earth. More information on the Galapagos Islands can be found on WWF's website ( under the Living Planet Campaign.


Bioconservation International announces BIOCON, two concurrent three-semester-hour courses (Neotropical Ornithology and Neotropical Wildlife Biology) which will be held in the South American tropics from June to October. On-site at the Reserved Zone of Tumbes and mangroves of Tumbes National Sanctuary, Peru, the main study area is a haven for carnivores. Besides learning theory, students and volunteers will assist Bioconservation International with its investigations, thus being afforded opportunities to observe much wildlife, and learn research techniques such as feline radiotelemetry, avian mist netting, and bird censusing. The birds and mammals that students will be responsible for identifying in the practical exam are those that will have been detected in the field. The combined cost for both courses is US$1,800 for students and $1,500 for volunteers (includes food and lodging expenses).

To request an application form, or for more information, contact Bioconservation International, 3306 N. Canyon Rd., Provo, UT, 84604-4548; Tel./Fax: (801) 377-1716; E-mail: biocon@utah-;


The Nature Conservancy's Indonesia Program is actively recruiting for the position of Parks and Planning Advisor. This position, based in Palu, Sulawesi, will provide technical assistance and planning services in conjunction with the management of Lore Lindu National Park, a 217,000 hectare forested protected area. He/she will also be responsible for helping build the planning and management capacity of the local parks authority and planning institutions in Palu. He/she will be part of a team working to develop innovative approaches to biodiversity conservation elsewhere in Indonesia.

The Conservancy is seeking candidates with a graduate degree in ecology, natural resource management, forestry or a related field (Ph.D. preferred), with a history of one year demonstrated, sucessful work experience in Indonesia in environmental planning, protected area management and/or direct conservation science applications. Some additional requirements include: 1) demonstrated knowledge of forest ecosystems, conservation and resources use issues in the Asia/Pacific region and in Indonesia in particular; 2) successful record of grant writing and fundraising for ecological work highly desirable; and 3) willingness to travel frequently and to remote areas.

For more information, contact: Wayne Klockner, Indonesia Field Office, The Nature Conservancy, Jalan Radio IV, No. 5, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta 12001, Indonesia, or Ms. Donna Roberts, The Nature Conservancy, Asia/Pacific Region, 1116 Smith Street, Honolulu, HI 96817; E-mail:


March 31, 1998. The Third International Wildlife Law Conference will be held at American University's School of Law in Washington, D.C. The Conference will utilize a three-panel format. The panels for the conference are: 1) the Interface of the World Trade Organization and International Wildlife Treaty Regimes/ National Wildlife Conservation Legislation; 2) Sustainable Use of Wildlife Conservation Legislation; and 3) Regional Wildlife Treaty Regimes; Problems and Prospects.

Please contact Wil Burns at the GreenLife Society with questions or requests for registration materials at: GreenLife Society-North America, 5208 Claremont Ave., Suite B, Oakland, CA 94618; Tel.: (510) 658- 4380; Fax: (510) 658-5946; E-mail: greenlife; or http://


The Mamiraua Project in Brazil, which began managing the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (and RAMSAR site) five years ago, now has created a website for the project and other activities of the Sociedade Civil Mamiraua. The project has developed an innovative community based management approach to sustainable resource use and biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian varzea. The address for the site is

Pronatura Peninsula de Yucatan A.C. is now on the World Wide Web at Pronatura is an NGO dedicated to preserving the rich diversity of habitats and the species they contain in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

The Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania announces a new website of interest to gardeners, botanists, students and land managers at which provides information on noxious weeds, native plants, and endangered species that grow in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

The Biogeography & Conservation Lab at the Natural History Museum (NHM) in London conducts a research program on measuring biodiversity, rarity and conservation priority. Its mission is to develop and apply appropriate, explicit and accountable methods to tackle problems in biogeography and in biodiversity assessment to meet conservation needs at any spatial scale (it does not provide data). It works in collaboration with the NHM Biodiversity Information Unit to create high quality biodiversity information products and services, tailored to meet the needs of different users, including natural resource managers, conservation planners, and biodiversity specialists.

If any researcher is interested in having the Biogeography & Conservation Lab provide analytical tools or services for biodiversity conservation, please contact the Unit at the address below. The lab would like to enter into collaborative studies with anyone who: 1) has large and representative data sets for many areas to explore; 2) has analytical innovations to develop; and 3) has funds for potential development work and joint enterprises.

For further details view the worldmap site at or contact: Paul Williams (; Dick Vane-Wright (; Chris Humphries (; Ian Kitching (; David Lees (; Miguel Araujo (; or Kevin Gaston (


Paul Alan Cox, world renowned ethnobotanist and co-winner of the 1997 Goldman Environmental Prize, has recently written an exciting and beautiful account of his Samoan experiences. NAFANUA: Saving the Samoan Rainforest tells how Cox succeeded in making some important ethnobotanical discoveries, including one which led to Prostratin, a drug now being tested for the treatment of AIDS. NAFANUA also documents Cox's extraordinary efforts for the cause of conservation--while in Samoa he helped gain official protection for a rare species of flying fox, launched an international campaign to save the rain forest from logging, and helped rebuild a village destroyed by a terrifying hurricane. For his efforts, the leaders bestowed upon Cox the chiefly title of the legendary Nafanua, a Samoan goddess who freed her people from oppression.

In addition to recounting his adventures, Cox describes a society that is neither primitive nor industrial, but an amalgam of the two. As he explores the profound influence that Western colonial tradition has had on Samoa, Cox also discusses the historic misperception of the South Seas as well as the checkered role of missionaries--whose profession today is often as ecological as it is religious.

A thrilling adventure story written by an outstanding scientist, NAFANUA will appeal to armchair travelers, as well as to those interested in ecology, ethnobotany and anthropology.

To order the 300-page cloth edition, contact W. H. Freeman and Company, 41 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010; or in Canada General Publishing at (416) 445-3333.

Primates: The Amazing World of Lemurs, Monkeys, and Apes, by Barbara Sleeper with photos by Art Wolfe, chronicles the rich diversity and fascinating social behavior to be found among our closest relatives in the animal kingdom. From Madagascar's pygmy mouse lemur, which at just one ounce is considered the smallest of all living primates, to 400-pound mountain gorillas, primates come in a surprising variety of sizes and as internationally renowned photographer Art Wolfe's 200 superb full-color photographs reveal-- a positively dazzling array of colors.

To photograph the 73 species showcased in Primates, Wolfe traveled around the globe, to Rwanda's lush Parc des Volcans for mountain gorillas, to Uganda's deep forests of Kibale National Park for colobus monkeys and gray-cheeked mangabeys, to Borneo's rain forests for orangutans, to Madagascar's endangered forest for lemurs, to Japan's tranquil Yakushima Island for snow monkeys, and to research centers and wildlife refuges around the world.

Sadly, primates are in trouble worldwide. One in five of the species currently known is already in either the endangered or critical category, meaning they could go extinct in the next couple of decades. According to the forward's author, Dr. Russell Mittermeier, the world populations of non-human primates are in trouble in all of the 92 countries in which they live. They are particularly being displaced by the destruction of their forest habitats.

The 176-page soft-cover book is available through Chronicle Books, 85 Second Street, Sixth floor, San Francisco, CA 94105; Tel.: (415) 537-4257; Fax: (415) 537-4470;


Akeroyd, J. 1997. Madagascar: images of a damaged eden. Plant Talk 11: 21-23.

Alm, T. and Often, A. 1997. Species conservation and local people in E. Finnmark, Norway. Plant Talk 11: 30-31.

Amaral, M., Kozol, A. and French, T. 1997. Conservation status and reintroduction of the endangered American burying beetle. Northeastern Naturalist 4(3): 121-132.

Anon. 1997. Central Appalachian assessment begins. Natural Areas News 2(1): 7. (Identify goals and opportunities for large scale restoration in the region)

Anon. 1997. Ecuador rainforests face more logging and mining. Plant Talk 11: 13. (Area in northwest region near Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve mined)

Anon. 1997. End of the road for Salisbury bypass. Plant Talk 11: 17. (Cancellation of road that would have destroyed important grasslands in England)

Anon. 1997. Guide to Indian centres of plant diversity. Plant Talk 11: 19. (see Nayar, N. 1996)

Anon. 1997. Indicators for environmental issues in the European coastal zone. Intercoast Network 29: 3-4, 31.

Anon. 1997. Island floras in focus. Plant Talk 11: 3. (Models for evolution and priorities for conservation) Anon. 1997. Nature's violence threatens island flora. Plant Talk 11: 17-18. (Montserrat flora threatened by recent volcano eruption)

Anon. 1997. The purple peril invading American wetlands. Plant Talk 11: 16. (Purple loosestrife)

Anon. 1997. Study of plant laws in Europe. Plant Talk 11: 18.

Anon. 1997. Weymouth Woods Sandhills Nature Preserve, North Carolina. Natural Areas News 2(1): 6. (Pine barrens, home to over 1,000 plants)

Anon. 1997. World Bank's support for world forests. Plant Talk 11: 14-15.

Aparicio, A. and Zarate, R. 1997. Conservation of the endangered flora of the Sierra de Grazalema Nature Park, S. Spain. Plant Talk 11: 29.

Auricchio, P. 1997. A new locality for Brachyteles arachnoides and the urgency for finding new directions for muriqui conservation. Neotropical Primates 5(3): 78-79. (Endangered Brazilian Atlantic forest endemic)

Aziz, H. and Wheat, S. 1997. Lessons from Basata. People & Planet 6(4): 22-23. (Egypt)

Barbour, S. 1997. Untapped power: rare species in utility corridors. News from Hudsonia 13(1): 1-5. (Butterflies in New York) Baskin, J. and Baskin, C. 1997. Methods of breaking seed dormancy in the endangered species Iliamna corei (Sherff) Sherff (Malvaceae), with special attention to heating. Nat. Areas J. 17(4): 313-323. (Virginia)

Bhatta, G. 1997. Caecilian diversity of the Western Ghats: in search of the rare animals. Current Science 73(2): 183- 187.

Boersma, P. 1997. The President's column. Conservation biology: a paradigm shift. Conservation Biology Newsletter 4(4): 1, 14.

Borman, R. 1997. Can computers save a rainforest? People & Planet 6(4): 30. (Indigenous people as tour leaders)

Borzello, A. 1997. Gorillas in the midst. People & Planet 6(4): 20-21. (Uganda's Bwindi forest)

Brunelle, P. 1997. The role of the amateur in insect conservation. Northeastern Naturalist 4(3): 159-164.

Carney, S. 1997. Basing conservation policies for the deep- sea floor on current diversity concepts: a consideration of rarity. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(11): 1463-1486.

Cater, E. 1997. Ecotourism or ecocide? People & Planet 6(4): 9-11.

Chicago Region Biodiversity Council. 1997. Chicago Wilderness: An Atlas of Biodiversity. Chicago Region Biodiversity Council, Chicago, Illinois. 64 pp.

Clifford, H. and Lawrie, D. 1997. New and rare bird records for Raoul Island. Notornis 44(3): 171-173.

Cox, P. 1997. Nafanua. Saving the Samoan Rain Forest. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, New York. 238 pp.

Crockett, C., Brooks, R., Meacham, R., Meacham, S. and Mills, M. 1997. Recent observations of Nicaraguan primates and a preliminary conservation assessment. Neotropical Primates 5(3): 71-74.

Dallmeier, F. and Comiskey, J. (Eds). 1997. Forest Biodiversity Research, Monitoring and Modeling. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 600 pp.

Daniels, R. 1997. Taxonomic uncertainties and conservation assessment of the Western Ghats. Current Science 73(2): 169-170.

de Jong, F. 1997. The Wadden Sea: shared nature and common management. Intercoast Network 29: 18-19.

Debinski, D. and Humphrey, P. 1997. An integrated approach to biological diversity assessment. Nat. Areas J. 17(4): 355-365.

Dougall, T. and Dodd, J. 1997. A study of species richness and diversity in seed banks and its use for the environmental mitigation of a proposed holiday village development in a coniferized woodland in south east England. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1413-1428.

Du Puy, D. and Moat, J. 1997. Using GIS for vegetation mapping and conservation planning in Madagascar. Plant Talk 11: 24.

Dutton, I. 1997. Performance monitoring - something old is new again. Intercoast Network 29: 7-8.

Easa, P. and Shaji, C. 1997. Freshwater fish diversity in Kerala part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Current Science 73(2): 180-182.

Emmert, N. 1997. Florida assessment of coastal trends. Intercoast Network 29: 9-10.

Falkner, M. and Stohlgren, T. 1997. Evaluating the contribution of small national park areas to regional biodiversity. Nat. Areas J. 17(4): 324-330. (USA)

Ferreira, L. 1997. Effects of the duration of flooding on species richness and floristic compostition in three hectares in the Jau National Park in floodplain forest in central Amazonia. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1353-1364.

Fraser, P., Landown, P. and Rogers, M. 1997. Report on scarce migrant birds in Britain in 1995. British Birds 90(10): 413-439.

Gonsalves, P. 1997. Opinion: stemming the tourist tide. People & Planet 6(4): 31.

Gordon, C. 1997. Mangrove management project launched in Ghana. Intercoast Network 29: 21.

Gremillion, K. (Ed). 1997. People, Plants, and Landscapes. Studies in Paleoethnobotany. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 271 pp.

Gunn, S. 1997. Future security. Kew Autumn: 10-11. (Cultivation of threatened plants in Kew's nurseries)

Helmstetter, A. and Atencio, D. 1997. Eglin Air Force Base and sea turtle nesting: a success story. End. Species UPDATE 14(9 & 10): 3-5. (Florida)

Hoekwater, J. 1997. Butterfly poaching for profit in Baxter State Park, Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 4(3): 145-152.

Holloran, P. 1997. Restoring native plant communities at San Francisco's Presidio. Fremontia 25(4): 10-16.

Hunter, M. and Jaros-Su, J. 1997. Insects, entomologists, and the conservation of biodiversity. Northeastern Naturalist 4(3): 153-158.

Kaiser, H. 1997. Origins and introductions of the Caribbean frog, Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Leptodactylidae): management and conservation concerns. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1391-1408.

Keller-Wolf, T. and Barbour, M. 1997. Conservation and classification of vegetation in California: a symposium. Fremontia 25(4): 17-27.

Koslow, J., Williams, A. and Paxton, J. 1997. How many demersal fish species in the deep sea? A test of a method to extrapolate from local to global diversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(11): 1523-1532.

Lajeunesse, D., Domon, G., Cogliastro, A. and Bouchard, A. 1997. Monitoring recreational use in urban natural areas. Nat. Areas J. 17(4): 366-379.

Lesica, P. 1997. Spread of Phalaris arundinacea adversely impacts the endangered plant Howellia aquatilis. Great Basin Naturalist 57(4): 366-368.

Lesica, P. and Steele, B. 1997. Use of permanent plots in monitoring plant populations. Nat. Areas J. 17(4): 331- 340.

Lokesha, R. and Vasudeva, R. 1997. Patterns of life history traits among rare/endangered flora of South India. Current Science 73(2): 171-172.

Long, D. 1997. Molluscan conservation: a strategy for the 21st century. Conchologist's Newsletter 8/2(140): 770-774.

Lowry, K., Pallewatte, N. and Dainis, A. 1997. Assessing Sri Lanka's special area management projects. Intercoast Network 29: 16-17, 22, 31.

Luiselli, L. and Capizzi, D. 1997. Influences of area, isolation and habitat features on distribution of snakes in Mediterranean fragmented woodlands. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1339-1352.

Margoluis, R., Salafsky, N. and Symington, M. 1997. Linking project design, management and monitoring in ICM projects. Intercoast Network 29: 11-12, 27.

McGowan, P. and Gillman, M. 1997. Assessment of the conservation status of partridges and pheasants in South East Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1321-1338.

Menon, S. and Bawa, K. 1997. Applications of geographic information systems, remote sensing and a landscape ecology approach to biodiversity conservation in the Western Ghats. Current Science 73(2): 134-145.

Middleton, D. 1997. Max Van Balgooy. Plant Talk 11: 7. (Lifetime devoted to plants of South-East Asia)

Nash, N. 1997. Orchid Conservation 97. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 66(11): 1187-1191. (Report on a conference at Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Florida)

Nayar, N. 1996. Hot Spots of Endemic Plants in India, Nepal and Bhutan. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Kerala, India. 254 pp.

Ndibi, B. and Kay, E. 1997. The regulatory framework for the exploitation of medicinal plants in Cameroon: the case of Prunus africana on Mount Cameroon. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1409-1412.

Oldfield, S. 1997. New directions for CITES? Plant Talk 11: 32-33.

Oldfield, S. and Sheppard, C. 1997. Conservation of biodiversity and research needs in the UK Dependent Territories. J. Applied Ecology 34(5): 1111-1121.

Olsen, S., Lowry, K., Tobey, J., Burbridge, P. and Humphrey, S. 1997. New UNDP survey of coastal management initiatives. Intercoast Network 29: 1-3.

Omland, M. 1997. Exploring Ghana's tree-tops. People & Planet 6(4): 28-29. (Rainforest canopy walkway in Kakum National Park)

Padoch, C. and Peluso, N. (Eds). 1996. Borneo in Transition. People, Forests, Conservation, and Development. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 291 pp.

Pollnac, R. 1997. Monitoring and evaluating coral reef management. Intercoast Network 29: 5-6, 18.

Poulsen, B. and Krabbe, N. 1997. Avian rarity in ten cloud- forest communities in the Andes of Ecuador: implications for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1365- 1376.

Pramod, P., Daniels, R., Joshi, N. and Gadgil, M. 1997. Evaluating bird communities of Western Ghats to plan for a biodiversity friendly development. Current Science 73(2): 156-162.

Pramod, P., Joshi, N., Ghate, U. and Gadgil, M. 1997. On the hospitality of Western Ghats habitats for bird communities. Current Science 73(2): 122-127.

Primack, R. and Drayton, B. 1997. The experimental ecology of reintroduction. Plant Talk 11: 25-28.

Rieman, B. and Clayton, J. 1997. Management - wildfire and native fish: issues of forest health and conservation of sensitive species. Fisheries 20(11): 6-15.

Roberts, D. and Moore, H. 1997. Tentacular diversity in deep-sea deposit-feeding holothurians: implications for biodiversity in the deep sea. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(11): 1487-1506.

Rowley, J. and Edwards, M. 1997. Recycling a Jordan village. People & Planet 6(4): 24-27. (Taybet Zaman near Petra - five star tourist resort)

Safford, R. and Jones, C. 1997. Did organochlorine pesticide use cause declines in Mauritian forest birds? Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1445-1451.

Samways, M. and Stewart, D. 1997. An aquatic ecotone and its significance in conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1429-1444.

Schwarz, A. and Wein, R. 1997. Threatened dry grasslands in the continental boreal forests of Wood Buffalo National Park. Canadian J. Bot. 75(8): 1363-1370.

Shaanker, R. and Ganeshaiah, K. 1997. Mapping genetic diversity of Phyllanthus emblica: forest gene banks as a new approach for in situ conservation of genetic resources. Current Science 73(2): 163-168.

Shrestha, M. 1997. Can trekkers help Manaslu? People & Planet 6(4): 14-15. (Kathmandu)

Sidwell, K. 1997. The importance of taxonomy to conservation. Plant Talk 11: 4.

Skinner, M. and Stebbins, G. 1997. Why is the California flora so rich? Fremontia 25(4): 3-9. (6,000 native species)

Sleeper, B. 1997. Primates: the Amazing World of Lemurs, Monkeys, and Apes.. Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California. 176 pp.

Smith, D. and Ntiati, P. 1997. Maasai hopes and fears. People & Planet 6(4): 12-13. (Kenya)

Smolen, M. and Colborn, T. 1997. Endocrine disruption: hidden threats to wildlife. End. Species UPDATE 14(9 & 10): 6-10.

Southam, M. 1997. Hunting the moon-carrot: has it really gone? Plant Talk 11: 34-35. (Southern Europe)

Staljanssens, M. 1997. ICOMIS - a modeling tool for better decision making on coastal zone development. Intercoast Network 29: 15.

Stonehouse, B. 1997. Small is beautiful in the planet's crystal wonderland. People & Planet 6(4): 16-17. (Antarctica)

Stubbs, C., Drummond, F. and Allard, S. 1997. Bee conservation and increasing Osmia spp. in Maine lowbush blueberry fields. Northeastern Naturalist 4(3): 133-144.

Thorsell, J. 1997. The greenest place on earth. Plant Talk 11: 40-41. (Morne Trois Pitons, Dominica)

Tibor, D. 1997. Rare Plant Program update. California Native Plant Soc. Bull. 27(4): 1. (Rediscovery of an extinct plant, Ventura marsh milk-vetch and proposed listing for Adobe lily)

Trumbic, I. 1997. Evaluation of coastal zone management initiatives in the Mediterranean. Intercoast Network 29: 13-14.

Warburg, M. 1997. Biogeographic and demographic changes in the distribution and abundance of scorpions inhabiting the Mediterranean region of northern Israel. Biodiversity and Conservation 6(10): 1377-1390.

Wheal, C. 1997. South Africa's new goldmine. People & Planet 6(4): 18-19. (Tourism)

Wheat, S. 1997. The tourism juggernaut. People & Planet 6(4): 6-8.

Whitesell, E. 1996. Local struggles over rain-forest conservation in Alaska and Amazonia. The Geographical Review 86(3): 414-436.

Willcox, L. 1997. The last grizzlies of the American West: the long hard road to recovery. End. Species UPDATE 14(9 & 10): 11-16.

Williams, J., Dombeck, M. and Wood, C. 1997. Communities taking charge: challenges & opportunities for public land management. Soc. Conservation Biology Newsletter 4(4): 2, 16.

Wisnieski, A., Poole, V. and Anderson, E. 1997. Conservation spotlight: tomato frogs. End. Species UPDATE 14(9 & 10): 17-18. (Madagascar)

Wolberg, D. and Reinard, P. 1997. Collecting the Natural World. Legal Requirements & Personal Liability for Collecting Plants, Animals, Rocks, Minerals & Fossils. GeoScience Press, Tucson, Arizona. 330 pp.

Yahner, R. 1997. Historic, present, and future status of Pennsylvania vertebrates: some issues of conservation concern. J. Pennsylvania Acad. Science 71(1): 47-51.

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