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Department ofBotany

No. 180
July 1998

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Fungi are among the most diverse organisms on Earth, second only to the insects. A book has recently been published that describes techniques for sampling all kinds of fungi. Entitled Protocols for an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Fungi in a Costa Rican Conservation Area, this book is the result of a workshop that took place at the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. At the workshop a group of 25 mycologists from around the world met to design a project to sample all of the fungi in the ACG. The book is a how-to manual for systematic sampling and isolating the various kinds of fungi that exist. Approaches include a double transect design for sampling mushrooms and large fungi over an extended period of time and the recommended procedures for isolating from wood, leaf litter, insects, dung, and aquatic substrates. It is a "cookbook" of methods that would result in locating the diversity of fungi that occur in most substrates. Although the procedures are aimed at sampling/isolating in a tropical region, most of the techniques are applicable anywhere. References are included for the sampling and isolating of fungi as well as their identification.

Protocols for an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Fungi in a Costa Rican Conservation Area by A.Y. Rossman, R.E. Tulloss, T.E. O'Dell and R.G. Thorn can be ordered for $35 plus $3 shipping from Parkway Publishers, P.O. Box 3678, Boone, NC 28607: Tel.: (704) 265-3993; E-mail:


The National Lottery Charities Board in England has given nearly a half million pounds to a WWF forest conservation program in Mexico, which is helping to save one of the richest ecosystems on Earth. The grant will provide funding for local communities to set up new types of protected areas and manage the forests in a more sustainable way.

The forest projects are based in the state of Oaxaca and are home to endangered species, including the jaguar, spider monkey and tapir. These biologically diverse forests are considered one of the few "megadiversity" areas of the world. The forests and the lives of the local people have been seriously threatened in recent years by illegal logging, indiscriminate slash and burn agriculture, cattle ranching and drug cultivation. In recent months the forests have been further damaged by record forest fires (see Biological Conservation Newsletter No. 179).


On June 5, South African President Nelson Mandela designated the newly created Cape Peninsula National Park which includes the spectacular Table Mountain and stretches all the way to Cape Point and the Cape of Good Hope. This area is home to some 2285 plant species of which 105 are endemic, and an even greater number of endemic animal species. The park will protect the Cape Flora Kingdom - one of the world's richest and most diverse regions for wild fauna and flora. The area has been threatened by invasive alien vegetation, increasing development and the uncontrolled use of the Cape Peninsula area, which have led to the rapid disappearance of many unique species, such as the Table Mountain ghost frog, cave shrimp, and camel cricket.


The Amazon Conservation Team is looking for a field director of The Brazil Nut Rich Forests Project. The director will be based in Puerto-Maldonado, Peru for a contract period of two years. The Brazil Nut Rich Forests Project works for the conservation of Brazil nut forests through the integration of science, policy and management. Brazil nut trees are a keystone resource that supports an elaborate and long-standing relationship between people and Amazonian forests. This is a field-based project that ultimately works for Brazil nut extractivists.

Candidates for the field director should be a graduate in biology or a related field, with expertise in research and project management in rural and remote areas; be fluent in Spanish (knowledge of Portuguese a plus); and have good organizational skills. For more information, contact Enrique Ortiz at


September 14-18. The Fifth International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress will be held at the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, Cape Town, South Africa. The congress will bring together a wide audience interested in building the botanic gardens conservation network. For more information, contact Prof. Brian Huntley, National Botanical Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa; Tel.: 27 21 762 1166; Fax: 27 21 761 4687; E-mail: or visit BGCI's Web site at:


ReefBase is the official database of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and directly addresses priority actions of the International Coral Reef Initiative, now endorsed by 75 governments. It was created for scientists, academicians, students, resource managers in government and private institutions, divers and other coral reef enthusiasts as part of a research effort to develop criteria for assessing coral reef health, at the national, regional and global scales.

Like an electronic encyclopedia, ReefBase 2.0 presents coral reef information in a relational database designed to accommodate a wide spectrum of coral reef references. The coverage is broad, from ecological surveys on benthic coral reef fish communities, existing stresses on reefs, harvest values for different types of fisheries by reef, coastal tourism, mariculture activities, oceanography and management practices. The ReefBase 2.0 package, which includes a CD-ROM and User's Guide, costs US$95 via regular air mail. For more information, contact: ReefBase Project, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, MCPO Box 2631, 0718 Makati City, Philippines or visit the Web site at:


Rivers of Life: Critical Watersheds for Protecting Freshwater Biodiversity is a new report in The Nature Conservancy's NatureServe publication series. The report provides the first nationwide analysis of vulnerable fish and mussel species at the level of small watersheds, a scale practical for conservation planning.

The United States is a world center of freshwater species diversity. Although most of the world's freshwater fish species are tropical, the United States, with 801 species, ranks seventh among the countries in the world in recorded fish species - after Brazil, Venezuela, Indonesia, China, Zaire, and Peru. Unfortunately, this study found that 37% of the U.S. freshwater fish fauna are threatened; half of all crayfish species are in jeopardy; and two-thirds of the nation's freshwater mussels are at risk of extinction. Using information from natural heritage data centers and other sources, this report identifies the 327 watersheds, representing only 15% of the nation's total, that would protect populations of all at-risk freshwater fish and mussel species. These watersheds should be targeted for conservation action in order to protect the valuable aquatic resources they contain.

The report is available electronically on the Conservation Science homepage of the Conservancy's Web site at Additional copies are available from The Nature Conservancy for $5 per copy. To order, contact Johannah Dottori at (703) 841-5321 or

Coral reefs provide billions of people and scores of countries with food, tourism revenue, coastal protection and new pharmaceuticals. Despite this importance, nearly 60% of the world's coral reefs are threatened by human activity according to the first detailed scientific review.

Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs, is the result of a two-year study undertaken by the World Resources Institute (USA), the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UK) and the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (Philippines). The research was conducted using a Geographic Information System (GIS), combining a broad range of global maps, information on 800 sites known to be degraded, and input from reef scientists and managers from around the world.

The report found that Southeast Asia contains more reef species than anywhere else in the world, and the species occurring there are the most threatened. Over 80% are at risk. Likewise, many reefs in the Caribbean are also threatened, with nearly two-thirds in jeopardy, including many tourist attractions in Jamaica and Barbados.

For more information, contact: Dr. Mark Spalding or Laura Battlebury at the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, England; Tel.: 44 1223 277314; Fax: 44 1223 277136.


Agardy, T. 1998. Seas of trouble. Endangered Species UPDATE 15(2): 17-20. (State of the oceans)

Ainsworth, J. and Ainsworth, J. 1998. The NCCPG National Collection of Sarracenia. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15(2): 137-141. (Genus threatened in the USA)

Anon. 1998. Guyra Paraguay: conservacion de aves - a new Paraguayan conservation initiative. BirdLife in the Americas 3(1): 2.

Anon. 1998. Habitat destruction threatens Yanomamis. BirdLife in the Americas 3(1): 3. (Illegal miners in Indian territory in Brazil)

Anon. 1998. New gifts to the earth safeguard spectacular wildlife habitats. FOCUS 20(2): 1. (Florida's Everglades, Maryland's Chesapeake Bay watershed, Zanzibar's Menai Bay gain protection)

Anon. 1998. New names appear on the map of Russia's protected areas. Russian Conservation News 15: 4-5. (Norski Zapovednik, new reserve established in the Amur Region of the Russian Far East)

Anon. 1998. New partnership for a landbird monitoring project in Chiapas, Mexico. Mesoamericana 3(1): 13. (Instituto de Historia Natural in collaboration with the National Institute of Ecology of Mexico, Pronatura-Veracruz, the Point Reyes Bird Observatory and the Klamath National Forest, USA)

Anon. 1998. Plant information for NE Brazil. Kew Scientist 13: 1.

Barnard, P., Brown, C., Jarvis, A., Robertson, A. and Van Rooyen, L. 1998. Extending the Namibian protected area network to safeguard hotspots of endemism and diversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 531-548.

Basili, G. 1998. Some thoughts on birds and biodiversity. Florida Naturalist 71(1): 8-9.

Bierregaard, R. 1998. Conservation status of birds of prey in the South American tropics. J. Raptor Research 32(1): 19-27.

Bildstein, K., Schelsky, W., Zalles, J. and Ellis, S. 1998. Conservation status of tropical raptors. J. Raptor Research 32(1): 3-18.

Bischoff, B. 1997-1998. Reefs in crisis. Nat. History 106(11): 46-49.

Bobadilla, U. and Ferrari, S. 1998. First detailed field data on Chiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985. Neotropical Primates 6(1): 17-18. (Vulnerable primate in Brazil)

Boggs, C. 1998. When native and introduced species meet. UPDATE 10(2): 4-5. (Introduced mustard, Thlaspi arvense and the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi, in Colorado)

Bowman, R. and Woolfenden, G. 1998. The scrub and the scrub- jay - imperiled natural treasures of Florida. Florida Naturalist 71(1): 10-11.

Browne, M. 1998. Life's ups and downs: charting extinctions. New York Times (The Natural World) June 2: E6-7. (Benefits of biodiversity)

Campredon, P. and Gawler, M. 1998. A visionary plan for the Banc d'Arguin. People & the Planet 7(2): 26. (Africa's largest marine park in Mauritania under treat)

Carroll, G. 1998. Are our coastal waters turning deadly? Nat. Wildlife 36(3): 42-47. (Outbreak of tiny organisms affect health of humans and wildlife)

Chadwick, D. 1998. Rebirth on the Great Plains. Nat. Wildlife 36(3): 20-29. (Bison restoration by Native Americans)

Cosenza, B. and Melo, F. 1998. Primates of the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 6(1): 18-20.

Cresswell, W., Mellanby, R. and Bright, S. 1998. Kazakhstan, a key passageway for rare migratory birds. Russian Conservation News 15: 24-25.

Curtis, B., Roberts, K., Griffin, M., Bethune, S., Hay, C. and Kolberg, H. 1998. Species richness and conservation in Namibian freshwater macro-invertebrates, fish and amphibians. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 447-466.

Cushman, J. 1998. The Endangered Species Act gets a makeover. New York Times (The Natural World) June 2: E2.

Dallman, P. 1998. Plant life in the world's Mediterranean climates: California. Fremontia 26(2): 18-27.

Drew, M., Kirkman, L. and Gholson, A. 1998. The vascular flora of Ichauway, Baker County, Georgia: a remnant longleaf pine/wiregrass ecosystem. Castanea 63(1): 1-24. (Rare and endemic plants)

Earle, S. 1998. Why should we care? People & the Planet 7(2): 27. (Benefits of the ocean and how it will determine the future of life on earth)

Eng, C. 1998. AZA Species Survival Plan Profile: De Brazza's monkey. Endangered Species UPDATE 15(2): 25-26. (Equatorial Africa)

Fairhead, J. and Leach, M. 1998. Reconsidering the extent of deforestation in twentieth century West Africa. Unasylva 49(192): 38-46.

Fallon, S. 1998. Ecoregions to watch in North America. UPDATE 10(2): 10. (Study by WWF, "A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecosystems of North America")

Fellers, L. 1998. The medicine market. Washington Post Magazine May 31: 10-14, 23-27. (Taxol)

Flannery, M. 1998. The medicine and medicinal plants of C.S. Rafinesque. Econ. Bot. 52(1): 27-43.

Fleishman, E. 1998. Butterflies and land management in the Great Basin. UPDATE 10(2): 9. (USA)

Gallagher, T. 1998. Lost and found. Living Bird 17(2): 24-29. (Forest owlet, rediscovered in India)

Garrabou, J., Sala, E., Arcas, A. and Zabala, M. 1998. The impact of diving on rocky sublittoral communities: a case study of a bryozoan population. Conservation Biology 12(2): 302- 312.

Gemmill, C., Ranker, T., Ragone, D., Perlman, S. and Wood, K. 1998. Conservation genetics of the endangered endemic Hawaiian genus Brighamia (Campanulaceae). Am. J. Bot. 85(4): 528-539.

Gilmour, D. 1998. Forest conservation in Australia. Changing policy landscape. Arborvitae 8: 8.

Girondot, M., Fouillet, H. and Pieau, C. 1998. Feminizing turtle embryos as a conservation tool. Conservation Biology 12(2): 353-362.

Gray, P. 1998. Ode to a sparrow. Florida Naturalist 71(1): 14-16. (Florida grasshopper sparrow)

Green, W. and Rothstein, A. 1998. Translocation, hybridization, and the endangered black-faced impala. Conservation Biology 12(2): 475-480.

Griffin, M. 1998. The species diversity, distribution and conservation of Namibian mammals. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 483-494.

Griffin, R. 1998. Species richness and biogeography of non- acarine arachnids in Namibia. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 467-482.

Hacker, J., Cowlishaw, G. and Williams, P. 1998. Patterns of African primate diversity and their evaluation for the selection of conservation areas. Biol. Conservation 84(3): 251-262.

Hallam, A. and Wignall, P. 1997. Mass Extinctions and their Aftermath. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 320 pp.

Harrison, P. 1998. Making land from bare rock. People & the Planet 7(1): 22-25. (Sustainable agriculture in Eastern Mali)

Hartley, M. and Hunter, Jr. M. 1998. A meta-analysis of forest cover, edge effects, and artificial nest predation rates. Conservation Biology 12(2): 465-469.

Hinrichsen, D. 1998. The ocean planet. People & the Planet 7(2): 6-9.

Hobbs, R. and Mooney, H. 1998. Broadening the extinction debate: population deletions and additions in California and Western Australia. Conservation Biology 12(2): 271-283.

Hoffman, W. 1998. Will the Cape Sable seaside sparrow follow the dusky into extinction? Florida Naturalist 71(1): 12- 13.

Holden, C. 1998. Red alert for plants. Science 280(5362): 385. (IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants)

Huffman, J. and Judd, W. 1998. Vascular flora of Myakka River State Park, Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. Castanea 63(1): 25-50. (Includes the largest remaining area of the threatened Florida dry prairie community)

Hughes, J. 1998. Population diversity and extinction. UPDATE 10(2): 8.

Johnson, K. 1998. Island habitats: a stronghold of carnivore biodiversity in agriculturally modified environments. Endangered Species UPDATE 15(2): 21-24. (Northern Great Plains, USA)

Johnston, B. 1998. The new ethnobotany: sharing with those who shared: an interview with Michael Balick and Rosita Arvigo. Herbalgram 42: 60-63. (Belize)

Khanina, L. 1998. An information-processing system to evaluate plant diversity. Russian Conservation News 15: 36.

Khokhryakova, O. 1998. Lazovski Zapovednik. Russian Conservation News 15: 7. (Park in Russian Maritime Province on the coast of the Sea of Japan)

Kim, Y. and Maunder, M. 1998. Plants in peril, 24. Abeliophyllum distichum. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15(2): 141-146. (Critically endangered in Korea)

Klinkenberg, J. 1998. Coming back on its own terms. Nat. Wildlife 36(3): 52-59. (North America's wood storks are recovering in South Florida after a century of habitat destruction)

Kostrub, C. 1997. Preliminary field observations of golden- mantled tamarins, Saguinus tripartitus, in eastern Ecuador. Neotropical Primates 5(4): 102-103.

Kouwets, F. 1998. Contributions to the knowledge of the French desmid flora 2. Rare and remarkable taxa from the regions of Sologne and Brenne. Cryptogamie, Algol. 19(1-2): 121- 148. (Green algae)

Launer, A. 1998. Conservation in suburbia. Fishes, frogs, and landuse issues at Stanford University. UPDATE 10(2): 6-7. (California)

Laurance, W., Ferreira, L., Rankin de Merona, J., Laurance, S., Hutchings, R. and Lovejoy, T. 1998. Effects of forest fragmentation on recruitment patterns in Amazonian tree communities. Conservation Biology 12(2): 460-464.

Leberg, P. 1998. Influence of complex sex determination on demographic stochasticity and population viability. Conservation Biology 12(2): 456-459.

Leidolf, A. and McDaniel, S. 1998. A floristic study of black prairie plant communities at Sixteen Section Prairie, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi. Castanea 63(1): 51-62.
(Includes 7 imperiled and 4 proposed imperiled plants)
Levy, J-P 1998. Caretakers of the sea. People & the Planet 7(2): 22-23. (Convention on the Law of the Sea protects the world's oceans)

Lipske, M. 1998. The egg man. Wildlife Conservation 101(3): 44-47. (U.S. American shad)

Maggs, G., Craven, P. and Kolberg, H. 1998. Plant species richness, endemism, and genetic resources in Namibia. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 435-446.

Mamontova, A. 1998. Where do all the flowers go? Russian Conservation News 15: 30-31. (Sale of spring plants)

Marzluff, J. and Sallabanks, R. (Eds). 1998. Avian Conservation: Research and Management. Island Press, Covelo, CA. 512 pp.

Master, L., Flack, S. and Stein, B. (Eds). 1998. Rivers of Life: Critical Watersheds for Protecting Freshwater Biodiversity. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 71 pp.

Mathew, B. 1998. 342. Crocus kerndorffiorum (Iridaceae). Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15(2): 120-124. (Rare endemic to Taurus Mountains, Turkey)

Maunder, M., Higgins, S. and Culham, A. 1998. Neither common nor garden. The garden as a refuge for threatened plant species. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15(2): 124-132.

Mayombo, J. and Mengue, R. 1998. Major new protected areas in Gabon. Arborvitae 8: 4.

McCartney, C. 1998. A rarity for the life list. Orchids 67(5): 506-514. (Small whorled pogonia in southeastern US)

McKay, B. and Mulvaney, K. 1998. Cleaning up the seas. People & the Planet 7(2): 14-16.

McRae, M. 1998. Survival test for Kenya's wildlife. Science 280(5363): 510-512.

Menner, A. 1998. Lazovski Zapovednik: a story of perseverance and promise. Russian Conservation News 15: 5- 8. (Park in Russian Maritime Province on the coast of the Sea of Japan)

Mitrofanov, I. 1998. Swimming in uncertain waters: fish introductions in Kazakhstan. Russian Conservation News 15: 25-27.

Mooney, N. 1998. Status and conservation of raptors in Australia's tropics. J. Raptor Research 32(1): 64-73.

Moraleva, N. 1998. Saving the Far Eastern leopard. Russian Conservation News 15: 21-23.

Mottram, R. 1998. Cleistocactus acanthurus. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15(2): 96-103. (Threatened in native habitat of central Peru)

Murphy, S. 1998. Protecting Africa's trees. Unasylva 49(192): 57-62. (Impact of pests on forestry and agroforestry)

Ogden, J. 1998. A sanctuary for life in Florida's seas. People & the Planet 7(2): 25. (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary)

Pastakia, M. 1998. Turtle tales. People & the Planet 7(2): 17. (Mediterranean Association to Save the Sea Turtles)

Pattison, G. and Cook, L. 1998. Introduction to the NCCPG: conservation in action. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15(2): 86-91.
(National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens, England)

Pennisi, E. 1998. Brazil wants cut of its biological bounty. Science 279: 1445. (Intellectual property rights)

Pernetta, J. 1998. Rising seas and changing currents. People & the Planet 7(2): 18-19. (Small island nations and deltas under threat)

Petrov, O. and Deulin, V. 1998. Dolphins in decline: marine conservation in the Black Sea. Russian Conservation News 15: 19-20.

Phillips, O. and Meilleur, B. 1998. Usefulness and economic potential of the rare plants of the United States: a statistical survey. Econ. Bot. 52(1): 57-67.

Ramesh, B. and Pascal, J.-P. 1997. Atlas of Endemics of the Western Ghats (India). Distribution of Tree Species in the Evergreen and Semi-evergreen Forests. Institut Francaise de Pondichery, Pondichery, India. 403 pp.

Revkin, A. 1998. Why care? While scientists grope for practical answers... New York Times (The Natural World) June 2: E6. (Benefits of biodiversity)

Richardson, A. 1998. Wildlife utilization and biodiversity conservation in Namibia: conflicting or complementary objectives? Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 549-560.

Ricketts, T. 1998. A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecosystems of North America: Volume 1. WWF-US, Washington, D.C.

Robertson, A., Jarvis, A., Brown, C. and Simmons, R. 1998. Avian diversity and endemism in Namibia: patterns from the Southern African Bird Atlas Project. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 495-512.

Rossman, A., Tulloss, R., O'Dell, T., and Thorn, R. 1998. All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Fungi in a Costa Rican Conservation Area. Parkway Publishers, Boone, North Carolina. 195 pp.

Safina, C. 1998. Renewing the world's fisheries. People & the Planet 7(2): 10-13.

Sakko, A. 1998. The influence of the Benguela upwelling system on Namibia's marine biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 419-434.

Schweithelm, J. 1998. The Fire This Time. An Overview of Indonesia's Forest Fires in 1997/98. World Wide Fund for Nature Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Simmons, R., Griffin, M., Griffin, R., Marais, E. and Kolberg, H. 1998. Endemism in Namibia: patterns, processes and predictions. Biodiversity and Conservation 7(4): 513-530.

Smirnova, O. 1998. The role of key species in preserving forest biodiversity. Russian Conservation News 15: 17-18.

Stebbins, G. 1998. San Francisco Bay Region excursions - Part 1. Fremontia 26(2): 9-17. (Home to rare & endemic plants)

Stevens, W. 1998. Lush life. But as species vanish, what will we lose? New York Times (The Natural World) June 2: E1, E10.

Suplee, C. 1998. Unlocking the climate puzzle. Nat. Geographic 193(5): 38-71.

Taylor, S. 1998. Searching for hope in the family tree. Nat. Wildlife 36(3): 36-41. (Imperiled honeycreepers, Hawaii)

Thiollay, J-M 1998. Current status and conservation of falconiformes in tropical Asia. J. Raptor Research 32(1): 40-55.

Thompson, J. and Hinchcliffe, F. 1998. Sustaining the harvest. People & the Planet 7(1): 10-11. (Sustainable programs and projects in 26 countries)

Toulmin, C. 1998. The drylands challenge: sustaining Africa's soil. People & the Planet 7(1): 20-21.

Toyne, P. 1998. The great escape. BBC Wildlife 16(5): 35-44. (Goshawk)

van Balen, S. 1998. Tropical forest raptors in Indonesia: recent information on distribution, status, and conservation. J. Raptor Research 32(1): 56-63.

Vanderplank, J. 1998. Passiflora cuneata "Miguel Molinari" (Passifloraceae). Curtis's Bot. Mag. 15(2): 109- 114. (Passiflora cuneata, threatened in Venezuela)

Virani, M. and Watson, R. 1998. Raptors in the East African tropics and Western Indian Ocean Islands: state of ecological knowledge and conservation status. J. Raptor Research 32(1): 28-39.

Watson, R. 1998. Preface: Conservation and ecology of raptors in the tropics. J. Raptor Research 32(1): 1-2.

Wells, S. 1998. A tide of change. People & the Planet 7(2): 24. (Efforts to manage the oceans)

Winter, S. 1998. The elusive quetzal. Nat. Geographic 193(6): 34-35. (Threatened species in Guatemala)

Yakovleva, O. and Mischenko, V. 1998. A glimpse at Russian environmental legislation. Russian Conservation News 15: 13-14.

Zhu, D., Degnan, S. and Moritz, C. 1998. Evolutionary dis- tinctiveness and status of the endangered Lake Eacham rainbowfish (Melanotaenia eachamensis). Conservation Biology 12(1): 80-93. (Queensland)

Zorrilla, C. 1998. Forest fragments at risk in Ecuador. Arborvitae 7: 2. (Cotachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve at risk by road construction and settlement)

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