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Department ofBotany

No. 182
February 2000

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In This Issue

Hawaiian Plants at Risk

Hawaii has more endangered and threatened plants than any other state in the United States (263/699 taxa or 38% U.S. listed vascular plants). Because of the magnitude of the conservation problems in the Hawaiian Islands, it is vital that biologists, conservationists, and land managers have the most up-to-date information possible. Warren Wagner (Smithsonian Institution), Marie Bruegmann (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), Derral Herbst (Hawaii Biological Survey), and Joel Lau (The Nature Conservancy) have recently published Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999, in Bishop Museum Occasional Papers (Number 60). It is derived from a database maintained in the Pacific Island program in the Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution. Since the original 1990 assessment, many individuals and organizations have focused much attention on evaluating Hawaiian ecosystems and the species that comprise them. Basic research on the flora has been conducted as well as considerable effort expended to survey, conserve, and manage the dwindling and degrading natural habitat throughout the state.

This comprehensive list of vascular plants includes 904 of 1342 native taxa that are currently recognized with an at risk or of concern rating. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (US), and the Hawaii Natural Heritage Program of The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (HINHP) provided data sets that were combined into the database at the Smithsonian Institution (SI). Additionally, the status ratings for Hawaiian taxa included in a recent global review, the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants, were incorporated into the database. This compilation thus provides a side by side comparison of the conservation status rankings of rare and endangered Hawaiian plant species as assessed by SI, US, HINHP, and IUCN.

For information on obtaining reprints of "Hawaiian Vascular Plants at Risk: 1999" contact: Dr. Warren Wagner, Department of Botany, MRC 166, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20560-0166; E-mail:

Clinton Declares New National Monuments

On January 11, 2000, the 92nd anniversary of the Grand Canyon, President Clinton created three and expanded a fourth National Monument in Arizona and California. The threats to wilderness and open spaces all over the country have increased significantly in the past several years. Pollution, development, sprawl, off-road vehicles, loss of natural sound, logging, overgrazing, and mining have contributed to the degradation of too many of the nation's wild places. The new National Monuments are:

  • The Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in Arizona: More than a million acres of desert land are now protected northwest of the Grand Canyon.
  • The Agua Fria National Monument in Arizona: Hundreds of archeological sites are found within these 71,000 acres north of Phoenix, AZ.
  • The California Coastal National Monument: Thousands of small, uninhabited islands and rock outcroppings provide a unique habitat for aquatic wildlife.
  • The Pinnacles National Monument in California: Named a national monument by Theodore Roosevelt in 1908, an additional 10,000 acres were added to this National Monument located south of San Jose, CA.


Biodiversity and Environmental Leadership: The director and staff of the Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program (SI/MAB) are pleased to announce the international biodiversity conservation curriculum for 2000. The two complementary courses that form this year's curriculum offer a complete and essential program for conservation biologists, ecologists, resource managers and environmental leaders. The Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring for Adaptive Management course (May 14 - June 16) guides you through the process of designing and implementing local and regional biodiversity monitoring programs. The Environmental Leadership course (September 10 - 22) emphasizes communication skills to facilitate your interaction with managers, decision-makers and resource personnel. These courses will take place at the Smithsonians Conservation & Research Center (CRC), nestled in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia, 60 miles west of Washington DC.

Investment: $4,000 covers your tuition, lodging, meals, local transportation, and course materials. Airfare to and from Washington DC are not included. For more information, go to or contact: Christopher Ros, SI/MAB Program, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, 10th and Constitution Ave NW, Washington DC 20560-0180. Tel: (202) 786-3116; Fax: 202-633-8918; E-mail:

Field Biology Courses: The Mountain Lake Biological Station (University of Virginia) announces intensive university credit courses in field biology, and paid research opportunities for undergraduates for the Summer 2000 term. The station offers students hands-on experience and training in a wide variety of biological field studies. Courses are 4 weeks and enrollment is limited to 15. The summer courses for 2000 include Field Methods in Ornithology, Freshwater Fishes of the Southeast U.S., Disease in Natural Pops of Animals, Ecological Communities of Virginia, and Field Botany of the South Appalachians. The Mountain Lake Biological Station also offers an NSF-funded REU program that matches qualified undergraduate students with visiting scientists for 10 weeks of advanced, independent research on a project of the student's own design. REU positions come with a stipend of $2,500, room and board. Deadline for receipt of applications is March 1.

The station is located on a remote mountaintop in southwestern Virginia and is home to a lively research, teaching and social community. For details on these programs, full course descriptions, application material, and a list of research areas see the web page, or contact Mountain Lake Biological Station, 238 Gilmer Hall, PO Box 400327, University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22903-4327; E-mail:; Tel: (804) 982-5486; Fax: (804) 982-5626.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

A new web site by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) aims to make information about the living world more accessible. It includes an innovative mapping tool developed by WCMC that will allow visitors to create their own maps using environmental data. The new web site provides an online catalogue of conservation sources and new publications, opportunities for online data contributions, a search engine to improve access to WCMC entire site of 12,500 pages and a demonstration of its new interactive mapping technology. The address for the web site is

New Publications

Princeton University Press announces a new book Genetics and the Extinction of Species, edited by Laura F. Landweber and Andrew P. Dobson. In this collection, a team of leading biologists demonstrates why the burgeoning field of conservation biology must rely on the insights of population genetics if we are to preserve the diversity of living species. Technological and theoretical developments throughout the 1990s have allowed for important new insights into how populations have evolved in response to past selection pressures, while providing a broad new understanding of the genetic structure of natural populations. The volume covers such topics as the reasons for extinctions, the best ways to measure biodiversity, and the benefits and drawbacks of policies like captive breeding. Genetics and the Extinction of Species is a rich source of information for biologists and policymakers who want to learn more about the tools, theories, and approaches available for conserving biodiversity. It can be purchased for $19.95 (paper) or $45.00 (cloth) plus postage from Princeton University Press, c/o California/Princeton Fulfillment Services, Inc., 1445 Lower Ferry Rd., Ewing NJ 08618; Tel: 1-800-777-4726; Fax: 1-800-999-1958; E-mail:; or visit

Current Literature

Ayyappan, N., and Parthasarathy, N. 1999. Biodiversity inventory of trees in a large-scale permanent plot of tropical evergreen forest at Varagalaiar, Anamalais, Western Ghats, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(11):1533-1554.

Baker, M.L., and Gemmell, R.T. 1999. Reproductive capability of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) transferred from the wilds of Brisbane, Adelaide, and Armidale into captivity in Brisbane. J. Exp. Zool. 284(7):783-788.

Bartsch, D., Lehnen, M., Clegg, J., Pohl-Orf, M., Schuphan, I., and Ellstrand, N.C. 1999. Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations. Mol. Ecol. 8(10):1733-1741.

Beattie, A.J., and Oliver, I. 1999. Biodiversity buzzwords: another reply to Goldstein. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1514.

Belovsky, G.E., Mellison, C., Larson, C., and Van Zandt, P.A. 1999. Experimental studies of extinction dynamics. Science 286(5442):1175-1177.

Benitez-Malvido, J., Garcia-Guzman, G., and Kossmann-Ferraz, I.D. 1999. Leaf-fungal incidence and herbivory on tree seedlings in tropical rainforest fragments: an experimental study. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):143-150.

Bevill, R.L., Louda, S.M., and Stanforth, L.M. 1999. Protection from natural enemies in managing rare plant species. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1323-1331.

Bierzychudek, P. 1999. Looking backwards: assessing the projections of a transition matrix model. Ecol. Appl. 9(4):1278-1287.

Blockstein, D.E. 1999. Representative biological reserves. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1239.

Bodkin, J.L., Ballachey, B.E., Cronin, M.A., and Scribner, K.T. 1999. Population demographics and genetic diversity in remnant and translocated populations of sea otters. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1378-1385.

Boersma, P.D., and Parrish, J.K. 1999. Limiting abuse: marine protected areas, a limited solution. Ecol. Econom. 31(2):287-304.

Bruelheide, H., and Flintrop, T. 2000. Evaluating the transplantation of a meadow in the Harz Mountains, Germany. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):109-120.

Bruna, E.M. 1999. Biodiversity - seed germination in rainforest fragments. Nature 402(6758):139.

Bryant, E.H., Vackus, V.L., Clark, M.E., and Reed, D.H. 1999. Experimental tests of captive breeding for endangered species. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1487-1496.

Burke, V.J. 2000. Landscape ecology and species conservation. Landscape Ecol. 15(1):1-3.

Cambecedes, J., Potts, B.M., and Vaillancourt, R.E. 1999. Morphological and genetic variation in Centrolepis paludicola and C. monogyna (Centrolepidaceae). Aust. Syst. Bot. 12(5):679-688.

Carpenter, S., Brock, W., and Hanson, P. 1999. Ecological and social dynamics in simple models of ecosystem management. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):4. <>

Carroll, C., Zielinski, W.J., and Noss, R.F. 1999. Using presence-absence data to build and test spatial habitat models for the fisher in the Klamath Region, USA. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1344-1359.

Carter, J., Ackleh, A.S., Leonard, B.P., and Wang, H.B. 1999. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (Subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous. Ecol. Model. 123(2-3):207-223.

Carvalho, K.S., and Vasconcelos, H.L. 1999. Forest fragmentation in central Amazonia and its effects on litter-dwelling ants. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):151-157.

Chambers, F.M., Mauquoy, D., and Todd, P.A. 1999. Recent rise to dominance of Molinia caerulea in environmentally sensitive areas: new perspectives from palaeoecological data. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(5):719-733.

Chapman, C.A., and Chapman, L.J. 1999. Forest restoration in abandoned agricultural land: a case study from east Africa. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1301-1311.

Chapman, M.G. 1999. Are there adequate data to assess how well theories of rarity apply to marine invertebrates? Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1295-1318.

Chazdon, R.L., and Coe, F.G. 1999. Ethnobotany of woody species in second-growth, old-growth, and selectively logged forests of northeastern Costa Rica. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1312-1322.

Clark, F.S., and Slusher, R.B. 2000. Using spatial analysis to drive reserve design: a case study of a National Wildlife Refuge in Indiana and Illinois (USA). Landscape Ecol. 15(1):75-84.

Coates, D.J., and Hamley, V.L. 1999. Genetic divergence and the mating system in the endangered and geographically restricted species, Lambertia orbifolia Gardner (Proteaceae). Heredity 83:418-427.

Cosson, J.F., Ringuet, S., Claessens, O., De Massary, J.C., Dalecky, A., Villiers, J.F., Granjon, L., and Pons, J.M. 1999. Ecological changes in recent land-bridge islands in French Guiana, with emphasis on vertebrate communities. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):213-222.

Crist, P.J., Kohley, T.W., and Oakleaf, J. 2000. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool. Landscape Ecol. 15(1):47-62.

Daily, G.C. 1999. Developing a scientific basis for managing Earth's life support systems. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):14. <>

Dane, F., Hawkins, L.K., and Huang, H.W. 1999. Genetic variation and population structure of Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124(6):666-670.

Davison, A.D., Yeates, C., Gillings, M.R., and De Brabandere, J. 1999. Microorganisms, Australia and the convention on biological diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1399-1415.

Dayanandan, S., Dole, J., Bawa, K., and Kesseli, R. 1999. Population structure delineated with microsatellite markers in fragmented populations of a tropical tree, Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae). Mol. Ecol. 8(10):1585-1592.

De Lima, M.G., and Gascon, C. 1999. The conservation value of linear forest remnants in central Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):241-247.

Devries, P.J., Walla, T.R., and Greeney, H.F. 1999. Species diversity in spatial and temporal dimensions of fruit-feeding butterflies from two Ecuadorian rainforests. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 68(3):333-353.

Dieringer, G. 1999. Reproductive biology of Agalinis skinneriana (Scrophulariaceae), a threatened species. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126(4):289-295.

Dixon, R.K., Smith, J.B., Brown, S., Masera, O., Mata, L.J., and Buksha, I. 1999. Simulations of forest system response and feedbacks to global change: experiences and results from the US Country Studies Program. Ecol. Model. 122(3):289-305.

Dolan, R.W., Yahr, R., Menges, E.S., and Halfhill, M.D. 1999. Conservation implications of genetic variation in three rare species endemic to Florida rosemary scrub. Am. J. Bot. 86(11):1556-1562.

Drake, B.M., Goto, R.M., Miller, M.M., Gee, G.F., and Briles, W.E. 1999. Molecular and immunogenetic analysis of major histocompatibility haplotypes in northern bobwhite enable direct identification of corresponding haplotypes in an endangered subspecies, the masked bobwhite. Zoo Biol. 18(4):279-294.

Duffy, D.C., Boggs, K., Hagenstein, R.H., Lipkin, R., and Michaelson, J.A. 1999. Landscape assessment of the degree of protection of Alaska's terrestrial biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1332-1343.

Dunn, E.H., Hussell, D.J.T., and Welsh, D.A. 1999. Priority-setting tool applied to Canada's landbirds based on concern and responsibility for species. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1404-1415.

Dunning, J.B. 1999. The need for producing ecologically literate college students. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1239-1240.

Edinger, E.N., and Risk, M.J. 2000. Reef classification by coral morphology predicts coral reef conservation value. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):1-13.

Ellis, N.E., Heal, O.W., Dent, J.B., and Firbank, L.G. 1999. Pluriactivity, farm household socio-economics and the botanical characteristics of grass fields in the Grampian region of Scotland. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 76(2-3):121-134.

Fagan, W.F. 1999. Weak influences of initial conditions on metapopulation persistence times. Ecol. Appl. 9(4):1430-1438.

Ferreras-Romero, M. 1999. Biodiversity of Rheophilous odonata in southern Spain. Odonatologica 28(4):417-420.

Ferris, R., and Humphrey, J.W. 1999. A review of potential biodiversity indicators for application in British forests. Forestry 72(4):313-328.

Firestone, K.B., Elphinstone, M.S., Sherwin, W.B., and Houlden, B.A. 1999. Phylogeographical population structure of tiger quolls Dasyurus maculatus (Dasyuridae : Marsupialia), an endangered carnivorous marsupial. Mol. Ecol. 8(10):1613-1625.

Fleury, M. and Poncy, O. JATBA: Revue D'Ethnobiologie. Conserver, Gérer La Biodiversité: Quelle Stratégie Pour La Guyane? Paris, France: Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle. Vol. XL, 1998.

Forcada, J., Hammond, P.S., and Aguilar, A. 1999. Status of the Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus in the western Sahara and the implications of a mass mortality event. Mar. Ecol. -Progress Series 188:249-261.

Fortin, M.J., Payette, S., and Marineau, K. 1999. Spatial vegetation diversity index along a postfire successional gradient in the northern boreal forest. Ecoscience 6(2):204-213.

Funk, W.C., Tallmon, D.A., and Allendorf, F.W. 1999. Small effective population size in the long-toed salamander. Mol. Ecol. 8(10):1633-1640.

Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T.E., Bierregaard, R.O., Malcolm, J.R., Stouffer, P.C., Vasconcelos, H.L., Laurance, W.F., Zimmerman, B., Tocher, M., and Borges, S. 1999. Matrix habitat and species richness in tropical forest remnants. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):223-229.

Gauquelin, T., Bertaudiere, V., Montes, N., Badri, W., and Asmode, J.F. 1999. Endangered stands of thuriferous juniper in the western Mediterranean basin: ecological status, conservation and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(11):1479-1498.

Godfray, H.C.J., Lewis, O.T., and Memmott, J. 1999. Studying insect diversity in the tropics. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 354(1391):1811-1824.

Goldstein, P.Z. 1999. Clarifying the role of species in ecosystem management: a reply. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1515-1517.

Grevstad, F.S. 1999. Factors influencing the chance of population establishment: implications for release strategies in biocontrol. Ecol. Appl. 9(4):1439-1447.

Gros, P.M., and Rejmanek, M. 1999. Status and habitat preferences of Uganda cheetahs: an attempt to predict carnivore occurrence based on vegetation structure. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(11):1561-1583.

Gustafsson, L. 2000. Red-listed species and indicators: vascular plants in woodland key habitats and surrounding production forests in Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):35-43.

Hanna, S.S. 1999. Strengthening governance of ocean fishery resources. Ecol. Econom. 31(2):275-286.

Hansen, A.J., Rotella, J.J., Kraska, M.P.V., and Brown, D. 1999. Dynamic habitat and population analysis: an approach to resolve the biodiversity manager's dilemma. Ecol. Appl. 9(4):1459-1476.

Hanski, I. 1999. Habitat connectivity, habitat continuity, and metapopulations in dynamic landscapes. Oikos 87(2):209-219.

Havens, K.E., and Aumen, N.G. 2000. Hypothesis-driven experimental research is necessary for natural resource management. Environ. Manag. 25(1):1-7.

Hoare, R.E. 1999. Determinants of human-elephant conflict in a land-use mosaic. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(5):689-700.

Holling, C.S. 1999. Introduction to the special feature: just complex enough for understanding; just simple enough for communication. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):1. <>

How, R.A., and Shine, R. 1999. Ecological traits and conservation biology of five fossorial 'sand-swimming' snake species (Simoselaps: Elapidae) in South-Western Australia. J. Zool. 249:269-282.

Hyman, J.B., and Leibowitz, S.G. 2000. A general framework for prioritizing land units for ecological protection and restoration. Environ. Manag. 25(1):23-35.

Innes, R. 1999. Private property and the Endangered Species Act. Am. J. Agricult. Econom. 81(4):985-987.

Jansen, V.A.A., and Mulder, G.S.E.E. 1999. Evolving biodiversity. Ecol. Letters 2(6):379-386.

Janssen, M.A., and Carpenter, S.R. 1999. Managing the resilience of lakes: a multi-agent modeling approach. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):15. <>

Jennings, M.D. 2000. Gap analysis: concepts, methods, and recent results. Landscape Ecol. 15(1):5-20.

Jennings, S., Reynolds, J.D., and Polunin, N.V.C. 1999. Predicting the vulnerability of tropical reef fishes to exploitation with phylogenies and life histories. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1466-1475.

Johnson, B.L. 1999. The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):8. <>

Johnson, C.F., Cowling, R.M., and Phillipson, P.B. 1999. The flora of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa: are threatened species vulnerable to elephant damage? Biodivers. Conserv. 8(11):1447-1456.

Jones, E.B.D., Helfman, G.S., Harper, J.O., and Bolstad, P.V. 1999. Effects of riparian forest removal on fish assemblages in southern Appalachian streams. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1454-1465.

Jonsson, B.G., and Jonsell, M. 1999. Exploring potential biodiversity indicators in boreal forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1417-1433.

Joy, J., and Pullin, A.S. 1999. Field studies on flooding and survival of overwintering large heath butterfly Coenonympha tullia larvae on Fenn's and Whixall Mosses in Shropshire and Wrexham, UK. Ecol. Entomol. 24(4):426-431.

Kalinowski, S.T., Hedrick, P.W., and Miller, P.S. 1999. No inbreeding depression observed in Mexican and red wolf captive breeding programs. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1371-1377.

Kappelle, M., Van Vuuren, M.M.I., and Baas, P. 1999. Effects of climate change on biodiversity: a review and identification of key research issues. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1383-1397.

Knutson, M.G., Sauer, J.R., Olsen, D.A., Mossman, M.J., Hemesath, L.M., and Lannoo, M.J. 1999. Effects of landscape composition and wetland fragmentation on frog and toad abundance and species richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, USA. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1437-1446.

Kotze, D.J., and Samways, M.J. 1999. Invertebrate conservation at the interface between the grassland matrix and natural Afromontane forest fragments. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1339-1363.

Lafferty, K.D., Swift, C.C., and Ambrose, R.F. 1999. Extirpation and recolonization in a metapopulation of an endangered fish, the tidewater goby. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1447-1453.

Landres, P.B., Morgan, P., and Swanson, F.J. 1999. Overview of the use of natural variability concepts in managing ecological systems. Ecol. Appl. 9(4):1179-1188.

Laurance, S.G., and Laurance, W.F. 1999. Tropical wildlife corridors: use of linear rainforest remnants by arboreal mammals. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):231-239.

Laurance, W.F. 1999. Ecology and management of fragmented tropical landscapes - introduction and synthesis. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):101-107.

Laurance, W.F. 1999. Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):109-117.

Law, B.S., and Lean, M. 1999. Common blossom bats (Syconycteris australis) as pollinators in fragmented Australian tropical rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):201-212.

Lee, K.N. 1999. Appraising adaptive management. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):3. <>

Liu, J.G., Ouyang, Z., Taylor, W.W., Groop, R., Tan, K.C., and Zhang, H.M. 1999. A framework for evaluating the effects of human factors on wildlife habitat: the case of giant pandas. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1360-1370.

Lovejoy, T.E. 1999. Ecology and management of fragmented tropical landscapes - preface. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):99.

Lynam, A.J., and Billick, I. 1999. Differential responses of small mammals to fragmentation in a Thailand tropical forest. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):191-200.

Lynam, T. 1999. Adaptive analysis of locally complex systems in a globally complex world. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):13. <>

Madsen, T., Shine, R., Olsson, M., and Wittzell, H. 1999. Conservation biology - restoration of an inbred adder population. Nature 402(6757):34-35.

Main, M.B., Roka, F.M., and Noss, R.F. 1999. Evaluating costs of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1262-1272.

Major, R.E., Smith, D., Cassis, G., Gray, M., and Colgan, D.J. 1999. Are roadside strips important reservoirs of invertebrate diversity? A comparison of the ant and beetle faunas of roadside strips and large remnant woodlands. Aust. J. Zool. 47(6):611-624.

Manel, S., Dias, J.M., Buckton, S.T., and Ormerod, S.J. 1999. Alternative methods for predicting species distribution: an illustration with Himalayan river birds. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(5):734-747.

Maramorosch, K. 1999. Conservation of threatened medicinal forest plants through mutually profitable agreements. Technology 6:269-273.

Maramorosch, K. 1999. Ecologically disturbed forests linked to new emerging human diseases. In: Raychaudhuri, S.P., Maramorosch, K. Biotechnology and Plant Protection in Forestry Science. New Hampshire: Science Publishers. pp 253-258.

Maramorosch, K. 1999. Neem for reforestation. In: Singh, R.P., Saxena, R.C. International Neem Conference. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers. pp 11-20.

Marsh, H., Eros, C., Corkeron, P., and Breen, B. 1999. A conservation strategy for dugongs: implications of Australian research. Mar. Freshwater Res. 50(8):979-990.

Mateu-Andres, I. 1999. Allozymic variation and divergence in three species of Antirrhinum L - (Scrophulariaceae - Antirrhineae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 131(2):187-199.

McIntyre, S., and Hobbs, R. 1999. A framework for conceptualizing human effects on landscapes and its relevance to management and research models. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1282-1292.

McKinney, M.L. 1999. High rates of extinction and threat in poorly studied taxa. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1273-1281.

Médail, F., and Quézel, P. 1999. Biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin: setting global conservation priorities. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1510-1513.

Meijaard, E., and Nijman, V. 2000. Distribution and conservation of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):15-24.

Melvin, E.F., Parrish, J.K., and Conquest, L.L. 1999. Novel tools to reduce seabird bycatch in coastal gillnet fisheries. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1386-1397.

Mesquita, R.C.G., Delamonica, P., and Laurance, W.F. 1999. Effect of surrounding vegetation on edge-related tree mortality in Amazonian forest fragments. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):129-134.

Mitchell, R.J., Marrs, R.H., Le Duc, M.G., and Auld, M.H.D. 1999. A study of the restoration of heathland on successional sites: changes in vegetation and soil chemical properties. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(5):770-783.

Muller, S. 1999. Phytosociology and conservation of Carex hordeistichos Vill. in the Lorraine region (France). Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1435-1445.

Muller, S. 1999. Plant communities and conservation of Botrychium-rich grasslands in the Bitcherland (Northern Vosges Biosphere Reserve, France). Biodivers. Conserv. 8(11):1519-1532.

Nadeem, M., Palni, L.M.S., Purohit, A.N., Pandey, H., and Nandi, S.K. 2000. Propagation and conservation of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle: an important medicinal herb. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):121-129.

New, T.R. 1999. Limits to species focusing in insect conservation. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 92(6):853-860.

Newell, G.R. 1999. Responses of Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus lumholtzi) to loss of habitat within a tropical rainforest fragment. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):181-189.

Nordstrom, K.F., Lampe, R., and Vandemark, L.M. 2000. Reestablishing naturally functioning dunes on developed coasts. Environ. Manag. 25(1):37-51.

Novaro, A.J., Funes, M.C., and Walker, R.S. 2000. Ecological extinction of native prey of a carnivore assemblage in Argentine Patagonia. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):25-33.

Orr, D.W. 1999. Education, careers, and callings: the practice of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1242-1245.

Paetkau, D. 1999. Using genetics to identify intraspecific conservation units: a critique of current methods. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1507-1509.

Palma, L., Beja, P., and Rodrigues, M. 1999. The use of sighting data to analyse Iberian lynx habitat and distribution. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(5):812-824.

Parthasarathy, N. 1999. Tree diversity and distribution in undisturbed and human-impacted sites of tropical wet evergreen forest in southern Western Ghats, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1365-1381.

Pearson, S.M., Turner, M.G., and Drake, J.B. 1999. Landscape change and habitat availability in the Southern Appalachian Highlands and Olympic Peninsula. Ecol. Appl. 9(4):1288-1304.

Pendergrass, K.L., Miller, P.M., Kauffman, J.B., and Kaye, T.N. 1999. The role of prescribed burning in maintenance of an endangered plant species, Lomatium bradshawii. Ecol. Appl. 9(4):1420-1429.

Perrin, M.R., and Brereton-Stiles, R. 1999. Habitat use and feeding behaviour of the buffalo and the white rhinoceros in the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi game reserve. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 29(3):72-80.

Perrin, M.R., and Taolo, C. 1999. Habitat use by a herd of introduced roan antelope in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 29(3):81-88.

Petchey, O.L., Mcphearson, P.T., Casey, T.M., and Morin, P.J. 1999. Environmental warming alters food-web structure and ecosystem function. Nature 402(6757):69-72.

Pinkerton, E. 1999. Factors in overcoming barriers to implementing co-management in British Columbia salmon fisheries. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):2. <>

Price, O.F., Woinarski, J.C.Z., and Robinson, D. 1999. Very large area requirements for frugivorous birds in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):169-180.

Pyke, C.R., Alagona, P.S., Goldstein, N., Bierwagen, B., Merrick, J., Rosenberg, H., and Gallo, J. 1999. A plan for outreach: defining the scope of conservation education. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1238-1239.

Quine, C.P., Humphrey, J.W., and Ferris, R. 1999. Should the wind disturbance patterns observed in natural forests be mimicked in planted forests in the British uplands? Forestry 72(4):337-358.

Ranta, P., Tanskanen, A., Niemelä, J., and Kurtto, A. 1999. Selection of islands for conservation in the urban archipelago of Helsinki, Finland. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1293-1300.

Rappole, J.H., King, D.I., and Barrow, W.C. 1999. Winter ecology of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler. The Condor 101(4):762-770.

Redford, K.H., and Richter, B.D. 1999. Conservation of biodiversity in a world of use. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1246-1256.

Regan, H.M., Colyvan, M., and Burgman, M.A. 2000. A proposal for fuzzy International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):101-108.

Rehfeldt, G.E. 1999. Systematics and genetic structure of Washoe pine: applications in conservation genetics. Silvae Genetica 48(3-4):167-173.

Reyers, B., and James, A.N. 1999. An upgraded national biodiversity risk assessment index. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(11):1555-1560.

Richter, B.D., and Redford, K.H. 1999. The art (and science) of brokering deals between conservation and use. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1235-1237.

Rockström, J., Gordon, L., Folke, C., Falkenmark, M., and Engwall, M. 1999. Linkages among water vapor flows, food production, and terrestrial ecosystem services. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):5. <>

Salonius, P. 1999. Population growth in the United States and Canada: a role for scientists. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1518-1519.

Scheffer, M. 1999. Searching explanations of nature in the mirror world of math. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 3(2):11. <>

Schmidt, K.A., and Whelan, C.J. 1999. Effects of exotic Lonicera and Rhamnus on songbird nest predation. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1502-1506.

Schwartz, M.W., and Hermann, S.M. 1999. Is slow growth of the endangered Torreya taxifolia (Arn.) normal? J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126(4):307-312.

Seymour, C.L., and Dean, W.R.J. 1999. Effects of heavy grazing on invertebrate assemblages in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. J. Arid Environ. 43(3):267-286.

Shogren, J.F., Tschirhart, J., Anderson, T., Ando, A.W., Beissinger, S.R., Brookshire, D., Brown, G.M., Coursey, D., Innes, R., Meyer, S.M., and Polasky, S. 1999. Why economics matters for endangered species protection. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1257-1261.

Sihag, R.C., and Singh, M. 1999. Why conserve pollinators? Bee World 80(3):113-114.

Sizer, N., and Tanner, E.V.J. 1999. Responses of woody plant seedlings to edge formation in a lowland tropical rainforest, Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):135-142.

Sket, B. 1999. The nature of biodiversity in hypogean waters and how it is endangered. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(10):1319-1338.

Smith, G.F., Ihlenfeldt, H.D., Thiede, J., Eggli, U., and Metzing, D. 1999. The International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS): its role and potential services to the international scientific community. Taxon 48(4):715-720.

Smith, J., Van De Kop, P., Reategui, K., Lombardi, I., Sabogal, C., and Diaz, A. 1999. Dynamics of secondary forests in slash-and-burn farming: interactions among land use types in the Peruvian Amazon. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 76(2-3):85-98.

Sodhi, N.S., Briffett, C., Kong, L., and Yuen, B. 1999. Bird use of linear areas of a tropical city: implications for park connector design and management. Landscape Urban Plan. 45(2-3):123-130.

Stachowicz, J.J., Whitlatch, R.B., and Osman, R.W. 1999. Species diversity and invasion resistance in a marine ecosystem. Science 286(5444):1577-1579.

Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 1999. Effects of habitat isolation on pollinator communities and seed set. Oecologia 121(3):432-440.

Stoms, D.M. 2000. Gap management status and regional indicators of threats to biodiversity. Landscape Ecol. 15(1):21-33.

Stratford, J.A., and Stouffer, P.C. 1999. Local extinctions of terrestrial insectivorous birds in a fragmented landscape near Manaus, Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1416-1423.

Sumner, J., Moritz, C., and Shine, R. 1999. Shrinking forest shrinks skink: morphological change in response to rainforest fragmentation in the prickly forest skink (Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae). Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):159-167.

Suzán, H., Malda, G., Patten, D.T., and Nabhan, G.P. 1999. Effects of exploitation and park boundaries on legume trees in the Sonoran Desert. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1497-1501.

Tabarelli, M., Mantovani, W., and Peres, C.A. 1999. Effects of habitat fragmentation on plant guild structure in the montane Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 91(2-3):119-127.

Taylor, R.V., and Albert, S.K. 1999. Human hunting of nongame birds at Zuni, New Mexico, USA. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1398-1403.

Theobald, D.M., Hobbs, N.T., Bearly, T., Zack, J.A., Shenk, T., and Riebsame, W.E. 2000. Incorporating biological information in local land-use decision making: designing a system for conservation planning. Landscape Ecol. 15(1):35-45.

Turpie, J.K., Beckley, L.E., and Katua, S.M. 2000. Biogeography and the selection of priority areas for conservation of South African coastal fishes. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):59-72.

Wagner, W.L., Bruegmann, M.M., Herbst, D.M., and Lau, J.Q.C. 1999. Hawaiian vascular plants at risk: 1999. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 60:1-58.

Waldick, R.C., Brown, M.W., and White, B.N. 1999. Characterization and isolation of microsatellite loci from the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Mol. Ecol. 8(10):1763-1765.

Wang, J.Y., Chou, L.S., and White, B.N. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of sympatric morphotypes of bottlenose dolphins (genus : Tursiops) in Chinese waters. Mol. Ecol. 8(10):1603-1612.

Wang, Z.J., Carpenter, C., and Young, S.S. 2000. Bird distribution and conservation in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan, China. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):45-57.

Warburg, M.R., and Hornung, E. 1999. Diversity of terrestrial isopod species along a transect through northern Israel. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(11):1469-1478.

Wardle, D.A. 1999. Is "sampling effect" a problem for experiments investigating biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships? Oikos 87(2):403-407.

Wardle, D.A., Bonner, K.I., Barker, G.M., Yeates, G.W., Nicholson, K.S., Bardgett, R.D., Watson, R.N., and Ghani, A. 1999. Plant removals in perennial grassland: vegetation dynamics, decomposers, soil biodiversity, and ecosystem properties. Ecol. Monograph. 69(4):535-568.

Warren, R.D., Waters, D.A., Altringham, J.D., and Bullock, D.J. 2000. The distribution of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and Pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) (Vespertilionidae) in relation to small-scale variation in riverine habitat. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):85-91.

Webb, J.K., and Shine, R. 2000. Paving the way for habitat restoration: can artificial rocks restore degraded habitats of endangered reptiles? Biol. Conserv. 92(1):93-99.

Weiss, S.B. 1999. Cars, cows, and checkerspot butterflies: nitrogen deposition and management of nutrient-poor grasslands for a threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1476-1486.

Wielebnowski, N.C. 1999. Behavioral differences as predictors of breeding status in captive cheetahs. Zoo Biol. 18(4):335-349.

Wildermuth, H. 1999. Distribution and habitats of Somatochlora alpestris (Selys, 1840) in the Swiss Alps (Anisoptera : Cordullidae). Odonatologica 28(4):399-416.

Wilkinson, C.R. 1999. Global and local threats to coral reef functioning and existence: review and predictions. Mar. Freshwater Res. 50(8):867-878.

Williams, C.E., and Moriarity, W.J. 1999. Occurrence of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.), and mortality by dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva Redlin), on the northern Allegheny Plateau. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126(4):313-319.

Willott, S.J. 1999. The effects of selective logging on the distribution of moths in a Bornean rainforest. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 354(1391):1783-1790.

Winter, M., and Faaborg, J. 1999. Patterns of area sensitivity in grassland-nesting birds. Conserv. Biol. 13(6):1424-1436.

Wong, C.L., and Ni, I.H. 2000. Population dynamics of the feral macaques in the Kowloon Hills of Hong Kong. Am. J. Primatol. 50(1):53-66.

Young, T.P. 2000. Restoration ecology and conservation biology. Biol. Conserv. 92(1):73-83.

Zander, R.H., and During, H.J. 1999. Neophoenix (Pottiaceae) a new African moss genus found through soil diaspore bank analysis. Taxon 48(4):657-662.

Zhuravlev, Y.N., Koren, O.G., Muzarok, T.I., Reunova, G.D., Kozyrenko, M.M., Artyukova, E.V., and Ilyushko, M.V. 1999. Molecular markers for conservation of rare plant species in the Far East Region. Russian J. Plant Physiol. 46(6):838-848.

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