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Department ofBotany

No. 184
April 2000

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In This Issue

Three California Plants Listed as Endangered

Last month, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed three California plants as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. A species is designated as endangered when it is at risk of becoming extinct throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Keck's checker-mallow (Sidalcea keckii), Kneeland Prairie penny-cress (Thlaspi californicum), and Yreka phlox (Phlox hirsuta) are all endemic to California and grow on serpentine soils. Serpentine, California's official state rock, breaks down into unusual soils that are high in magnesium and low in calcium, a mixture that is toxic to most plants, but can produce unique plant communities. These soils support more than 200 species of California native plants.

The Keck's checker-mallow is an annual herb in the mallow family that grows in sparsely-vegetated grasslands at elevations from 400 to 1,400 feet in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. The plant displays deep pink flowers from April through May and can grow to a height of 13 inches. Fewer than 300 of the plants remain, all in Fresno and Tulare counties. For more than 50 years, biologists believed Keck's checker-mallow was extinct because it had disappeared from its historic locations near the White River in Tulare County and Piedra in Fresno County. In 1992, however, consultants conducting a site survey for a subdivision discovered a population of 60 plants in Tulare County. Another population of 216 plants was found in Fresno County in 1998. Together, these two populations occupy a total of about three acres on both private and Federal lands.

California Kneeland Prairie penny-cress is a small plant found only in Humboldt County, California. Service botanists know of only one location where this plant still exists on clay soil outcrops in coastal prairie near Kneeland Airport, some 11 miles east of Eureka. This population of roughly 11,000 plants grows over a half-acre area on private land next to the airport. The airport itself has bisected this population of plants into two colonies. Kneeland Prairie penny-cress is an herb in the mustard family, with toothed leaves. The plant can reach a height of from 3-6 inches. It displays white flowers from May to June.

The Yreka phlox, a perennial in the phlox family, produces pink to purple flowers from April to June. Plants can grow from two to almost six inches tall. It is found only in Siskiyou County near the city of Yreka growing at elevations ranging from 2,800 to 4,400 feet in association with Jeffrey pine, incense cedar, and juniper. Botanists know of only two locations totaling less than 300 acres where it still exists. One population of Yreka phlox occurs on property owned by the City of Yreka and private landowners. The other grows in an area of mixed ownership, including the U.S. Forest Service's Klamath National Forest, a Caltrans right-of-way, and private land.

The primary threats to these plants are agricultural land conversion, urbanization, and risk of extinction from naturally occurring random events such as fire, insect predation, and disease. According to the World Conservation Union, one in every eight plant species in the world faces extinction from habitat loss and competition from non-native species. In California alone, 169 plant species are either Federally listed threatened or endangered.

Recent Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press

Smithsonian Institution Press publishes and distributes scholarly, semipopular, and general-interest books within fields that reflect the research and collections strengths of the Institution. Among these are books on conservation, biodiversity, natural history, ecology and evolutionary biology. The following books are currently available. To place an order or to get more information, please call SI Press at 1-800-782-4612, or visit

  • American Bamboos. Emmet J. Judziewicz, Lynn G. Clark, Ximena Londoño, and Margaret J. Stern. 1999. 130 color photographs, 203 line drawings. ISBN 1-56098-569-0. $45.00.
  • Bat Biology and Conservation. Thomas H. Kunz and Paul A. Racey. 1998. 14 b&w photographs, 103 line illus., 576 pp. ISBN 1-56098-825-8. $60.00.
  • Biology of Marine Mammals. John E. Reynolds III and Sentiel A. Rommel. 1999. 52 b&w photographs, 142 line illus. 600 pp. ISBN 1-56098-375-2. $75.00.
  • Common Fossil Plants of Western North America. William D. Tidwell. 1998. 91 color, 252 b&w photographs, 483 line drawings, 376 pp. Cloth: ISBN 1-56098-783-9. $49.95; Paper: ISBN 1-56098-758-8. $24.95.
  • Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals. John R. Twiss Jr. and Randall R. Reeves. 1999. 65 b&w photographs, 56 line illus. 496 pp. ISBN 1-56098-778-2. $60.00.
  • The Pheasants of the World: Biology and Natural History. Paul A. Johnsgard. 1999. 42 color photographs, 8 color lithographs, 68 b&w line drawings, 24 maps, 448 pp. ISBN 1-56098-839-8. $50.00.
  • Salamanders of the United States and Canada. James Petranka. 1998. 172 color, 311 b&w photographs, 9 line drawings, 128 maps, 592 pp. ISBN 1-56098-828-2. $60.00.
  • Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. David J. Shepherdson, Jill D. Mellen, and Michael Hutchins. 1999. 28 b&w illus., 350 pp. ISBN 1-56098- 397-3. $17.95.
  • The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Don E. Wilson and Sue Ruff. 1999. 389 color, 64 b&w photographs, 420 maps, 816 pp. ISBN 1-56098-845-2. $75.00.
  • The Tanagers: Natural History, Distribution, and Identification. Morton L. Isler and Phyllis R. Isler. 1999. 32 color plates, 263 maps, 406 pp. ISBN 0-87474-553-5. $39.95.
  • Venomous Reptiles of North America. Carl H. Ernst. 1999. 55 color, 61 b&w photographs, 236 pp. ISBN 1-56098-447-3. $29.95.

Future Meetings

November 2-3. Restoring the Rockies: Restoration and Conservation Strategies in the West. The Central Rockies Chapter of the Society for Ecological Restoration announces the first call for papers for the society's first two-day conference to be held in Keystone, Colorado. The society is accepting abstracts for paper and poster proposals pertaining to all areas of restoration, with some emphasis on riparian areas, rangeland restoration, restoration on private lands, restoration education, restoration in right-of-ways, and urban restoration. Proposals are welcome from all disciplines, backgrounds, and experience levels. Submission deadline for the first call is May 1, though proposals may be accepted past that time on a space-available basis. Abstracts may be submitted by email to:,, or by hard copy or disk to Central Rockies Chapter of the Society for Ecological Restoration, PO Box 17644, Boulder, CO 80304-0644. Contact Lisa Tasker at or (970) 923-3069 for more information.

February 19-23, 2001. Eradication of Island Invasives: Practical Actions and Results Achieved. The Invasive Species Specialist Group of IUCN will hold an international conference at the University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Papers presented and discussion sessions will be strictly limited to the subject of: "Eradication of invasive species from islands; methods used and the results achieved." The term "eradicating" may include work to remove invasive species where complete eradication is some, or many, years away but the methods used to date are achieving positive results or providing a significant learning experience. The term "island" may include true islands, natural habitat islands, remnant and artificial habitat islands, or new invasions of natural ecosystems where eradication was deemed feasible. Preference will be given to papers that provide detail of the techniques used or of the ecosystem response to the work. Presentation titles are requested by June 15, and the deadline for the receipt of abstracts is October 1. Registration will open on July 1 and forms will be available on the website at, or by contacting the Conference Manager: Mr Dick Veitch, 48 Manse Road, Papakura, New Zealand; Tel & Fax: +64-9-298 5775; E-mail:

New Publications

The Biodiversity Support Program's (BSP) Latin America and Caribbean program is proud to announce the release of Setting Geographic Priorities for Marine Conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean, written by Kathleen Sullivan Sealey and Georgina Bustamante of The Nature Conservancy (TNC). This book, published by TNC with funding from BSP, delineates nine marine biogeographic provinces for the Latin America and Caribbean region and ranks ecoregions within each province. For hard copies of this publication, please contact Ilana Locker at To read more about BSP's Latin America and Caribbean program, visit BSP is a consortium of World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, and World Resources Institute, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). BSP's mission is to promote conservation of the world's biological diversity.

In Africa parks cover an area four times the size of Spain. Worldwide, parks, designed to be natural safe havens, cover an area as large as Antarctica. Though their size looks impressive, low funding from cash-strapped governments and the demand for land for economic development means that many protected areas are 'paper parks', unable to protect nature. Funded by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Development, the newly published book Parks for Biodiversity looks at what will be required if protected areas are to be successful in the next century. Written for both policy makers and field practitioners, the publication reviews the current status of protected areas in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. It analyses how parks contribute to development in each region and what action is needed by governments and international donors to secure their future. The work was carried out by IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas, which is a network of some 1,300 protected area professionals around the world. The book is available for $24.75 USD / 16.50 GBP plus postage from IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, United Kingdom; Tel: 0044 1223 277894; Fax: 0044 1223 277175; E-mail:; or visit

Editor's Note

New The Biological Conservation Newsletter now features Journal Links to the many scientific journals listed below. If you would like to get more information on obtaining one of the articles listed in the Current Literature, visit the home page of that journal. If you do not see a particular journal in the list of links, please contact me (E-mail: and I'll be sure to add it.

Current Literature

Al-Khayat, A.H. 1999. A new record of the rare Notholirion koeiei Rech.f. (Liliaceae) from NE Iraq. Willdenowia 29(1/2):155-158.

Aparicio, A., Albaladejo, R.G., Porras, M., and Ceballos, G. 2000. Isozyme evidence for natural hybridization in Phlomis (Lamiaceae): hybrid origin of the rare P. x margaritae. Ann. Botany 85(1):7-12.

Azarbayjani, F.F., Burgin, S., and Richardson, B.J. 1999. Arboreal arthropod biodiversity in woodlands. II. The pattern of recovery of diversity on Melaleuca linariifolia following defaunation. Aust. J. Ecol. 24(6):655-661.

Báldi, A. 1999. Microclimate and vegetation edge effects in a reedbed in Hungary. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1697-1706.

Barden, L.S. 2000. A common species at the edge of its range: conservation of bear oak (Quercus ilicifolia) and its low elevation rocky summit community, in North Carolina (USA). Nat. Areas J. 20(1):85-89.

Beasley, C.R., and Roberts, D. 1999. Assessing the conservation status of the freshwater pearl mussel in the north of Ireland - relevance of growth and age characteristics. J. Conchology 36:53-61.

Bellingham, P.J., Stewart, G.H., and Allen, R.B. 1999. Tree species richness and turnover throughout New Zealand forests. J. Veg. Sci. 10(6):825-832.

Bertram, D.F., Jones, I.L., Cooch, E.G., Knechtel, H.A., and Cooke, F. 2000. Survival rates of Cassin's and Rhinoceros Auklets at Triangle Island, British Columbia. The Condor 102(1):155-162.

Booker, J.F., and Ward, F.A. 1999. Instream flows and endangered species in an international river basin: the Upper Rio Grande. Am. J. Agricult. Econom. 81(5):1262-1267.

Bowen, B.W. 2000. A field born in conservation's cold war. TREE 15(1):1-3.

Brown, B.L., Gunter, T.P., Waters, J.M., and Epifanio, J.M. 2000. Evaluating genetic diversity associated with propagation-assisted restoration of American shad. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):294-303.

Brown, K.S. 2000. A new breed of scientist-advocate emerges. Science 287(5456):1192-1195.

Bullock, S.H. 1999. The vegetation of northwestern Baja California in the context of environmental instability. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 72(4):501-516.

Bulte, E., and Van Kooten, G.C. 2000. Economic science, endangered species, and biodiversity loss. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):113-119.

Cairns, J. 1999. Balancing ecological impairment and repair for sustainability. Hydrobiologia 416:77-83.

Calero, C., Ibanez, O., Mayol, M., and Rossello, J.A. 1999. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers detect a single phenotype in Lysimachia minoricensis J.J. Rodr. (Primulaceae), a wild extinct plant. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):2133-2136.

Carey, A.B. 2000. Effects of new forest management strategies on squirrel populations. Ecol. Appl. 10(1):248-257.

Cassens, I., Tiedemann, R., Suchentrunk, F., and Hartl, G.B. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the European otter (Lutra lutra) and the use of spatial autocorrelation analysis in conservation. J. Heredity 91(1):31-35.

Castellani, C. 2000. Strategic conservation interventions: a case study from the Agulhas Plain in Southern Africa. Oryx 34(1):6.

Chapman, C.A., Balcomb, S.R., Gillespie, T.R., Skorupa, J.P., and Struhsaker, T.T. 2000. Long-term effects of logging on African primate communities: a 28-year comparison from Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):207-217.

Chen, B.M. 1999. The existing state, future change trends in land-use and food production capacities in China. Ambio 28(8):682-686.

Clarke, G.M., and O'Dwyer, C. 2000. Genetic variability and population structure of the endangered golden sun moth, Synemon plana. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):371-381.

Clevenger, A.P., and Waltho, N. 2000. Factors influencing the effectiveness of wildlife underpasses in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):47-56.

Collevatti, R.G., Brondani, R.V., and Grattapaglia, D. 1999. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of a Brazilian endangered tree species Caryocar brasiliense. Heredity 83:748-756.

Collingham, Y.C., and Huntley, B. 2000. Impacts of habitat fragmentation and patch size upon migration rates. Ecol. Appl. 10(1):131-144.

Compton, S.G., and Mccormack, G. 1999. The Pacific Banyan in the Cook Islands: have its pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms been disrupted, and does it matter? Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1707-1715.

Cuenca, S., and Amo-Marco, J.B. 2000. In vitro propagation of Centaurea spachii from inflorescence stems. Plant Growth Reg. 30(2):99-103.

Dale, S., Mork, K., Solvang, R., and Plumptre, A.J. 2000. Edge effects on the understory bird community in a logged forest in Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):265-276.

de Jong, N.H. 2000. Woody plant restoration and natural regeneration in wet meadow at Coomonderry Swamp on the south coast of New South Wales. Mar. Freshwater Res. 51(1):81-89.

De Miguel, J.M. 1999. Nature and configuration of the agricultural-forestry-pasture landscape in the conservation of biological diversity in Spain. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 72(4):547-557.

Delgado, A., and Moreira, F. 2000. Bird assemblages of an Iberian cereal steppe. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 78(1):65-76.

Desaigues, B., and Ami, D. 1999. An estimation of the social benefits of preserving biodiversity. Int. J. Environ. Poll. 12(4):400-413.

Dorrough, J., and Ash, J.E. 1999. Using past and present habitat to predict the current distribution and abundance of a rare cryptic lizard, Delma impar (Pygopodidae). Aust. J. Ecol. 24(6):614-624.

Douglas, M.R., and Douglas, M.E. 2000. Late season reproduction by big-river catostomidae in Grand Canyon (Arizona). Copeia 100(1):238-244.

Drake, C.M. 1999. A review of the status, distribution and habitat requirements of Vertigo moulinsiana in England. J. Conchology 36:63-79.

Du Toit, J.T., and Cumming, D.H.M. 1999. Functional significance of ungulate diversity in African savannas and the ecological implications of the spread of pastoralism. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1643-1661.

Dulvy, N.K., Metcalfe, J.D., Glanville, J., Pawson, M.G., and Reynolds, J.D. 2000. Fishery stability, local extinctions, and shifts in community structure in skates. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):283-293.

Edgar, G.J., Barrett, N.S., Graddon, D.J., and Last, P.R. 2000. The conservation significance of estuaries: a classification of Tasmanian estuaries using ecological, physical and demographic attributes as a case study. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):383-397.

Eguiarte, L.E., Larson-Guerra, J., Nunez-Farfan, J., Martinez-Palacios, A., Del Prado, K.S., and Arita, H.T. 1999. Phylogenetic diversity and conservation: examples at different scales and a population level proposal for Agave victoriae-reginae in the Mexican Chihuahuan desert. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 72(4):475-492.

Ehrenfeld, D. 2000. War and peace and conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):105-112.

Elphick, C.S. 2000. Functional equivalency between rice fields and seminatural wetland habitats. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):181-191.

Field, C.D. 1999. Mangrove rehabilitation: choice and necessity. Hydrobiologia 413:47-52.

Findlay, C.S., and Bourdages, J. 2000. Response time of wetland biodiversity to road construction on adjacent lands. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):86-94.

Flagstad, Ø., Syvertsen, P.O., Stenseth, N.C., Stacy, J.E., Olsaker, I., Røed, K.H., and Jakobsen, K.S. 2000. Genetic variability in Swayne's hartebeest, an endangered antelope of Ethiopia. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):254-264.

Forman, R.T.T. 2000. Estimate of the area affected ecologically by the road system in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):31-35.

Forman, R.T.T., and Deblinger, R.D. 2000. The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (USA) suburban highway. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):36-46.

Frith, C.B., and Poulsen, M.K. 1999. Distribution and status of the paradise crow Lycocorax pyrrhopterus and standardwing bird of paradise Semioptera wallacii, with notes on biology and nidification. Emu 99:229-238.

Fule, P.Z., Garcia-Arevalo, A., and Covington, W.W. 2000. Effects of an intense wildfire in a Mexican oak-pine forest. Forest Science 46(1):52-61.

Gibbs, J.P. 2000. Wetland loss and biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):314-317.

Gillies, A.C.M., Navarro, C., Lowe, A.J., Newton, A.C., Hernandez, M., Wilson, J., and Cornelius, J.P. 1999. Genetic diversity in Mesoamerican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), assessed using RAPDs. Heredity 83:722-732.

Goldstein, P.Z., Desalle, R., Amato, G., and Vogler, A.P. 2000. Conservation genetics at the species boundary. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):120-131.

Gomes, I., Leyens, T., da Luz, B., Costa, J., and Gonçalves, F. 1999. New data on the distribution and conservation status of some angiosperms of the Cape Verde Islands, W. Africa. Willdenowia 29(1/2):105-114.

Goreau, T., McClanahan, T., Hayes, R., and Strong, A. 2000. Conservation of coral reefs after the 1998 global bleaching event. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):5-15.

Grant, P.R., Curry, R.L., and Grant, B.R. 2000. A remnant population of the Floreana mockingbird on Champion Island, Galapagos. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):285-290.

Greene, B. 1999. Genetic variation and hybridisation of black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae) and pied stilts (H. h. leucocephalus), Order Charadriiformes. N. Z. J. Zool. 26(4):271-277.

Griffin, G.J. 2000. Blight control and restoration of the American chestnut. Journal of Forestry 98(2):22-27.

Griffith, D.M. 2000. Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity after fire. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):325-326.

Groombridge, J.J., Jones, C.G., Bruford, M.W., and Nichols, R.A. 2000. 'Ghost' alleles of the Mauritius kestrel. Nature 403(6770):616.

Hailey, A. 2000. The effects of fire and mechanical habitat destruction on survival of the tortoise Testudo hermanni in Northern Greece. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):321-333.

Hamilton, J.R., Green, G.P., and Holland, D. 1999. Modeling the reallocation of Snake River water for endangered salmon. Am. J. Agricult. Econom. 81(5):1252-1256.

Hamilton, S.J. 1999. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado river basin. Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 5(6):1153-1180.

Haskell, D.G. 2000. Effects of forest roads on macroinvertebrate soil fauna of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):57-63.

He, T.H., Rao, G.Y., and You, R.L. 2000. Reproductive biology of Ophiopogon xylorrhizus (Liliaceae S. L.): an endangered endemic of Yunnan, southwest China. Aust. J. Bot. 48(1):101-107.

Hedrick, P.W., Dowling, T.E., Minckley, W.L., Tibbets, C.A., DeMarais, B.D., and Marsh, P.C. 2000. Establishing a captive broodstock for the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans). J. Heredity 91(1):35-39.

Hendrix, S.D., and Kyhl, J.F. 2000. Population size and reproduction in Phlox pilosa. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):304-313.

Hoare, R. 2000. African elephants and humans in conflict: the outlook for co-existence. Oryx 34(1):34-38.

Hourdequin, M. 2000. Ecological effects of roads - introduction. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):16-17.

How, R.A., and Hillcox, S.J. 2000. Brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, populations in south-western Australia: demography, diet and conservation status. Wildlife Res. 27(1):81-89.

Hsu, T.W., Moore, S.J., and Chiang, T.Y. 2000. Low RAPD polymorphism in Archangiopteris itoi, a rare and endemic fern in Taiwan. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 41(1):15-18.

Huffman, J.M., and Werner, P.A. 2000. Restoration of Florida pine savanna: flowering response of Lilium catesbaei to fire and roller-chopping. Nat. Areas J. 20(1):12-23.

Huyser, O., Ryan, P.G., and Cooper, J. 2000. Changes in population size, habitat use and breeding biology of lesser sheathbills (Chionis minor) at Marion Island: impacts of cats, mice and climate change? Biol. Conserv. 92(3):299-310.

Jones, J.A., Swanson, F.J., Wemple, B.C., and Snyder, K.U. 2000. Effects of roads on hydrology, geomorphology, and disturbance patches in stream networks. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):76-85.

Keim, R.F., Skaugset, A.E., and Bateman, D.S. 2000. Dynamics of coarse woody debris placed in three Oregon streams. Forest Science 46(1):13-22.

Keith, P. 2000. The part played by protected areas in the conservation of threatened French freshwater fish. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):265-273.

Kelly, S., Scott, D., MacDiarmid, A.B., and Babcock, R.C. 2000. Spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, recovery in New Zealand marine reserves. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):359-369.

Kelt, D.A. 2000. Small mammal communities in rainforest fragments in Central Southern Chile. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):345-358.

Kendle, A.D., and Rose, J.E. 2000. The aliens have landed! What are the justifications for 'native only' policies in landscape plantings? Landscape Urban Plan. 47(1-2):19-31.

Kerkhoff, A.J., Milne, B.T., and Maehr, D.S. 2000. Toward a panther-centered view of the forests of South Florida. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(1):1. <>

Killeen, I.J. 1999. Distribution and conservation status of Perforatella rubiginosa (Pulmonata: Helicidae) in Britain. J. Conchology 36:29-41.

Kirkman, L.K., Golladay, S.W., Laclaire, L., and Sutter, R. 1999. Biodiversity in southeastern, seasonally ponded, isolated wetlands: management and policy perspectives for research and conservation. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 18(4):553-562.

Klug, J.L., Fischer, J.M., Ives, A.R., and Dennis, B. 2000. Compensatory dynamics in planktonic community responses to pH perturbations. Ecology 81(2):387-398.

Knoppers, B., Meyerhofer, M., Marone, E., Dutz, J., Lopes, R., Leipe, T., and de Camargo, R. 1999. Compartments of the pelagic system and material exchange at the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs, Brazil. Archive of Fishery and Marine Research 47(2-3):285-306.

Kristensen, T.K., and Brown, D.S. 1999. Control of intermediate host snails for parasitic diseases - a threat to biodiversity in African freshwaters? Malacologia 41(2):379-391.

Kruess, A., and Tscharntke, T. 2000. Species richness and parasitism in a fragmented landscape: experiments and field studies with insects on Vicia sepium. Oecologia 122(1):129-137.

Kuusinen, M., and Penttinen, A. 1999. Spatial pattern of the threatened epiphytic bryophyte Neckera pennata at two scales in a fragmented boreal forest. Ecography 22(6):729-735.

Larraz, D.S. 1999. Dumps for dead livestock and the conservation of wintering red kites (Milvus milvus). J. Raptor Res. 33(4):338-340.

Latta, S.C. 2000. Making the leap from researcher to planner: lessons from avian conservation planning in the Dominican Republic. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):132-139.

Laurance, W.F., Vasconcelos, H.L., and Lovejoy, T.E. 2000. Forest loss and fragmentation in the Amazon: implications for wildlife conservation. Oryx 34(1):39-45.

Le Houerou, H.N. 2000. Restoration and rehabilitation of arid and semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems in North Africa and West Asia: a review. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 14(1):3-14.

Leon-Cortes, J.L., Cowley, M.J.R., and Thomas, C.D. 1999. Detecting decline in a formerly widespread species: how common is the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus? Ecography 22(6):643-650.

Lode, T. 1999. Genetic bottleneck in the threatened western population of European mink Mustela lutreola. Italian Journal of Zoology 66(4):351-353.

Mac Nally, R., and Horrocks, G. 2000. Landscape-scale conservation of an endangered migrant: the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) in its winter range. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):335-343.

Maddock, A., and Benn, G.A. 2000. Identification of conservation-worthy areas in northern Zululand, South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):155-166.

Mangel, M. 2000. On the fraction of habitat allocated to marine reserves. Ecol. Letters 3(1):15-22.

Marrs, R.H. 1999. Above-ground mass and species diversity: assessing the effects of compartmentation and the setting of conservation targets. Oikos 87(3):541-548.

Marsh, A.C.W., and Harris, S. 2000. Partitioning of woodland habitat resources by two sympatric species of Apodemus: lessons for the conservation of the yellow-necked mouse (A. flavicollis) in Britain. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):275-283.

Masuda, M., Maki, M., and Yahara, T. 1999. Effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination in a Japanese endangered halophyte Triglochin maritimum (Juncaginaceae). Journal of Plant Research 112(1108):457-461.

Mattoni, R., Longcore, T., and Novotny, V. 2000. Arthropod monitoring for fine-scale habitat analysis: a case study of the El Segundo sand dunes. Environ. Manag. 25(4):445-452.

Maurer, U., Peschel, T., and Schmitz, S. 2000. The flora of selected urban land-use types in Berlin and Potsdam with regard to nature conservation in cities. Landscape Urban Plan. 46(4):209-215.

McCartan, S.A., and van Staden, J. 1999. Micropropagation of members of the Hyacinthaceae with medicinal and ornamental potential - a review. S. Afr. J. Bot. 65(5-6):361-369.

McGeoch, M.A., and Gaston, K.J. 2000. Edge effects on the prevalence and mortality factors of Phytomyza ilicis (Diptera, Agromyzidae) in a Suburban Woodland. Ecol. Letters 3(1):23-29.

McGrady-Steed, J., and Morin, P.J. 2000. Biodiversity, density compensation, and the dynamics of populations and functional groups. Ecology 81(2):361-373.

McGrath, R.J., and Bass, D. 1999. Seed dispersal by emus on the New South Wales north-east coast. Emu 99:248-252.

Meijaard, E., and Nijman, V. 2000. The local extinction of the proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus in Pulau Kaget Nature Reserve, Indonesia. Oryx 34(1):66-70.

Meir, E., and Fagan, W.F. 2000. Will observation error and biases ruin the use of simple extinction models? Conserv. Biol. 14(1):148-154.

Melvin, S.L., Gawlik, D.E., and Scharff, T. 1999. Long-term movement patterns for seven species of wading birds. Waterbirds 22(3):411-416.

Mendoza, E., and Dirzo, R. 1999. Deforestation in Lacandonia (southeast Mexico): evidence for the declaration of the northernmost tropical hot-spot. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1621-1641.

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Miller, C., and Urban, D.L. 2000. Modeling the effects of fire management alternatives on Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Ecol. Appl. 10(1):85-94.

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Neves, R.J. 1999. Conservation and commerce: management of freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionoidea) resources in the United States. Malacologia 41(2):461-474.

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Parendes, L.A., and Jones, J.A. 2000. Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):64-75.

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Scharf, W. 1999. Restoration of the highly eutrophic Lingese Reservoir. Hydrobiologia 416:85-96.

Shkedy, Y., and Saltz, D. 2000. Characterizing core and corridor use by Nubian ibex in the Negev Desert, Israel. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):200-206.

Simmons, E. 1999. Restoration of landfill sites for ecological diversity. Waste Manag. Res. 17(6):511-519.

Simonetti, J.A. 1999. Diversity and conservation of terrestrial vertebrates in Mediterranean Chile. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 72(4):493-500.

Sluys, R. 1999. Global diversity of land planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Terricola): a new indicator-taxon in biodiversity and conservation studies. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1663-1681.

Starnes, S.M., Kennedy, C.A., and Petranka, J.W. 2000. Sensitivity of embryos of southern Appalachian amphibians to ambient solar UV-B radiation. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):277-282.

Thirgood, S., Redpath, S., Newton, I., and Hudson, P. 2000. Raptors and red grouse: conservation conflicts and management solutions. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):95-104.

Traveset, A. 1999. The importance of mutualisms for biodiversity conservation in insular ecosystems. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 72(4):527-538.

Trombulak, S.C., and Frissell, C.A. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):18-30.

Tshiguvho, T.E., Dean, W.R.J., and Robertson, H.G. 1999. Conservation value of road verges in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa: ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as bio-indicators. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1683-1695.

Tuck, G.N., and Possingham, H.P. 2000. Marine protected areas for spatially structured exploited stocks. Mar. Ecol. -Progress Series 192:89-101.

Umapathy, G., and Kumar, A. 2000. The occurrence of arboreal mammals in the rain forest fragments in the Anamalai Hills, south India. Biol. Conserv. 92(3):311-319.

Vasquez, R.A., and Simonetti, J.A. 1999. Life history traits and sensitivity to landscape change: the case of birds and mammals of Mediterranean Chile. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 72(4):517-525.

Veech, J.A. 2000. Choice of species-area function affects identification of hotspots. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):140-147.

Vellak, K., and Paal, J. 1999. Diversity of bryophyte vegetation in some forest types in Estonia: a comparison of old unmanaged and managed forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1595-1620.

Wagner, W.L., and Harris, E.M. 2000. A unique Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae: Alsinoideae) with only five fertile stamens. Am. J. Bot. 87(2):153-160.

Wang, X.M., Peng, J.T., and Zhou, H.M. 2000. Preliminary observations on the distribution and status of dwarf blue sheep Pseudois schaeferi. Oryx 34(1):21-26.

Watson, R.T., and Razafindramanana, S. 1999. Nearest neighbor nest distances, home range and territory area of the Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides). J. Raptor Res. 33(4):335-338.

Werner, T.B., Pinto, L.P., Dutra, G.F., and Pereira, P.G.D. 2000. Abrolhos 2000: conserving the southern Atlantic's richest coastal biodiversity into the next century. Coastal Management 28(1):99-108.

Wikstrom, P., and Eriksson, L.O. 2000. Solving the stand management problem under biodiversity-related considerations. Forest Ecol. Manag. 126(3):361-376.

Wilson, E.O. 2000. On the future of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):1-3.

Wimberly, M.C., Spies, T.A., Long, C.J., and Whitlock, C. 2000. Simulating historical variability in the amount of old forests in the Oregon coast range. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):167-180.

Wood, R.M., and Raley, M.E. 2000. Cytochrome b sequence variation in the crystal darter Crystallaria asprella (Actinopterygii: Percidae). Copeia 100(1):20-26.

Wright, S.J., Zeballos, H., Domínguez, I., Gallardo, M.M., Moreno, M.C., and Ibáñez, R. 2000. Poachers alter mammal abundance, seed dispersal, and seed predation in a neotropical forest. Conserv. Biol. 14(1):227-239.

Xie, P., and Chen, Y.Y. 1999. Threats to biodiversity in Chinese inland waters. Ambio 28(8):674-681.

Yahr, R., Menges, E.S., and Berry, D. 2000. Effects of drainage, fire exclusion, and time-since-fire on endemic cutthroat grass communities in central Florida. Nat. Areas J. 20(1):3-11.

Zalba, S.M., and Nebbia, A.J. 1999. Neosparton darwinii (Verbenaceae), a restricted endemic species. Is it also endangered? Biodivers. Conserv. 8(12):1585-1593.

Zhao, S.D. 1999. Biodiversity and conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve. Ambio 28(8):639-641.

Zhao, X.Q., and Zhou, X.M. 1999. Ecological basis of alpine meadow ecosystem management in Tibet: Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station. Ambio 28(8):642-647.

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