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Department ofBotany

No. 183
March 2000

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In This Issue

Galapagos Implements Conservation Law

The government of Ecuador has approved regulations to implement a special conservation law for the Galapagos Islands. The regulations will finally implement a law passed nearly two years ago to protect and preserve the islands that inspired Charles Darwin to develop his theory of evolution. Some 600 miles west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, the Galapagos are home to one of the highest concentrations of endemic species in the world. Three-fourths of its land birds and 97 percent of its reptiles and mammals are found no where else on Earth. Yet this living laboratory of evolution has come under increasing threat in recent years from the growing pressures of over-fishing, tourism and the introduction of alien, invasive species. The new law, which World Wildlife Fund, the Charles Darwin Foundation and other conservation organizations helped to craft, seeks to counter these threats by creating a marine sanctuary around the islands out to a 40-mile limit and by ensuring that proceeds from tourism are used to support conservation. Besides banning industrial fishing within the sanctuary, the law will establish an inspection and quarantine system and tighten restrictions on tourism and immigration to the islands. Although the conservation law was passed in March 1998, approval of the regulations had been delayed due to opposition from industrial fishing interests. More information on the Galapagos Islands can be found on WWF's Web site

Biodiversity Support Program Online

The Biodiversity Support Program (BSP), a USAID-funded consortium of World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, and World Resources Institute, announces its new Web site, The site highlights results and insights gained from BSP's more than 12 years of working to understand the conditions under which biodiversity conservation can be achieved. You are invited to explore overviews of the regional and crosscutting programs, as well as the electronic library of BSP publications. The library will expand over the coming months as the final lessons from BSP's projects are published. All publications are downloadable free of charge. The best way to keep informed about changes and additions to BSPonline, including the release of new publications, is to subscribe to the easy-to-join listserv. Simply click on the "listserv" button at the bottom of the BSPonline home page, and fill in your e-mail address.

Two New Red Data Books

Two new Red Data books of threatened and endangered species are now available. Adel Jalili and Ziba Jamzad are the editors of Red Data Book of Iran, published by Koeltz Scientific Books. This 748-page book, written in English, presents a preliminary survey of endemic, rare and endangered plant species in Iran. Using the IUCN 1994 Red List categories, each entry gives the scientific name, status, life form, distribution, and habitat of each species. Introductory chapters are included on phytogeographical regions, data collection and analysis, results and discussion. The main body of the book is made up by the species descriptions. The book is available for $111.00 USD / 200.00 DM. Also by Koeltz Scientific Books is Cervena Kniha Ohrozenych a Vzacnych Druhu Rostlin a Zivocichu CR a SR 5: Vyssi Rostliny (Red Data Book of Threatened and Rare Plant and Animal Species of Czechoslovakia, Vol. 5: Vascular Plants) edited by J. Cerovsky et al. This 453-page book, written in Czech and Slovak (with an English summary), is the fifth and last volume in the series of red data books on the threatened plants and animals of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. 400 taxa are included. This book is available for $67.00 USD / 120.00 DM. Both books are available from Koeltz Scientific Books, PO Box 1360, D-61453 Königstein, Germany; Tel: +49 6174 93720; Fax: +49 6174 937240; E-mail:; or visit

Job Opportunities

The Center for Plant Conservation extends an invitation for applicants for the Director position. The position is physically located at the Missouri Botanical Garden, preeminent in discovering and sharing knowledge about plants in the preservation and enrichment of all life. Desirable candidates are those with proven experience in developing and implementing strategic plans in collaboration with others to manage the national network of botanical gardens and arboreta; national collection of endangered plants; and, integrated conservation activities with government agencies, universities and private organizations. Likely candidates possess a solid track record in advocacy and public speaking. Position responsibilities also include demonstrated skill in fund raising and financial management. The selected candidate will manage the work of five professional office staff. Requisite qualifications include a Ph.D. in conservation, biology, botany, environmental policy or public administration, plus seven or more years of managerial responsibility and increasingly responsible experience in relevant field. Success demands a self-motivated professional with demonstrated analytical, problem solving, and decision-making skills, who can independently create, prioritize and execute realistic and workable priorities. Travel is required. Competitive salary and an outstanding benefits package provided. Early response encouraged. Screening begins immediately. Send letter of application, with at least three references, to Missouri Botanical Garden, Human Resource Management, Attention: DCPC, PO Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166.

The National Park Service (NPS) is seeking to improve coral reef conservation within the Pacific Island parks in support of a Presidential Executive Order calling for better protection and management of U.S. coral reef resources. In the next six months, the NPS will hire up to four Professional Coral Reef Specialists in the Pacific West Region. Applicants selected will be required to develop scientifically based programs to inventory, map, monitor and protect coral reefs. This is only a Notice of Intent, not a Vacancy Announcement. Do not send any job applications at this time. The initial network will consist of four park-based coral reef specialists (target grade GS-11) and one science advisor based at a university (GS-13). This group will develop park based natural resource management programs, integrating coral reef conservation with management of a full range of other aquatic and terrestrial resources. Duty stations are projected to be located in Hawaii and Guam. NPS is seeking qualified applicants in the fields of Marine Ecology, Marine Botany, Conservation Biology, Oceanography, or Marine Fisheries. The applicant must be a U.S. citizen or American Samoan. If you wish to be notified by surface mail or by email when the coral reef specialist vacancy announcement becomes available, please submit a letter or email of your interest to Coral Reef Outreach c/o National Park Service, Pacific West Region, 600 Harrison St., Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94107-1372; E-mail: Provide an indication of your interest in positions stationed in Guam and Hawaii (islands of Hawaii, Molokai, and Oahu). Again, do not send job applications at this time.

Future Meetings

August 11-13. Abstracts and poster proposals are currently being accepted for the 5th annual Texas Society for Ecological Restoration conference to be held in Ft. Davis, Texas. The theme of the conference is "Restoration without Borders." Topics are open to all areas of restoration with a special focus on the following: 1) Arid Lands Restoration, 2) Restoration Education, 3) The Border Region, and 4) Community Initiatives. In keeping with the theme of "Restoration without Borders", presenters from Mexico, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado are encouraged to submit papers and posters relevant to the themes listed above. Texas SER welcomes relevant abstracts and proposals from all disciplines, backgrounds and experience levels. Electronic submissions are preferred and should be submitted to If electronic submission is not possible, hard copies should be mailed or faxed to Texas SER, UNT Box #310559, Denton, TX 76203-0559; Fax: 940-565-4439. For more information please see the Texas SER Web site at or call 940-565-4332.

New Publications

The publication Bulgaria's Biological Diversity: Conservation Status and Needs Assessment is now available in the Biodiversity Support Program's online library. This two-volume book, originally published in 1998, contains 41 scientific papers and selected maps that summarize the current state of knowledge about Bulgaria's biological resources and their status. The papers were used to develop a national strategy for conserving Bulgaria's biodiversity. To view this publication, go to the BSP publications library at and search under Eastern Europe publications. Related publications from the Eastern Europe program include Conserving Biological Diversity in Bulgaria: The National Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy, available only in hard copy. To order, call BSP at 202-861-8347, or, for more on BSP's work in Bulgaria, visit

In a special issue, La Garance Voyageuse, a review of popularizing botany, devotes itself to the topic of introduced and invasive plants (French language only). The cap groundsel, small ragweed, the Canadian pondweed, the knotweed, the marine alga Caulerpa taxifolia, are all invasive plants introduced to Europe. Though being reasonable in their home ecosystems, these species behave as opportunists in the lands of introduction. Even though they grow without problems along roadsides and in any highly artificialized land, a few however succeed in colonizing natural habitats, some of them fragile. These biological invasions also have economical consequences. Human activities increase the spread of species: introduction for gardening, unintentional carrying of seeds, plankton shipped in water ballast. These exchanges occur in all directions, and North America has inherited the European Purple Loosestrife, which now invades the damp habitats of the New World. La Garance Voyageuse no48 is available only by mail for 40 FRF. Mail orders to La Garance Voyageuse, F-48370 St Germain de Calberte, France; Tel: + 33 4 66 45 94 10; Fax: +33 4 66 45 91 84; E-mail:

Current Literature

Adamec, L., and Lev, J. 1999. The introduction of the aquatic carnivorous plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa to new potential sites in the Czech Republic: a five-year investigation. Folia Geobot. 34(3):299-305.

Alford, R.A., and Richards, S.J. 1999. Global amphibian declines: a problem in applied ecology. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30:133-165.

Allibone, R.M. 1999. Impoundment and introductions: their impacts on native fish of the upper Waipori River, New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 29(4):291-299.

Alpert, P., Griggs, F.T., and Peterson, D.R. 1999. Riparian forest restoration along large rivers: initial results from the Sacramento River Project. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):360-368.

Amoros, C., Bornette, G., and Henry, C.P. 2000. A vegetation-based method for ecological diagnosis of riverine wetlands. Environ. Manag. 25(2):211-227.

Angelici, F.M., Grimod, I., and Politano, E. 1999. Mammals of the eastern Niger Delta (Rivers and Bayelsa States, Nigeria): an environment affected by a gas-pipeline. Folia Zoologica 48(4):249-264.

Arendt, W.J., Gibbons, D.W., and Gray, G. 1999. Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole Icterus oberi and other forest birds in Montserrat, West Indies. Bird Conserv. Int. 9(4):351-372.

Armbrecht, I., and Ulloa-Chacon, P. 1999. Rarity and diversity of ants in dry forest fragments and their matrices in Colombia. Biotropica 31(4):646-653.

Balon, E.K. 2000. Defending fishes against recreational fishing: an old problem to be solved in the new millennium. Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(1):1-8.

Barham, B.L., Coomes, O.T., and Takasaki, Y. 1999. Rain forest livelihoods: income generation, household wealth and forest use. Unasylva 50(198):34-42.

Bedford, B.L. 1999. Cumulative effects on wetland landscapes: links to wetland restoration in the United States and southern Canada. Wetlands 19(4):775-788.

Bizerril, C.R.S.F. 1999. Fishes from the Paraiba do Sul river basin: biodiversity and biogeographic patterns. Brazilian Arch. Biol. Tech. 42(2):233-249.

Bloesch, J. 1999. The International Association for Danube Research (IAD): its future role in Danube research. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie (3):239-259.

Bloesch, J. 1999. Large river ecosystems: concepts and biodiversity, with special emphasis on the Danube and the International Association for Danube Research (IAD). Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie (3):235-237.

Boudjemadi, K., Lecomte, J., and Clobert, J. 1999. Influence of connectivity on demography and dispersal in two contrasting habitats: an experimental approach. J. Anim. Ecol. 68(6):1207-1224.

Bradford, M.J., and Irvine, J.R. 2000. Land use, fishing, climate change, and the decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57(1):13-16.

Brand, L.A., and George, T.L. 2000. Predation risks for nesting birds in fragmented coast redwood forest. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(1):42-51.

Brook, F.J., and McArdle, B.H. 1999. Morphological variation, biogeography and local extinction of the northern New Zealand landsnail Placostylus hongii (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae). J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 29(4):407-434.

Brooks, T. 2000. Conservation biology - living on the edge. Nature 403(6765):26-29.

Brooks, T.M., Pimm, S.L., Kapos, V., and Ravilious, C. 1999. Threat from deforestation to montane and lowland birds and mammals in insular South-east Asia. J. Anim. Ecol. 68(6):1061-1078.

Brown, E., and Kephart, S. 1999. Variability in pollen load: implications for reproduction and seedling vigor in a rare plant, Silene douglasii var. oraria. International Journal of Plant Sciences 160(6):1145-1152.

Brown, P.M., and Cameron, L.D. 2000. What can be done to reduce overconsumption? Ecol. Econom. 32(1):27-41.

Buerkle, C.A. 1999. The historical pattern of gene flow among migratory and nonmigratory populations of prairie warblers (Aves: Parulinae). Evolution 53(6):1915-1924.

Buhler-Natour, C., and Herzog, F. 1999. Criteria for sustainability and their application at a regional level: the case of clearing islands in the Dubener Heide Nature Park (Eastern Germany). Landscape Urban Plan. 46(1-3):51-62.

Byrne, M., MacDonald, B., and Coates, D. 1999. Divergence in the chloroplast genome and nuclear rDNA of the rare Western Australian plant Lambertia orbifolia Gardner (Proteaceae). Mol. Ecol. 8(11):1789-1796.

Campos, J.B. 1999. Spatial and multi-temporal analysis of deforestation and quantification of the remnant forests on Porto Rico Island, Parana, Brazil. Brazilian Arch. Biol. Tech. 42(1):91-99.

Cannon, A. 1999. The significance of private gardens for bird conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 9(4):287-297.

Canters, K.J., and Tamis, W.L.M. 1999. Arthropods in grassy field margins in the Wieringermeer Scope, population development and possible consequences for farm practice. Landscape Urban Plan. 46(1-3):63-69.

Carlton, J.T., Geller, J.B., Reaka-Kudla, M.L., and Norse, E.A. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30:515-538.

Carmona, J.A., and Doadrio, I. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Leuciscus carolitertii Doadrio, 1988 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(1):96.

Carrillo-Garcia, A., de la Luz, J.L.L., Bashan, Y., and Bethlenfalvay, G.J. 1999. Nurse plants, mycorrhizae, and plant establishment in a disturbed area of the Sonoran Desert. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):321-335.

Channell, R., and Lomolino, M.V. 2000. Dynamic biogeography and conservation of endangered species. Nature 403(6765):84-86.

Chapman, M.R., and Kramer, D.L. 2000. Movements of fishes within and among fringing coral reefs in Barbados. Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(1):11-24.

Clark, T.W., Curlee, A.P., Minta, S.C., and Kareiva, P.M. 1999. Carnivores in Ecosystems: The Yellowstone Experience. Yale Univ Press. New Haven, CT. 400pp.

Clausnitzer, V. 1999. A checklist of the dragonflies (Odonata) of Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 37(4):400-418.

Coomes, O.T., Grimard, F., and Burt, G.J. 2000. Tropical forests and shifting cultivation: secondary forest fallow dynamics among traditional farmers of the Peruvian Amazon. Ecol. Econom. 32(1):109-124.

David, P.G. 1999. Response of exotics to restored hydroperiod at Dupuis Reserve, Florida. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):407-410.

Davies, R.G., Eggleton, P., Dibog, L., Lawton, J.H., Bignell, D.E., Brauman, A., Hartmann, C., Nunes, L., Holt, J., and Rouland, C. 1999. Successional response of a tropical forest termite assemblage to experimental habitat perturbation. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(6):946-962.

de Lange, P.J., Heenan, P.B., Given, D.R., Norton, D.A., Ogle, C.C., Johnson, P.N., and Cameron, E.K. 1999. Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand. N. Z. J. Bot. 37(4):603-628.

Detenbeck, N.E., Galatowitsch, S.M., Atkinson, J., and Ball, H. 1999. Evaluating perturbations and developing restoration strategies for inland wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin. Wetlands 19(4):789-820.

Dhillion, S.S. 1999. Environmental heterogeneity, animal disturbances, microsite characteristics, and seedling establishment in a Quercus havardii community. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):399-406.

Doledec, S., Statzner, B., and Bournard, M. 1999. Species traits for future biomonitoring across ecoregions: patterns along a human-impacted river. Freshwater Biol. 42(4):737-758.

Dulloo, M.E., Maxted, N., Guarino, L., Florens, D., Newbury, H.J., and Lloyd, B.V.F. 1999. Ecogeographic survey of the genus Coffea in the Mascarene Islands. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 131(3):263-284.

Ellstrand, N.C., Prentice, H.C., and Hancock, J.F. 1999. Gene flow and introgression from domesticated plants into their wild relatives. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30:539-563.

Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M., and Rinkevich, B. 1999. Implementation of a small-scale "no-use zone" policy in a reef ecosystem: Eilat's reef lagoon six years later. Coral Reefs 18(4):327-332.

Ezzell, C. 2000. Jumbo trouble: is it time to cull some elephant populations in southern Africa and sell the ivory? Sci. Amer. 282(1):41-42.

Fagan, W.F., Meir, E., and Moore, J.L. 1999. Variation thresholds for extinction and their implications for conservation strategies. Amer. Natural. 154(5):510-520.

Fesl, C., Humpesch, U.H., and Aschauer, A. 1999. The relationship between habitat structure and biodiversity of the macrozoobenthos in the free-flowing section of the Danube in Austria - east of Vienna (preliminary results). Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie (3):349-374.

Fitzgerald, L.A., Cook, J.A., and Aquino, A.L. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics and conservation of Tupinambis (Sauria: Teiidae). Copeia (4):894-905.

French, J.R.P., Wilcox, D.A., and Nichols, S.J. 1999. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration. Wetlands 19(4):883-888.

Fricke, H., Hissmann, K., Schauer, J., Erdmann, M., Moosa, M.K., and Plante, R. 2000. Conservation - biogeography of the Indonesian coelacanths. Nature 403(6765):38.

Garcia-Caudillo, J.M., Cisneros-Mata, M.A., and Balmori-Ramirez, A. 2000. Performance of a bycatch reduction device in the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):199-205.

Gazo, M., Aparicio, F., Cedenilla, M.A., Layna, J.F., and Gonzalez, L.M. 2000. Pup survival in the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) colony at Cabo Blanco Peninsula (Western Sahara-Mauritania). Mar. Mammal Sci. 16(1):158-168.

Goldberg, S.R., and Holycross, A.T. 1999. Reproduction in the desert massasauga, Sistrurus catenatus Edwardsii, in Arizona and Colorado. Southwestern Natural. 44(4):531-535.

Good, J.E.G., Wallace, H.L., Stevens, P.A., and Radford, G.L. 1999. Translocation of herb-rich grassland from a site in Wales prior to opencast coal extraction. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):336-347.

Green, R.E. 1999. Applications of large-scale studies of demographic rates to bird conservation. Bird Study 46:279-288.

Green, R.E. 1999. Survival and dispersal of male corncrakes Crex crex in a threatened population. Bird Study 46:218-229.

Hamze, S.I., and Jolls, C.L. 2000. Germination ecology of a federally threatened endemic thistle, Cirsium pitcheri, of the Great Lakes. Am. Mid. Natural. 143(1):141-153.

Hanlin, H.G., Martin, F.D., Wike, L.D., and Bennett, S.H. 2000. Terrestrial activity, abundance and species richness of amphibians in managed forests in South Carolina. Am. Mid. Natural. 143(1):70-83.

Hatch, D.A., Bartolome, J.W., Fehmi, J.S., and Hillyard, D.S. 1999. Effects of burning and grazing on a coastal California grassland. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):376-381.

Hayslette, S.E., Tacha, T.C., and Waggerman, G.L. 2000. Factors affecting white-winged, white-tipped, and mourning dove reproduction in Lower Rio Grande Valley. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(1):286-295.

Hegde, S.G., and Ellstrand, N.C. 1999. Life history differences between rare and common flowering plant species of California and the British Isles. International Journal of Plant Sciences 160(6):1083-1091.

Hilty, J., and Merenlender, A. 2000. Faunal indicator taxa selection for monitoring ecosystem health. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):185-197.

Hodgson, J. 2000. Traders predict biodiversity turmoil. Nature Biotechnology 18(1):17-18.

Hopper, S.D., Fay, M.F., Rossetto, M., and Chase, M.W. 1999. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the bloodroot and kangaroo paw family, Haemodoraceae: taxonomic, biogeographic and conservation implications. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 131(3):285-299.

Janauer, G.A. 1999. Macrophytes of the River Danube: a diversity study of the Austrian stretch. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie (3):399-412.

Kaiser, J. 2000. Restoration ecology - bringing the Salton Sea back to life. Science 287(5453):565.

Karczmarski, L., Cockcroft, V.G., and McLachlan, A. 2000. Habitat use and preferences of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Mar. Mammal Sci. 16(1):65-79.

Kato, S., Koike, T., Lei, T.T., Hsieh, C.F., Ueda, K., and Mikami, T. 2000. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA of an endangered beech species, Fagus hayatae Palibin ex Hayata. New Forests 19(1):109-114.

Keddy, P. 1999. Wetland restoration: the potential for assembly rules in the service of conservation. Wetlands 19(4):716-732.

Keough, J.R., Thompson, T.A., Guntenspergen, G.R., and Wilcox, D.A. 1999. Hydrogeomorphic factors and ecosystem responses in coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes. Wetlands 19(4):821-834.

King, S.L., and Keeland, B.D. 1999. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):348-359.

Kloor, K. 2000. Restoration ecology - returning America's forests to their 'natural' roots. Science 287(5453):573-575.

Knudsen, E.E., Steward, C.R., MacDonald, D., Williams, J.E., and Reiser, D.W. 2000. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon. Lewis Publishers Inc. Boca Raton, FL. 752pp.

Kotchen, M.J., and Reiling, S.D. 2000. Environmental attitudes, motivations, and contingent valuation of nonuse values: a case study involving endangered species. Ecol. Econom. 32(1):93-107.

Kowalski, K.P., and Wilcox, D.A. 1999. Use of historical and geospatial data to guide the restoration of a Lake Erie coastal marsh. Wetlands 19(4):858-868.

Landa, A., Gudvangen, K., Swenson, J.E., and Roskaft, E. 1999. Factors associated with wolverine Gulo gulo predation on domestic sheep. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(6):963-973.

Landolt, E. 1999. Contributions to the flora of the city of Zurich. IX. Genera Rubus and Oenothera, additions, general results, prospects. Bot. Helvetica 109(2):121-137.

Lauver, C.L., Kindscher, K., Faber-Langendoen, D., and Schneider, R. 1999. A classification of the natural vegetation of Kansas. Southwestern Natural. 44(4):421-443.

Legendre, S. 1999. Demographic stochasticity: a case study using the ULM software. Bird Study 46:140-147.

Loik, M.E., and Holl, K.D. 1999. Photosynthetic responses to light for rainforest seedlings planted in abandoned pasture, Costa Rica. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):382-391.

Lyons, S.K., and Willig, M.R. 1999. A hemispheric assessment of scale dependence in latitudinal gradients of species richness. Ecology 80(8):2483-2491.

MacNaeidhe, F.S., and Culleton, N. 2000. The application of parameters designed to measure nature conservation and landscape development on Irish farms. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 77(1-2):65-78.

Major, R.E., Christie, F.J., Gowing, G., and Ivison, T.J. 1999. Age structure and density of red-capped robin populations vary with habitat size and shape. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(6):901-908.

Mann, C.C., and Plummer, M.L. 2000. Endangered salmon - Army Corps seized by dam indecision. Science 287(5450):27.

Mathis, M.J., and Middleton, B.A. 1999. Simulated herbivory and vegetation dynamics in coal slurry ponds reclaimed as wetlands. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):392-398.

May, R. 1999. Unanswered questions in ecology. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 354(1392):1951-1959.

Mayer, P.M., and Galatowitsch, S.M. 1999. Diatom communities as ecological indicators of recovery in restored prairie wetlands. Wetlands 19(4):765-774.

McCollin, D., Moore, L., and Sparks, T. 2000. The flora of a cultural landscape: environmental determinants of change revealed using archival sources. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):249-263.

McCoy, E.D., and Mushinsky, H.R. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and the abundances of vertebrates in the Florida scrub. Ecology 80(8):2526-2538.

Medina, F.M. 1999. Foraging use of cultivated fields by the Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata fuertaventurae Rothschild and Hartert, 1894 on Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) . Bird Conserv. Int. 9(4):373-386.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Montoya-Ospina, R.A., Jimenez-Marrero, N.M., Rodriguez-Lopez, M.A., Williams, E.H., and Bonde, R.K. 2000. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico. Environ. Manag. 25(2):189-198.

Miller, C. 1999. Conservation of the Open Bay Islands' leech, Hirudobdella antipodum. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 29(4):301-306.

Moser, D.M., Palese, R., Baumler, B., Gygax, A., and Wyler, N. 1999. Advances in the floristics of Switzerland and neighboring regions - vascular plants. 58. (Reporting year 1998-1999, Part One). Bot. Helvetica 109(2):229-252.

Motluk, A. 1999. It takes one to know one - it's not every conservation biologist who's willing to impersonate an animal in order to study it - especially when that animal is a moose. New Scientist 164(2218):62-64.

Mourão, G., Coutinho, M., Mauro, R., Campos, Z., Tomas, W., and Magnusson, W. 2000. Aerial surveys of caiman, marsh deer and pampas deer in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):175-183.

Mowat, G., and Strobeck, C. 2000. Estimating population size of grizzly bears using hair capture, DNA profiling, and mark-recapture analysis. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(1):183-193.

Nandi, S.K., Kumar, A., and Palni, L.M.S. 1999. Role of plant tissue culture in biodiversity conservation and economic development. Curr. Sci. 77(10):1229-1231.

Naugle, D.E., Higgins, K.F., Estey, M.E., Johnson, R.R., and Nusser, S.M. 2000. Local and landscape-level factors influencing black tern habitat suitability. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(1):253-260.

Nekola, J.C. 1999. Paleorefugia and neorefugia: the influence of colonization history on community pattern and process. Ecology 80(8):2459-2473.

Nilson, G., Andren, C., Ioannidis, Y., and Dimaki, M. 1999. Ecology and conservation of the Milos viper, Macrovipera schweizeri (Werner, 1935). Amphibia-Reptilia 20(4):355-375.

Norman, F.I. 2000. Preliminary investigation of the bycatch of marine birds and mammals in inshore commercial fisheries, Victoria, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):217-226.

Oliveira, P., Jones, M., Caires, D., and Menezes, D. 1999. Population trends and status of the Madeira Laurel pigeon Columba trocaz. Bird Conserv. Int. 9(4):387-395.

Olowo, J.P., and Chapman, L.J. 1999. Trophic shifts in predatory catfishes following the introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria. Afr. J. Ecol. 37(4):457-470.

Oltra, R., and Todolí, R. 2000. Reproduction of the endangered killifish Aphanius iberus at different salinities. Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(1):113-115.

Ormerod, S.J., Pienkowski, M.W., and Watkinson, A.R. 1999. Communicating the value of ecology. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(6):847-855.

Otsamo, R. 2000. Early development of three planted indigenous tree species and natural understorey vegetation in artificial gaps in an Acacia mangium stand on an Imperata cylindrica grassland site in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. New Forests 19(1):51-68.

Otsamo, R. 2000. Secondary forest regeneration under fast-growing forest plantations on degraded Imperata cylindrica grasslands. New Forests 19(1):69-93.

Pascoe, S. 2000. Single species conservation in a multispecies fishery: the case of the Australian eastern gemfish. Ecol. Econom. 32(1):125-136.

Pfab, M.F., and Witkowski, E.T.F. 1999. Contrasting effects of herbivory on plant size and reproductive performance in two populations of the critically endangered species, Euphorbia clivicola R.A. Dyer. Plant Ecol. 145(2):317-325.

Pierpaoli, M., Riga, F., Trocchi, V., and Randi, E. 1999. Species distinction and evolutionary relationships of the Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus) as described by mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Mol. Ecol. 8(11):1805-1817.

Pitman, N.C.A., Terborgh, J., Silman, M.R., and Nuez, P. 1999. Tree species distributions in an upper Amazonian forest. Ecology 80(8):2651-2661.

Plissner, J.H., and Haig, S.M. 2000. Viability of piping plover Charadrius melodus metapopulations. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):163-173.

Pope, C.E. 2000. Embryo technology in conservation efforts for endangered felids. Theriogenology 53(1):163-174.

Powell, A.N., and Collier, C.L. 2000. Habitat use and reproductive success of western snowy plovers at new nesting areas created for California least terns. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(1):24-33.

Putz, F.E. 2000. Economics of home grown forestry. Ecol. Econom. 32(1):9-14.

Ranjan, R., and Upadhyay, V.P. 1999. Ecological problems due to shifting cultivation. Curr. Sci. 77(10):1246-1250.

Reed, J.M., Gray, E.M., Lewis, D., Oring, L.W., Coleman, R., Burr, T., and Luscomb, P. 1999. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks. Wilson Bull. 111(4):478-487.

Ribera, I. 2000. Biogeography and conservation of Iberian water beetles. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):131-150.

Robertson, A., and Jarvis, A.M. 2000. Oxpeckers in north-eastern Namibia: recent population trends and the possible negative impacts of drought and fire. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):241-247.

Rodriguez, J.P., Ashenfelter, G., Rojas-Suarez, F., Fernandez, J.J.G., Suarez, L., and Dobson, A.P. 2000. Local data are vital to worldwide conservation. Nature 403(6767):241.

Roem, W.J., and Berendse, F. 2000. Soil acidity and nutrient supply ratio as possible factors determining changes in plant species diversity in grassland and heathland communities. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):151-161.

Romero, A., and Vanselow, P.B.S. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Milyeringa veritas Whitley, 1945 (Eleotridae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(1):36.

Rominger, E.M., Robbins, C.T., Evans, M.A., and Pierce, D.J. 2000. Autumn foraging dynamics of woodland caribou in experimentally manipulated habitats, northeastern Washington, USA. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(1):160-167.

Russ, G.R., and Alcala, A.C. 1999. Management histories of Sumilon and Apo marine reserves, Philippines, and their influence on national marine resource policy. Coral Reefs 18(4):307-319.

Ryan, P.G., Bento, C., Cohen, C., Graham, J., Parker, V., and Spottiswoode, C. 1999. The avifauna and conservation status of the Namuli Massif, Northern Mozambique. Bird Conserv. Int. 9(4):315-331.

Saracco, J.F., and Collazo, J.A. 1999. Predation on artificial nests along three edge types in a North Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Wilson Bull. 111(4):541-549.

Sarno, R.J., Clark, W.R., Bank, M.S., Prexl, W.S., Behl, M.J., Johnson, W.E., and Franklin, W.L. 1999. Juvenile guanaco survival: management and conservation implications. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(6):937-945.

Schiemer, F. 1999. Conservation of biodiversity in floodplain rivers. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie (3):423-438.

Schmetterling, D.A., and Pierce, R.W. 1999. Success of instream habitat structures after a 50-year flood in Gold Creek, Montana. Restoration Ecol. 7(4):369-375.

Schneider, I.E., and Burnett, G.W. 2000. Protected area management in Jordan. Environ. Manag. 25(3):241-246.

Schrader, J.A., and Graves, W.R. 2000. Seed germination and seedling growth of Alnus maritima from its three disjunct populations. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125(1):128-134.

Schwartz, M.W. 1999. Choosing the appropriate scale of reserves for conservation. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30:83-108.

Sedgeley, J.A., and O'Donnell, C.F.J. 1999. Factors influencing the selection of roost cavities by a temperate rainforest bat (Vespertilionidae: Chalinolobus tuberculatus) in New Zealand. J. Zool. 249:437-446.

Sepp, K., Palang, H., Mander, U., and Kaasik, A. 1999. Prospects for nature and landscape protection in Estonia. Landscape Urban Plan. 46(1-3):161-167.

Siex, K.S., and Struhsaker, T.T. 1999. Colobus monkeys and coconuts: a study of perceived human-wildlife conflicts. J. Appl. Ecol. 36(6):1009-1020.

Silva, J.L. 1999. Notes about the distribution of Pauxi pauxi and Aburria aburri in Venezuela. Wilson Bull. 111(4):564-569.

Silvano, R.A.M., do Amaral, B.D., and Oyakawa, O.T. 2000. Spatial and temporal patterns of diversity and distribution of the upper Juruá River fish community (Brazilian Amazon). Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(1):25-35.

Sivakumar, G., and Krishnamurthy, K.V. 2000. Micropropagation of Gloriosa superba L. - an endangered species of Asia and Africa. Curr. Sci. 78(1):30-32.

Skilleter, G.A., and Warren, S. 2000. Effects of habitat modification in mangroves on the structure of mollusc and crab assemblages. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 244(1):107-129.

Smith, A.K., and Pollard, D.A. 1999. Threatened fishes of the world: Carcharias taurus (Rafinesque, 1810) (Odontaspididae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 56(4):365.

Solti, L., Crichton, E.G., Loskutoff, N.M., and Cseh, S. 2000. Economical and ecological importance of indigenous livestock and the application of assisted reproduction to their preservation. Theriogenology 53(1):149-162.

Sorensen, T.C., and Fedigan, L.M. 2000. Distribution of three monkey species along a gradient of regenerating tropical dry forest. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):227-240.

Stoleson, S.H., and Finch, D.M. 1999. Unusual nest sites for southwestern willow flycatchers. Wilson Bull. 111(4):574-575.

Stranlund, J.K. 1999. Bargaining to preserve a unique ecosystem: the role of anticipatory investments to establish stronger bargaining positions. Ecol. Econom. 31(3):425-437.

Swanson, T., and Goschl, T. 2000. Property rights issues involving plant genetic resources: implications of owner-ship for economic efficiency. Ecol. Econom. 32(1):75-92.

Symstad, A.J. 2000. A test of the effects of functional group richness and composition on grassland invasibility. Ecology 81(1):99-109.

Tautin, J., Metras, L., and Smith, G. 1999. Large-scale studies of marked birds in North America. Bird Study 46:271-278.

Taylor, P.H., and Gaines, S.D. 1999. Can Rapoport's rule be rescued? Modeling causes of the latitudinal gradient in species richness. Ecology 80(8):2474-2482.

Tepedino, V.J., Sipes, S.D., and Griswold, T.L. 1999. The reproductive biology and effective pollinators of the endangered beardtongue Penstemon penlandii (Scrophulariaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 219(1-2):39-54.

Theiling, C.H., Tucker, J.K., and Cronin, F.A. 1999. Flooding and fish diversity in a reclaimed river-wetland. J. Freshwater Ecol. 14(4):469-475.

Tockner, K., and Ward, J.V. 1999. Biodiversity along riparian corridors. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie (3):293-310.

Utkarsh, G., Gadgil, M., and Rao, P.R.S. 1999. Intellectual property rights on biological resources: benefiting from biodiversity and people's knowledge. Curr. Sci. 77(11):1418-1425.

Van Balen, S., Nijman, V., and Sozer, R. 1999. Distribution and conservation of the Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi. Bird Conserv. Int. 9(4):333-349.

Van Der Valk, A.G., Bremholm, T.L., and Gordon, E. 1999. The restoration of sedge meadows: seed viability, seed germination requirements, and seedling growth of Carex species. Wetlands 19(4):756-764.

Van Elsen, T. 2000. Species diversity as a task for organic agriculture in Europe. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 77(1-2):101-109.

Von Konrat, M.J., Braggins, J.E., and De Lange, P.J. 1999. Davallia (Pteridophyta) in New Zealand, including description of a new subspecies of D. tasmanii. N. Z. J. Bot. 37(4):579-593.

Waide, R.B., Willig, M.R., Steiner, C.F., Mittelbach, G., Gough, L., Dodson, S.I., Juday, G.P., and Parmenter, R. 1999. The relationship between productivity and species richness. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30:257-300.

Walck, J.L., Baskin, J.M., and Baskin, C.C. 1999. Roles of succession, light, nutrients and disturbance on population vigor and maintenance of the rare plant Solidago shortii (Asteraceae). Plant Ecol. 145(1):133-147.

Wallis, J., and Lee, D.R. 1999. Primate conservation: the prevention of disease transmission. Int. J. Primatol. 20(6):803-826.

Wang, J.L., and Hill, W.G. 2000. Marker-assisted selection to increase effective population size by reducing Mendelian segregation variance. Genetics 154(1):475-489.

White, G.M., Boshier, D.H., and Powell, W. 1999. Genetic variation within a fragmented population of Swietenia humilis Zucc. Mol. Ecol. 8(11):1899-1909.

Wilcox, D.A., and Whillans, T.H. 1999. Techniques for restoration of disturbed coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes. Wetlands 19(4):835-857.

Wiles, G.J., Buden, D.W., and Worthington, D.J. 1999. History of introduction, population status, and management of Philippine deer (Cervus mariannus) on Micronesian islands. Mammalia 63(2):193-215.

Williams, C.E., Mosbacher, E.V., and Moriarity, W.J. 2000. Use of turtlehead (Chelone glabra L.) and other herbaceous plants to assess intensity of white-tailed deer browsing on Allegheny Plateau riparian forests, USA. Biol. Conserv. 92(2):207-215.

Williams, L.R., Echelle, A.A., Toepfer, C.S., Williams, M.G., and Fisher, W.L. 1999. Simulation modeling of population viability for the leopard darter (Percidae: Percina pantherina). Southwestern Natural. 44(4):470-477.

Wingfield, J.C., Ishii, S., Kikuchi, M., Wakabayashi, S., Sakai, H., Yamaguchi, N., Wada, M., and Chikatsuji, K. 2000. Biology of a critically endangered species, the Toki (Japanese Crested Ibis) Nipponia nippon. Ibis 142(1):1-11.

Winter, M. 1999. Nesting biology of Dickcissels and Henslow's Sparrows in southwestern Missouri prairie fragments. Wilson Bull. 111(4):515-526.

Witting, L., Tomiuk, J., and Loeschcke, V. 2000. Modelling the optimal conservation of interacting species. Ecol. Model. 125(2-3):123-143.

Xiong, S.J., and Nilsson, C. 1999. The effects of plant litter on vegetation: a meta-analysis. J. Ecology 87(6):984-994.

Yorio, P., Frere, E., Gandini, P., and Conway, W. 1999. Status and conservation of seabirds breeding in Argentina. Bird Conserv. Int. 9(4):299-314.

Zahawi, R.A., and Augspurger, C.K. 1999. Early plant succession in abandoned pastures in Ecuador. Biotropica 31(4):540-552.

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