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Department ofBotany

No. 181
January 2000

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In This Issue

The Return of the Biological Conservation Newsletter

After a 17-month hiatus, the Biological Conservation Newsletter makes a welcome return with a brand new look. For the past two decades, former editor Jane Villa-Lobos had done an amazing job with the newsletter bringing insight and information to the conservation community at large. After publishing 180 issues of the newsletter, Jane Villa-Lobos retired last year from the Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. We send her tremendous thanks for an amazing performance and wish her the best. Now in its 19th year, the Biological Conservation Newsletter has a new editor, Gary Krupnick. Coming from the Pennsylvania State University where he was a post-doctoral associate in plant ecology, Dr. Krupnick now heads the Plant Conservation Unit within the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Botany. Any comments or suggestions about the return of the newsletter are welcome.

BCN on the Web

Along with a new editor comes a new look for the Biological Conservation Newsletter. A web site for the newsletter is now up and running, with recent and archived issues available for browsing. In addition, links to other newsletters and journals in the fields of biodiversity and conservation biology are available. At this web site you can get information about subscribing to the newsletter and signing up for the BCN listserv which sends monthly notices to subscribers when new issues are posted to the web. Moreover, readers can search through the extensive bibliography, which includes over 8000 references to literature on conservation biology. These references have been obtained from a weekly review of the new journals and books received by the Smithsonian Institution's Botany and Natural History libraries and from suggestions submitted by subscribers to the newsletter. Point your web browser to

Job Opportunities

Postdocs in applied conservation and conservation planning are available through The Nature Conservancy. The deadline for proposals this year is February 15, 2000. The focus areas for the Smith Postdoctoral Fellows for the Year 2000 are conservation of freshwater biodiversity, biological invasions, and conservation planning. For more information about the Smith Fellows Program, as well as a copy of the proposal guidelines, see the Conservancy internet site, You can also receive a copy of the guidelines by sending an e-mail to or writing to the Smith Conservation Fellows Program, Conservation Science Division, The Nature Conservancy, 4245 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 100, Arlington, VA 22203-1606. If you have any questions, please contact Kathy Seaton at, or by phone at 919-967-5493 ext. 125.

Future Meetings

The Rattans of Africa: An International Meeting on the Conservation & Development of the Rattans of Africa will be held at the Limbe Botanic Garden in Cameroon on February 1-3, 2000. Rattans are climbing palms found in the lowland tropical forests of the Old World. Rattans have recently been identified by many government and bilateral development agencies as a high priority resource with the potential to contribute to the conservation of forests of West and Central Africa through sustainable development. This proposed development has been thwarted by the lack of even basic knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology and utilization of these species. This seminar will bring together the current experts concerned with rattan research and development in Africa. For further information, please contact: Terry Sunderland, African Rattan Research Programme, Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. Fax: +44 (0)181 332 5278; E-mail:

IUFRO World Congress: The International Union of Forestry Research Organisations (IUFRO), a renowned international body in forestry research, has entrusted Malaysia to host the prestigious XXI IUFRO World Congress to be held on August 7-12, 2000, at the Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur. This Congress will see the convergence of 3,000 foreign and local participants, making it the largest scientific congress on forestry to be held in Malaysia, the first developing country ever to host the Congress in the 100 years history of IUFRO. The theme of the Congress, "Forests and Society: The Role of Research" was chosen to reflect the increasing importance of research and development in sustainable forest management. A committee headed by Forest Research Institute Malaysia will organize the congress.

The Congress will cover pertinent issues such as Sustainable Management of Natural Resources, Forest and Society Needs, Changes in Environment and Society, Cultural Diversity in Forest Management and the Global Vision of Forest and Society. A one-day In-Congress tour within Klang Valley, related to forestry activities to highlight Malaysia's commitment towards achieving Sustainable Forest Management, will be conducted. For further information, please contact the Congress Secretariat at Tel: 03-6372135 / 630 2153; E-mail:; Web:

New Publications

UMDAUS Press announces a new book: Centres of Plant Endemism in Southern Africa: A Review with Emphasis on Succulents, by Abraham E. van Wyk and Gideon F. Smith. The extraordinary floristic diversity in southern Africa is not only one of the region's greatest natural assets, but also one of the botanical wonders of the world. Here, south of the Cunene-Zambezi Rivers, more than 10% of all vascular plants (over 30000 species), including more than 46% of all succulents, are found on about 2.5% of the world's land surface area. Moreover, at least 60% of these species are strictly confined (endemic) to the region.

Contents include a comprehensive overview of each Centre of Endemism, detailed color maps of all Centres, up-to-date lists and numerous examples of succulents and non-succulent species endemic to these Centres, discussion of the richness of the endemic flora, and a complete taxonomic index to all scientific plant names mentioned in the text. The book is available for $50 (plus $15 for shipping) from UMDAUS Press (PTY) Ltd., P.O. Box 11059, 0028 Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa; Tel: ++ 27-11 884-5588; Fax: ++ 27-11 884-5685; E-mail:

Call for Articles and Announcements

The editor encourages the submission of new articles related to conservation biology to be published in the Biological Conservation Newsletter. Announcements of job openings, future meetings, courses, new publications, and new web sites are also desired. News items and announcements should be submitted by the middle of the month by sending e-mail to, or by writing to the editor at: Gary Krupnick, Editor, Department of Botany, MRC-166, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20560-0166; (Tel: (202) 357-2027; Fax: (202) 786-2563). Each author should provide name, affiliation, postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address.

Current Literature

Adams, M.J. 1999. Correlated factors in amphibian decline: exotic species and habitat change in western Washington. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(4):1162-1171.

Alin, S.R., Cohen, A.S., Bills, R., Gashagaza, M.M., Michel, E., Tiercelin, J.J., Martens, K., Coveliers, P., Mboko, S.K., West, K., Soreghan, M., Kimbadi, S., and Ntakimazi, G. 1999. Effects of landscape disturbance on animal communities in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Conservation Biology 13(5):1017-1033.

Andersen, A. 1999. Cross-cultural conflicts in fire management in northern Australia: not so black and white. Conservation Ecology [Online] 3(1):6.

Anderson, D.J., and Vondracek, B. 1999. Insects as indicators of land use in three ecoregions in the prairie pothole region. Wetlands 19(3):648-664.

Arengo, F., and Baldassarre, G.A. 1999. Resource variability and conservation of American flamingos in coastal wetlands of Yucatan, Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(4):1201-1212.

Artyukhin, E., Barannikova, I.A., and Romanov, A.G. 1999. Russian strategies for conservation and reproduction of rare and common Caspian sturgeon species. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15(4-5):191-192.

Ås, S. 1999. Invasion of matrix species in small habitat patches. Conservation Ecology [Online] 3(1):1.

Austin, M.P. 1999. The potential contribution of vegetation ecology to biodiversity research. Ecography 22(5):465-484.

Bastin, L., and Thomas, C.D. 1999. The distribution of plant species in urban vegetation fragments. Landscape Ecology 14(5):493-507.

Beard, K.H., Hengartner, N., and Skelly, D.K. 1999. Effectiveness of predicting breeding bird distributions using probabilistic models. Conservation Biology 13(5):1108-1116.

Beenen, R. 1999. Possibilities for conservation and rehabilitation of populations of Chrysomelidae in a cultivated environment. Advances in Chrysomelidae Biology 1. pp 307-319.

Berger, J., Testa, J.W., Roffe, T., and Monfort, S.L. 1999. Conservation endocrinology: a noninvasive tool to understand relationships between carnivore colonization and ecological carrying capacity. Conservation Biology 13(5):980-989.

Berlow, E.L., Navarette, S.A., Briggs, C.J., Power, M.E., and Menge, B.A. 1999. Quantifying variation in the strengths of species interactions. Ecology 80(7):2206-2224.

Birstein, V.J., Doukakis, P., and Desalle, R. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of Acipenserinae and black caviar species identification. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15(4-5):12-16.

Bonnie, R. 1999. Endangered species mitigation banking: promoting recovery through habitat conservation planning under the Endangered Species Act. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):11-19.

Boyd, J., and Simpson, R.D. 1999. Economics and biodiversity conservation options: an argument for continued experimentation and measured expectations. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):91-105.

Brooker, L., Brooker, M., and Cale, P. 1999. Animal dispersal in fragmented habitat: measuring habitat connectivity, corridor use, and dispersal mortality. Conservation Ecology [Online] 3(1):4.

Brooks, T.M., Pimm, S.L., and Oyugi, J.O. 1999. Time lag between deforestation and bird extinction in tropical forest fragments. Conservation Biology 13(5):1140-1150.

Bury, R.B., and Pearl, C.A. 1999. Klamath-Siskiyou herpetofauna: biogeographic patterns and conservation strategies. Natural Areas Journal 19(4):341-350.

Cagigas, M.E., Vazquez, E., Blanco, G., and Sanchez, J.A. 1999. Genetic effects of introduced hatchery stocks on indigenous brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Spain. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 8(3):141-150.

Caicedo, A.L., Gaitan, E., Duque, M.C., Chica, O.T., Debouck, D.G., and Tohme, J. 1999. AFLP fingerprinting of Phaseolus lunatus L. and related wild species from South America. Crop Science 39(5):1497-1507.

Cardillo, M., Macdonald, D.W., and Rushton, S.P. 1999. Predicting mammal species richness and distributions: testing the effectiveness of satellite-derived land cover data. Landscape Ecology 14(5):423-435.

Cassells, A.C., Walsh, C., Belin, M., Cambornac, M., Robin, J.R., and Lubrano, C. 1999. Establishment of a plantation from micropropagated Arnica chamissonis a pharmaceutical substitute for the endangered A. montana. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 56(2):139-144.

Conrad, K.F., Willson, K.H., Harvey, I.F., Thomas, C.J., and Sherratt, T.N. 1999. Dispersal characteristics of seven odonate species in an agricultural landscape. Ecography 22(5):524-531.

Courchamp, F., Clutton-Brock, T., and Grenfell, B. 1999. Inverse density dependence and the Allee effect. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14(10):405-410.

Cowlishaw, G. 1999. Predicting the pattern of decline of African primate diversity: an extinction debt from historical deforestation. Conservation Biology 13(5):1183-1193.

Crnokrak, P., and Roff, D.A. 1999. Inbreeding depression in the wild. Heredity 83:260-270.

Dallas, J.F., Bacon, P.J., Carss, D.N., Conroy, J.W.H., Green, R., Jefferies, D.J., Kruuk, H., Marshall, F., Piertney, S.B., and Racey, P.A. 1999. Genetic diversity in the Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, in Scotland: evidence from microsatellite polymorphism. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68(1-2):73-86.

De Lange, P.J., and Cameron, E.K. 1999. The vascular flora of Aorangi Island, Poor Knights Islands, Northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37(3):433-468.

De Lange, P.J., Heenan, P.B., Clarkson, B.D., and Clarkson, B.R. 1999. Taxonomy, ecology, and conservation of Sporadanthus (Restionaceae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37(3):413-431.

De Oliveira, A.A., and Daly, D.C. 1999. Geographic distribution of tree species occurring in the region of Manaus, Brazil: implications for regional diversity and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 8(9):1245-1259.

Dellasala, D.A., Reid, S.B., Frest, T.J., Strittholt, J.R., and Olson, D.M. 1999. A global perspective on the biodiversity of the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion. Natural Areas Journal 19(4):300-319.

Diop, E.S., Soumare, A., and Diouf, P.S. 1999. A perspective on integrated management of a tropical coastal area: the case of the Saloum Biosphere Reserve (Senegal, West Africa). Coastal Management 27(4):317-328.

Duda, J.J., Krzysik, A.J., and Freilich, J.E. 1999. Effects of drought on desert tortoise movement and activity. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(4):1181-1192.

Duke, S., Anders, P., Ennis, G., Hallock, R., Hammond, J., Ireland, S., Laufle, J., Lauzier, R., Lockhard, L., Marotz, B., Paragamian, V.L., and Westerhof, R. 1999. Recovery plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15(4-5):157-163.

Dunham, J., Peacock, M., Tracy, C.R., Nielsen, J., and Vinyard, G. 1999. Assessing extinction risk: integrating genetic information. Conservation Ecology [Online] 3(1):2.

Echelle, A.F., Echelle, A.A., Williams, L.R., Toepfer, C.S., and Fisher, W.L. 1999. Allozyme perspective on genetic variation in a threatened percid fish, the leopard darter (Percina pantherina). American Midland Naturalist 142(2):393-400.

Edgar, G.J., and Barrett, N.S. 1999. Effects of the declaration of marine reserves on Tasmanian reef fishes, invertebrates and plants. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 242(1):107-144.

El Aich, A., and Waterhouse, A. 1999. Small ruminants in environmental conservation. Small Ruminant Research 34(3):271-287.

Emberton, K.C., and Pearce, T.A. 1999. Land caenogastropods of Mounts Mahermana, Ilapiry, and Vasiha, Southeastern Madagascar, with conservation statuses of 17 species of Boucardicus. Veliger 42(4):338-372.

Eriksson, L. 1999. Graduate conservation education. Conservation Biology 13(5):955.

Fellows, D.P., and Newton, W.E. 1999. Prescribed fire effects on biological control of leafy spurge. Journal of Range Management 52(5):489-493.

Fernandez, L. 1999. An analysis of economic incentives in wetlands policies addressing biodiversity. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):107-122.

Fiumera, A.C., Wu, L., Parker, P.G., and Fuerst, P.A. 1999. Effective population size in the captive breeding program of the Lake Victoria cichlid Paralabidochromis chilotes. Zoo Biology 18(3):215-222.

Flannery, M.C. 1999. The conservation aesthetic and the microscopic aesthetic. Bioscience 49(10):801-808.

Franceschinelli, E.V., and Yamamoto, K. 1999. Simaba docensis, a new Brazilian species of Simaroubaceae. Novon 9(3):345-348.

Frankel, E. 1999. A floristic survey of vascular plants of the Bronx River Parkway Reservation in Westchester, New York: compilation 1973-1998. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 126(4):359-366.

Gajaseni, J., and Gajaseni, N. 1999. Ecological rationalities of the traditional homegarden system in the Chao Phraya Basin, Thailand. Agroforestry Systems 46(1):3-23.

Garcia-Marin, J.L., Sanz, N., and Pla, C. 1999. Erosion of the native genetic resources of brown trout in Spain. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 8(3):151-158.

Gerber, L.R., and Demaster, D.P. 1999. A quantitative approach to Endangered Species Act classification of long-lived vertebrates: application to the North Pacific humpback whale. Conservation Biology 13(5):1203-1214.

Gerber, L.R., Demaster, D.P., and Kareiva, P.M. 1999. Gray whales and the value of monitoring data in implementing the US Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 13(5):1215-1219.

Gibbs, J.P., Snell, H.L., and Causton, C.E. 1999. Effective monitoring for adaptive wildlife management: lessons from the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(4):1055-1065.

Gido, K.B., and Brown, J.H. 1999. Invasion of North American drainages by alien fish species. Freshwater Biology 42(2):387-399.

Gillies, C.A., and Pierce, R.J. 1999. Secondary poisoning of mammalian predators during possum and rodent control operations at Trounson Kauri Park, Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23(2):183-192.

Glenn, T.C., Stephan, W., and Braun, M.J. 1999. Effects of a population bottleneck on whooping crane mitochondrial DNA variation. Conservation Biology 13(5):1097-1107.

Goerck, J.M. 1999. Distribution of birds along an elevational gradient in the Atlantic forest of Brazil: implications for the conservation of endemic and endangered species. Bird Conservation International 9(3):235-253.

Grady, J.M., and Quattro, J.M. 1999. Using character concordance to define taxonomic and conservation units. Conservation Biology 13(5):1004-1007.

Gram, W.K., and Sork, V.L. 1999. Population density as a predictor of genetic variation for woody plant species. Conservation Biology 13(5):1079-1087.

Grismer, L.L., Viets, B.E., and Boyle, L.J. 1999. Two new continental species of Goniurosaurus (Squamata : Eublepharidae) with a phylogeny and evolutionary classification of the genus. Journal of Herpetology 33(3):382-393.

Hansen, L.J., and Johnson, M.L. 1999. Conservation and toxicology: integrating the disciplines. Conservation Biology 13(5):1225-1227.

Heal, G. 1999. Markets and sustainability. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):75-89.

Hens, L., and Boon, E.K. 1999. Institutional, legal, and economic instruments in Ghana's environmental policy. Environmental Management 24(3):337-351.

Hertling, U.M., and Lubke, R.A. 1999. Use of Ammophila arenaria for dune stabilization in South Africa and its current distribution - perceptions and problems. Environmental Management 24(4):467-482.

Hewitt, G.M. 1999. Post-glacial re-colonization of European biota. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68(1-2):87-112.

Hof, J., Flather, C., Baltic, T., and Davies, S. 1999. Projections of forest and rangeland condition indicators for a national assessment. Environmental Management 24(3):383-398.

Huxel, G.R., and Hastings, A. 1999. Habitat loss, fragmentation, and restoration. Restoration Ecology 7(3):309-315.

Ingram, D.S. 1999. Biodiversity, plant pathogens and conservation. Plant Pathology 48(5):678.

Innes, J., and Barker, G. 1999. Ecological consequences of toxin use for mammalian pest control in New Zealand - an overview. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23(2):111-127.

Innes, R. 1999. Private property and the Endangered Species Act. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81(4):985-987.

Ivanov, V.P., Vlasenko, A.D., Khodorevskaya, R.P., and Raspopov, V.M. 1999. Contemporary status of Caspian sturgeon (Acipenseridae) stock and its conservation. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15(4-5):103-105.

Ives, A.R., Gross, K., and Klug, J.L. 1999. Stability and variability in competitive communities. Science 286(5439):542-544.

James, F.C. 1999. Lessons learned from a study of habitat conservation planning. Bioscience 49(11):871-874.

Jaramillo-Legorreta, A.M., Rojas-Bracho, L., and Gerrodette, T. 1999. A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery. Marine Mammal Science 15(4):957-973.

Jensen, J.E., Cooper, S.R., and Richardson, C.J. 1999. Calibration of modern pollen along a nutrient gradient in everglades Water Conservation Area-2A. Wetlands 19(3):675-688.

Jules, E.S., Frost, E.J., Mills, L.S., and Tallmon, D.A. 1999. Ecological consequences of forest fragmentation in the Klamath region. Natural Areas Journal 19(4):368-378.

Karl, S.A., and Bowen, B.W. 1999. Evolutionary significant units versus geopolitical taxonomy: molecular systematics of an endangered sea turtle (genus Chelonia). Conservation Biology 13(5):990-999.

Kaye, T.N. 1999. From flowering to dispersal: reproductive ecology of an endemic plant, Astragalus australis var. olympicus (Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany 86(9):1248-1256.

Khodorevskaya, R.P., and Krasikov, Y.V. 1999. Sturgeon abundance and distribution in the Caspian Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15(4-5):106-113.

Kingston, D.G.I., Abdel-Kader, M., Zhou, B.N., Yang, S.W., Berger, J.M., Van Der Werff, H., Evans, R., Mittermeier, R., Malone, S., Famolare, L., Guerin-Mcmanus, M., Wisse, J.H., and Miller, J.S. 2000. Biodiversity conservation, economic development, and drug discovery in Suriname. Biologically Active Natural Products: Pharmaceuticals. pp 39-59.

Kluse, J., and Doak, D.F. 1999. Demographic performance of a rare California endemic, Chorizanthe pungens var. hartwegiana (Polygonaceae). American Midland Naturalist 142(2):244-256.

Knops, J.M.H., Tilman, D., Haddad, N.M., Naeem, S., Mitchell, C.E., Haarstad, J., Ritchie, M.E., Howe, K.M., Reich, P.B., Siemann, E., and Groth, J. 1999. Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances and diversity. Ecology Letters 2(5):286-293.

Koo, B., and Wright, B.D. 1999. The role of biodiversity products as incentives for conserving biological diversity: some instructive examples. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):21-30.

Kremen, C., Razafimahatratra, V., Guillery, R.P., Rakotomalala, J., Weiss, A., and Ratsisompatrarivo, J.S. 1999. Designing the Masoala National Park in Madagascar based on biological and socioeconomic data. Conservation Biology 13(5):1055-1068.

Laakso, J., and Setala, H. 1999. Sensitivity of primary production to changes in the architecture of belowground food webs. Oikos 87(1):57-64.

Lammi, A., Siikamaki, P., and Mustajarvi, K. 1999. Genetic diversity, population size, and fitness in central and peripheral populations of a rare plant Lychnis viscaria. Conservation Biology 13(5):1069-1078.

Laquerbe, M. 1999. Understory plant communities of cultivated polar groves: relationship between phytomass, species richness and disturbance. Annals of Forest Science 56(7):607-614.

Lebbie, S.H.B., and Ramsay, K. 1999. A perspective on conservation and management of small ruminant genetic resources in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Small Ruminant Research 34(3):231-247.

Leemans, R. 1999. Modelling for species and habitats: new opportunities for problem solving. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):51-73.

Leibowitz, S.G., and Hyman, J.B. 1999. Use of scale invariance in evaluating judgement indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 58(3):283-303.

Lepsch-Cunha, N., Kageyama, P.Y., and Vencovsky, R. 1999. Genetic diversity of Couratari multiflora and Couratari guianensis (Lecythidaceae): consequences of two types of rarity in central Amazonia. Biodiversity and Conservation 8(9):1205-1218.

Levine, J.M., and D'antonio, C.M. 1999. Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility. Oikos 87(1):15-26.

Lewis, J.C., Sallee, K.L., and Golightly, R.T. 1999. Introduction and range expansion of nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in California. American Midland Naturalist 142(2):372-381.

List, R., Ceballos, G., and Pacheco, J. 1999. Status of the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) in Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 44(3):400-404.

Lloyd, P. 1999. The science and policy behind managing sandgrouse for sustainable utilisation in southern Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 29(2):35-42.

Loo, A.H.B., Tan, H.T.W., Kumar, P.P., and Saw, L.G. 1999. Population analysis of Licuala glabra Griff. var. glabra (Palmae) using RAPD profiling. Annals of Botany 84(4):421-427.

Lovette, I.J., Bermingham, E., and Ricklefs, R.E. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and the conservation of endangered Lesser Antillean Icterus orioles. Conservation Biology 13(5):1088-1096.

Lugo, A.E. 1999. Will concern for biodiversity spell doom to tropical forest management? Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):123-131.

Luk'yanenko, V.I., Vasil'ev, A.S., Luk'yanenko, V.V., and Khabarov, M.V. 1999. On the increasing threat of extermination of the unique Caspian sturgeon populations and the urgent measures required to save them. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15(4-5):99-102.

Mckinney, M.L., and Lockwood, J.L. 1999. Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14(11):450-453.

Meffe, G.K. 1999. Conservation medicine. Conservation Biology 13(5):953-954.

Moller, H., and Alterio, N. 1999. Home range and spatial organisation of stoats (Mustela erminea), ferrets (Mustela furo) and feral house cats (Felis catus) on coastal grasslands, Otago Peninsula, New Zealand: implications for yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) conservation. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 26(3):165-174.

Molloy, B.P.J., De Lange, P.J., and Clarkson, B.D. 1999. Coprosma pedicellata (Rubiaceae), a new species from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37(3):383-397.

Mouillot, D., and Lepretre, A. 1999. A comparison of species diversity estimators. Researches on Population Ecology 41(2):203-215.

Mountford, H., and Keppler, J.H. 1999. Financing incentives for the protection of biodiversity. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):133-144.

Naeem, S. 1999. Ecology - power behind diversity's throne. Nature 401(6754):653-654.

Ne'eman, G., and Dafni, A. 1999. Fire, bees, and seed production in a Mediterranean key species Salvia fruticosa Miller (Lamiaceae). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 47(3):157-163.

Nekola, J.C. 1999. Terrestrial gastropod richness of carbonate cliff and associated habitats in the Great Lakes region of North America. Malacologia 41(1):231-252.

Nekola, J.C., and Smith, T.M. 1999. Terrestrial gastropod richness patterns in Wisconsin carbonate cliff communities. Malacologia 41(1):253-269.

Nielsen, J.L., and Fountain, M.C. 1999. Microsatellite diversity in sympatric reproductive ecotypes of Pacific steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Middle Fork Eel River, California. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 8(3):159-168.

Noss, R.F., Strittholt, J.R., Vance-Borland, K., Carroll, C., and Frost, P. 1999. A conservation plan for the Klamat-Siskiyou ecoregion. Natural Areas Journal 19(4):392-411.

Nyoka, S.E., and Ferguson, C. 1999. Pollinators of Darlingtonia californica Torr., the California pitcher plant. Natural Areas Journal 19(4):386-391.

Palevitz, B.A. 1999. Stirring the gene pool - will data on trees lead to forest of understanding? Scientist 13(19):88.

Palevitz, B.A., and Lewis, R. 1999. A conversation with Peter Raven. Scientist 13(18):1.

Palmer, C., and Woinarski, J.C.Z. 1999. Seasonal roosts and foraging movements of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) in the Northern Territory: resource tracking in a landscape mosaic. Wildlife Research 26(6):823-838.

Parris, K.M., and Mccarthy, M.A. 1999. What influences the structure of frog assemblages at forest streams? Australian Journal of Ecology 24(5):495-502.

Patty, S.S., Roth, N., and Mountain, D. 1999. Maryland, the power plant research program, and the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):171-188.

Pfab, M.F., and Witkowski, E.T.F. 1999. Fire survival of the critically endangered succulent, Euphorbia clivicola R.A. Dyer - fire-avoider or fire-tolerant? African Journal of Ecology 37(3):249-257.

Pik, A.J., Oliver, I., and Beattie, A.J. 1999. Taxonomic sufficiency in ecological studies of terrestrial invertebrates. Australian Journal of Ecology 24(5):555-562.

Pinder, J.E., Rea, T.E., and Funsch, D.E. 1999. Deforestation, reforestation and forest fragmentation on the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina and Georgia. American Midland Naturalist 142(2):213-228.

Powlesland, R.G., Knegtmans, J.W., and Marshall, I.S.J. 1999. Costs and benefits of aerial 1080 possum control operations using carrot baits to North Island robins (Petroica australis longipes), Pureora Forest Park. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23(2):149-159.

Rachlow, J.L., Kie, J.G., and Berger, J. 1999. Territoriality and spatial patterns of white rhinoceros in Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 37(3):295-304.

Ray, J.C., and Ginsberg, J.R. 1999. Endangered species legislation beyond the borders of the United States. Conservation Biology 13(5):956-958.

Reay, S.D., and Norton, D.A. 1999. Assessing the success of restoration plantings in a temperate New Zealand forest. Restoration Ecology 7(3):298-308.

Rejmankova, E., Rejmanek, M., Djohan, T., and Goldman, C.R. 1999. Resistance and resilience of subalpine wetlands with respect to prolonged drought. Folia Geobotanica 34(2):175-188.

Renjifo, L.M. 1999. Composition changes in a subandean avifauna after long-term forest fragmentation. Conservation Biology 13(5):1124-1139.

Rey Benayas, J.M., Scheiner, S.M., García Sánchez-Colomer, M., and Levassor, C. 1999. Commonness and rarity: theory and application of a new model to Mediterranean montane grasslands. Conservation Ecology [Online] 3(1):5.

Ricciardi, A., and Rasmussen, J.B. 1999. Extinction rates of North American freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology 13(5):1220-1222.

Richardson, B.J., Azarbayjani, F.F., Burgin, S., and Richardson, S. 1999. Arboreal arthropod biodiversity in woodlands: effect of collection procedures and geographic distance on estimates of diversity found on two species of Melaleuca. Australian Journal of Ecology 24(5):544-554.

Riggert, C.M., Distefano, R.J., and Noltie, D.B. 1999. Distributions and selected aspects of the life histories and habitat associations of the crayfishes Orconectes peruncus (Creaser, 1931) and O. quadruncus (Creaser, 1933) in Missouri. American Midland Naturalist 142(2):348-362.

Robinet, O., and Salas, M. 1999. Reproductive biology of the endangered Ouvea parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis. Ibis 141(4):660-669.

Robinson, G., and Zappieri, J. 1999. Conservation policy in time and space: lessons from divergent approaches to salvage logging on public lands. Conservation Ecology [Online] 3(1):3.

Rohner, C., and Ward, D. 1999. Large mammalian herbivores and the conservation of arid Acacia stands in the Middle East. Conservation Biology 13(5):1162-1171.

Rojas-Bracho, L., and Taylor, B.L. 1999. Risk factors affecting the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Marine Mammal Science 15(4):974-989.

Rosel, P.E., and Rojas-Bracho, L. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the critically endangered vaquita Phocoena sinus Norris and Macfarland, 1958. Marine Mammal Science 15(4):990-1003.

Rout, G.R., Saxena, C., Samantaray, S., and Das, P. 1999. Rapid plant regeneration from callus cultures of Plumbago zeylanica. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 56(1):47-51.

Sankaran, M., and Mcnaughton, S.J. 1999. Determinants of biodiversity regulate compositional stability of communities. Nature 401(6754):691-693.

Sastry, M.S.R., and Johri, B.N. 1999. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity of stressed soils of bailadila iron ore sites in Bastar region of Madhya Pradesh. Current Science 77(8):1095-1100.

Scott, J.M., Murray, D., and Griffith, B. 1999. Lynx reintroduction. Science 286(5437):49-+.

Scudder, G.G.E. 1999. Endangered species protection in Canada. Conservation Biology 13(5):963-965.

Shrader-Frechette, K., and Mccoy, E.D. 1999. Molecular systematics, ethics, and biological decision making under uncertainty. Conservation Biology 13(5):1008-1012.

Shutes, R.B.E., Revitt, D.M., Lagerberg, I.M., and Barraud, V.C.E. 1999. The design of vegetative constructed wetlands for the treatment of highway runoff. Science of the Total Environment 235(1-3):189-197.

Simons, L.H., and Van Pelt, W.E. 1999. Occurrence of Sorex arizonae and other shrews (Insectivora) in southern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 44(3):334-342.

Skiba, Y.N. 1999. Direct and adjoint oil spill estimates. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 59(1):95-109.

Small, A.A. 1999. The economics and ecology of biodiversity decline: the forces driving global change. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81(4):987-989.

Smallwood, K.S., Beyea, J., and Morrison, M.L. 1999. Using the best scientific data for endangered species conservation. Environmental Management 24(4):421-435.

Smith, W.P. 1999. Relations of small mammal populations to even-aged shelterwood systems: a comment. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(4):1376-1380.

Soule, M.E., and Terborgh, J. 1999. Conserving nature at regional and continental scales - a scientific program for North America. Bioscience 49(10):809-817.

South, A. 1999. Dispersal in spatially explicit population models. Conservation Biology 13(5):1039-1046.

Spruell, P., Rieman, B.E., Knudsen, K.L., Utter, F.M., and Allendorf, F.W. 1999. Genetic population structure within streams: microsatellite analysis of bull trout populations. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 8(3):114-121.

Stephens, P.A., and Sutherland, W.J. 1999. Consequences of the Allee effect for behaviour, ecology and conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14(10):401-405.

Stephens, P.A., Sutherland, W.J., and Freckleton, R.P. 1999. What is the allee effect? Oikos 87(1):185-190.

Stocklin, J., and Fischer, M. 1999. Plants with longer-lived seeds have lower local extinction rates in grassland remnants 1950-1985. Oecologia 120(4):539-543.

Stone, L., Huppert, A., Rajagopalan, B., Bhasin, H., and Loya, Y. 1999. Mass coral reef bleaching: a recent outcome of increased El Nino activity? Ecology Letters 2(5):325-330.

Strayer, D.L., and Fetterman, A.R. 1999. Changes in the distribution of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Upper Susquehanna River basin, 1955-1965 to 1996-1997. American Midland Naturalist 142(2):328-339.

Taberlet, P., and Luikart, G. 1999. Non-invasive genetic sampling and individual identification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68(1-2):41-55.

Taylor, B.L., and Rojas-Bracho, L. 1999. Examining the risk of inbreeding depression in a naturally rare cetacean, the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Marine Mammal Science 15(4):1004-1028.

Taylor, D., Saksena, P., Sanderson, P.G., and Kucera, K. 1999. Environmental change and rain forests on the Sunda shelf of Southeast Asia: drought, fire and the biological cooling of biodiversity hotspots. Biodiversity and Conservation 8(9):1159-1177.

Terstad, J. 1999. Swedish experiences of incentives for the protection of nature. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):189-196.

Vander Lee, B.A., Lutz, R.S., Hansen, L.A., and Mathews, N.E. 1999. Effects of supplemental prey, vegetation, and time on success of artificial nests. Journal of Wildlife Management 63(4):1299-1305.

Vencovsky, R., and Crossa, J. 1999. Variance effective population size under mixed self and random mating with applications to genetic conservation of species. Crop Science 39(5):1282-1294.

Vickerman, S. 1999. A state model for implementing stewardship incentives to conserve biodiversity and endangered species. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):41-50.

Vucetich, J.A., and Creel, S. 1999. Ecological interactions, social organization, and extinction risk in African wild dogs. Conservation Biology 13(5):1172-1182.

Walsh, M.J. 1999. Maximizing financial support for biodiversity in the emerging Kyoto Protocol markets. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):145-156.

Walsh, P.D., and White, L.J.T. 1999. What it will take to monitor forest elephant populations. Conservation Biology 13(5):1194-1202.

Wardle, D.A. 1999. How soil food webs make giants grow. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14(11):418-420.

Webb, E.L., and Fa'aumu, S. 1999. Diversity and structure of tropical rain forest of Tutuila, American Samoa: effects of site age and substrate. Plant Ecology 144(2):257-274.

Weinstein, M.P., and Balletto, J.H. 1999. Does the common reed, Phragmites australis, affect essential fish habitat? Estuaries 22(3B):793-802.

Wheeler, A.G. 1999. Oncozygia clavicornis Stal and Allopodops mississippiensis Harris and Johnston: association of rarely collected nearctic turtle bugs (Heteroptera : Pentatomidae : Podopinae) with an introduced African grass. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101(4):714-721.

Whigham, D.F. 1999. Ecological issues related to wetland preservation, restoration, creation and assessment. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):31-40.

Whiteman, G. 1999. Sustainability for the planet: a marketing perspective. Conservation Ecology [Online] 3(1):13.

Williams, J.R. 1999. Addressing global warming and biodiversity through forest restoration and coastal wetlands creation. Science of the Total Environment 240(1-3):1-9.

Willis, J.H. 1999. The contribution of male-sterility mutations to inbreeding depression in Mimulus guttatus. Heredity 83:337-346.

Withgott, J. 1999. Pollination migrates to top of conservation agenda - a collaborative effort on migratory pollinators aims to increase research, education, and conservation efforts. Bioscience 49(11):857-862.

Woinarski, J.C.Z., and Fisher, A. 1999. The Australian Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. Conservation Biology 13(5):959-962.

Wong, K.C., and Sun, M. 1999. Reproductive biology and conservation genetics of Goodyera procera (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 86(10):1406-1413.

Young, K.A. 1999. Managing the decline of Pacific salmon: metapopulation theory and artificial recolonization as ecological mitigation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56(9):1700-1706.

Zollner, P.A., and Lima, S.L. 1999. Illumination and the perception of remote habitat patches by white-footed mice. Animal Behaviour 58:489-500.

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