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Department ofBotany

No. 185
May 2000

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In This Issue

Canada Enacts Species at Risk Act

The Government of Canada unveiled its first-ever bill designed to protect endangered Canadian wildlife from extinction. The objective of the legislation is to help birds, fish, mammals, plants, amphibians, reptiles and insects at risk of extinction to recover to sustainable levels. The legislation represents a balanced, practical approach for the protection of species and their habitats. The Species at Risk Act (SARA) provides the authority to prohibit the destruction of endangered or threatened species and their critical habitat on all lands in Canada. The Act also provides the emergency authority to list species in imminent danger. The Act complements the roles of the provinces and territories, and involves landowners, land users, Aboriginal peoples, fishing interests and citizens in the recovery process.

The legislation covers all wildlife species listed as being at risk and their critical habitats. The Act will, for the first time, legally recognize the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and provide for rigorous, independent and public scientific assessments. Other features include using the best available scientific, Aboriginal traditional and community knowledge for the design of recovery planning for species listed as endangered and threatened, as well as incentives for conservation measures and compensation provisions.

Whooping CraneOver the last 22 years, COSEWIC has classified 340 species in Canada as being at risk. This means they are extinct, extirpated (no longer in the wild in Canada but existing in the wild elsewhere), endangered, threatened or vulnerable. The proposed Act will cover all wildlife species listed as being at risk nationally and their critical habitats. SARA will be a cornerstone in species protection and recovery. A number of other laws and agreements currently in force will help in this effort. These include the Fisheries Act, the Migratory Birds Convention Act, the National Parks Act, the Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and the Canada Wildlife Act.

SARA prohibits the killing, harming, harassing, capturing or taking of species officially listed as threatened, endangered or extirpated, and the destruction of their residences. Recovery strategies and action plans will identify the critical habitat of a threatened or endangered species needing protection. Once identified, critical habitat will be protected by conservation agreements, provincial or territorial legislation, or federal prohibitions. Under SARA, there will be mandatory recovery strategies and action plans for endangered or threatened species, and management plans for species of special concern. SARA will enable compensation to be paid to individuals, organizations, Aboriginal peoples or businesses for any extraordinary or unfair impact for losses suffered as a result of prohibiting the destruction of critical habitat. SARA will promote and enable funding for voluntary conservation activities and conservation agreements by individuals, organizations, communities, businesses or governments to protect species and habitats.

Species at Risk in Canada has a web site at You can search for information either by selecting an area on a map (coming soon), or by a species search (by risk category, range, Latin name and common name). The status of these species is assigned by COSEWIC. This site is a partnership effort of four organizations: Environment Canada's Canadian Wildlife Service, Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Museum of Nature and the Canadian Wildlife Federation.

(Adapted from The Green Lane, April 11, 2000)

New Journal on Native Plants

Native Plants Journal is a new journal providing a forum for dispersing practical information about the growing and planting of North American endemics for conservation, landscaping, reforestation, and restoration. Twice each year, the journal publishes papers that are useful to, and understandable by, growers and planters of native plants, and that contribute significantly to scientific literature. The first issue of Native Plants Journal is now available, in full color, and full of articles with information on fern propagation, Eriogonum seed germination, conservation biology of an endangered goldenrod, establishing native grasses with herbicides, Meehania cordata, and more. Future articles include growing subaquatic vegetation, field performance of California oaks, registering pesticides, a low-tech seed collection system, several propagation protocols, using coir as a growing medium, and much more.

First-year, complimentary copies are available while supplies last. Request yours on-line at, or by email at Native Plants Journal is a cooperative effort of the USDA Forest Service and the University of Idaho, with assistance from the USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Natural Resource Conservation Service. Papers are published as either refereed or general technical. For more information, including instructions for contributors, please contact Kas Dumroese at

Job Opportunities

The Environmental Science for Social Change (ESSC) offers career opportunities for the position of Hydrology Research Associate. The job entails undertaking hydrological research and analysis in relation to the environment and natural resource management. The position reports to the Executive Director and coordinates with the Project Head. The Hydrology Research Associate shall be responsible for implementing hydrological research activities, setting up and maintaining field hydrological apparatus, data-gathering and data analysis. The work requires the associate to spend at least 60% of the time in the field. The position requires knowledge of scientific and analytical methods and prior field experience of at least 2 years. Candidates must have at least a bachelor's degree, preferably in physical science and mathematics. Candidates must be willing to work in tribal community and in rural conditions. He/She must be physically healthy and fit to travel, and must be prepared to undertake fieldwork and relocate. He/She must also be able to work well under pressure and within deadlines. Equally important is the willingness to work in a growing and dynamic institution, with an existing interdisciplinary research team. The position offers excellent opportunities for learning specialized research. Please send your letter of interest by email to Applicants may send their letter of application, transcript of records, updated comprehensive resume with references and one passport size photo to Director for Operations, ESSC, Inc., 1/F Manila Observatory Bldg., Ateneo University Campus, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1101, Philippines; or P.O. Box 244, U.P. Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

A new web site offers online searchable field guides to over 4,800 plant and animal species. Derived from 35 different Audubon Society Field Guides, Regional Guides, and Nature Guides, the database is keyword-searchable by group (mammals, amphibians, fishes, trees, etc.) or browseable within subheadings for each group. The field guide entries include a large thumbnail image, description, and varying additional information. Users can also conduct an advanced search by size, color, habitat, region, and other options within each group. Registered members (its free) can add selected plants or animals to their "Life List," which is saved at the site, along with notes or comments. While the field guides alone make the site worth a visit, there is more, including an Ask an Expert message board, Habitat Guides, news features, tips for teachers, and in the future, a comprehensive Outdoor Planner. Point your web browser to

New Publications

Environmental Science for Social Change (ESSC) announces three new publications now available by mail. The publication Decline of the Philippine Forest consists of a large wall chart, graphically depicting the destruction of the forest from the year 1900 until the present. The accompanying text discusses the causes and effects of deforestation and presents the urgent choices facing the nation. The publication Mining Revisited: Can an Understanding of Perspectives Help? comprises two large wall charts and text. The charts depict the extent of mining claims as well as ancestral domain claims to highlight the possible areas of conflict. The text brings to the fore the complexity of the mining issue by presenting responses from four involved sectors of society, providing a basis for further dialogue. The monograph Forest People Facing Change gives an insight on the Philippine Working Group: their orientation, strategy and learnings on community forest management based on their site visits and dialogues with communities all over the country. To order, contact Environmental Science for Social Change (ESSC), 1/F Manila Observatory Building, Ateneo de Manila University Campus, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1101, Philippines; Tel: (63-2) 426-5921; Fax: (63-2) 426-5958; E-mail:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) announces the publication of Handbook of Incentive Measures for Biodiversity: Design and Implementation. The handbook draws on the experiences described in 22 case studies to develop a comprehensive step-by-step process for identifying and implementing appropriate incentive measures for biodiversity conservation, and the sustainable use of its components. It identifies the incentive measures that are most suitable for particular ecosystems, and for addressing the specific sectoral pressures in effect, describing both the advantages and the disadvantages of each incentive measure. The publication is available in paperback and/or PDF E-Book (FREE sample attached in PDF format) by visiting

Three new publications are now available from the Ecological Society of America. In Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes, a panel of twelve scientists concludes that ecosystem productivity and stability decreases with reduced biodiversity. Biotic Invasions: Causes, Epidemiology, Global Consequences and Control describes how some foreign plants and animals invade and colonize new lands, causing a reduction in native species, the clogging of rivers and the enhancement of flooding. In the third publication, Applying Ecological Principles to Management of the U.S. National Forests, the authors identify major ecological considerations that should be incorporated into sound forest management policy and expose erroneous assumptions that underlie a number of current proposals. These three publications are part of a larger series of reports known as Issues in Ecology, a series designed to present ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. All three publications can be found online at Hard copies are also available at a price of $3.00 for single copies or $2.00 for bulk copies of 50 or more. To order call (202) 833-8773; Fax: 202-833-8775; E-mail:

Current Literature

Allen, G.R. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Pterapogon kauderni koumans, 1933 (Apogonidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(2):142.

Ananthakrishnan, T.N. 2000. Changing landscapes, ecodiversity and insect faunal dynamics: the Tenmalai (Western Ghats) experience. Curr. Sci. 78(4):387-390.

Anderson, G.J., Bernardello, G., Lopez, P., Stuessy, T.F., and Crawford, D.J. 2000. Dioecy and wind pollination in Pernettya rigida (Ericaceae) of the Juan Fernandez Islands. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 132(2):121-141.

Arlettaz, R., Godat, S., and Meyer, H. 2000. Competition for food by expanding pipistrelle bat populations (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) might contribute to the decline of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Biol. Conserv. 93(1):55-60.

Barratt, E.M., Gurnell, J., Malarky, G., Deaville, R., and Bruford, M.W. 1999. Genetic structure of fragmented populations of red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in the UK. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S55-S63.

Ben-Ari, E.T. 2000. Defender of the voiceless: Wallace Stegner's conservation legacy. BioScience 50(3):253-257.

Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Vázquez, D.P., and Manne, L.L. 2000. The calculus of biodiversity: integrating phylogeny and conservation. TREE 15(3):92-94.

Bloomer, P., and Impson, N.D. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA differentiation in the critically endangered Berg River redfin (Pseudobarbus burgi). J. Heredity 91(2):122-127.

Bobadilla, U.L., and Ferrari, S.F. 2000. Habitat use by Chiropotes satanas utahicki and syntopic platyrrhines in eastern Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 50(3):215-224.

Borrvall, C., Ebenman, B., and Jonsson, T. 2000. Biodiversity lessens the risk of cascading extinction in model food webs. Ecol. Letters 3(2):131-136.

Bowen, B.W. 1999. Preserving genes, species, or ecosystems? Healing the fractured foundations of conservation policy. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S5-S10.

Bradshaw, G.A., and Borchers, J.G. 2000. Uncertainty as information: narrowing the science-policy gap. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(1):7. <>

Brook, B.W., Burgman, M.A., and Frankham, R. 2000. Differences and congruencies between PVA packages: the importance of sex ratio for predictions of extinction risk. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(1):6. <>

Brook, B.W., O'Grady, J.J., Chapman, A.P., Burgman, M.A., Akcakaya, H.R., and Frankham, R. 2000. Predictive accuracy of population viability analysis in conservation biology. Nature 404(6776):385-387.

Brown, C.S., and Rice, K.J. 2000. The mark of zorro: effects of the exotic annual grass Vulpia myuros on California native perennial grasses. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):10-17.

Buerkle, C.A. 2000. Morphological variation among migratory and nonmigratory populations of Prairie Warblers. Wilson Bull. 112(1):99-107.

Bulte, E.H., Joenje, M., and Jansen, H.G.P. 2000. Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica? Can. J. Forest Res. 30(3):495-506.

Carlsen, T.M., Menke, J.W., and Pavlik, B.M. 2000. Reducing competitive suppression of a rare annual forb by restoring native California perennial grasslands. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):18-29.

Carrillo-Garcia, A., Bashan, Y., Rivera, E.D., and Bethlenfalvay, F.J. 2000. Effects of resource-island soils, competition, and inoculation with Azospirillum on survival and growth of Pachycereus pringlei, the giant cactus of the Sonoran Desert. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):65-73.

Caswell, H. 2000. Prospective and retrospective perturbation analyses: their roles in conservation biology. Ecology 81(3):619-627.

Chapman, C.A., and Lambert, J.E. 2000. Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Am. J. Primatol. 50(3):169-185.

Christen, K., and Wilson, E.O. 2000. Biodiversity at the crossroads. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(5):122A-128A.

Chust, G., Ducrot, D., Riera, J.L.L., and Pretus, J.L.L. 1999. Characterizing human-modelled landscapes at a stationary state: a case study of Minorca, Spain. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):322-331.

Chweya, J.A., and Eyzaguirre, P.B., Eds. 1999. The Biodiversity of Traditional Leafy Vegetables. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Rome, Italy. 182 pp.

Ciofi, C., and Bruford, M.W. 1999. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S17-S30.

Clarke, H. 2000. Bird migrations and the international economics of species conservation. Aust. J. Agricult. Resource Econom. 44(1):31-54.

Clewell, A.F. 2000. Restoration of natural capital. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):1.

Cognetti, G., and Maltagliati, F. 2000. Biodiversity and adaptive mechanisms in brackish water fauna. Mar. Pollution Bull. 40(1):7-14.

Collar, N.J. 2000. Opinion collecting and conservation: cause and effect. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(1):1-15.

Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(1):2. <>

Cordeiro, N.J., and Githiru, M. 2000. Conservation evaluation for birds of Brachylaena woodland and mixed dry forest in north-east Tanzania. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(1):47-65.

Cornell, H.V. 1999. Unsaturation and regional influences on species richness in ecological communities: a review of the evidence. Ecoscience 6(3):303-315.

Costanza, R. 2000. Visions of alternative (unpredictable) futures and their use in policy analysis. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(1):5. <>

da Silva, J.M.C., and Tabarelli, M. 2000. Tree species impoverishment and the future flora of the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil. Nature 404(6773):72-74.

Danielson, B.J., and Hubbard, M.W. 2000. The influence of corridors on the movement behavior of individual Peromyscus polionotus in experimental landscapes. Landscape Ecol. 15(4):323-331.

Daszak, P. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife - threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287(5452):443.

Davis, M.A., Peterson, D.W., Reich, P.B., Crozier, M., Query, T., Mitchell, E., Huntington, J., and Bazakas, P. 2000. Restoring savanna using fire: impact on the breeding bird community. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):30-40.

de Koning, G.H.J., Veldkamp, A., and Fresco, L.O. 1999. Exploring changes in Ecuadorian land use for food production and their effects on natural resources. J. Environ. Manag. 57(4):221-237.

de Kroon, H., van Groenendael, J., and Ehrlen, J. 2000. Elasticities: a review of methods and model limitations. Ecology 81(3):607-618.

Doukakis, P., Birstein, V.J., Ruban, G.I., and Desalle, R. 1999. Molecular genetic analysis among subspecies of two Eurasian sturgeon species, Acipenser baerii and A. stellatus. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S117-S127.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F., and Dowsett, R.J. 2000. Birds of the Lobeke Faunal Reserve, Cameroon, and its regional importance for conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(1):67-87.

Dudgeon, D. 2000. Riverine biodiversity in Asia: a challenge for conservation biology. Hydrobiologia 418:1-13.

Easterling, M.R., Ellner, S.P., and Dixon, P.M. 2000. Size-specific sensitivity: applying a new structured population model. Ecology 81(3):694-708.

Edo, K., Kawamula, H., and Higashi, S. 2000. The structure and dimensions of redds and egg pockets of the endangered salmonid, Sakhalin taimen. J. Fish Biol. 56(4):890-904.

Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2000. Defining the limits of restoration: the need for realistic goals. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):2-9.

Esselink, P., Zijlstra, W., Dijkema, K.S., and van Diggelen, R. 2000. The effects of decreased management on plant-species distribution patterns in a salt marsh nature reserve in the Wadden Sea. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):61-76.

Fall, J.J. 1999. Transboundary biosphere reserves: a new framework for cooperation. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):252-255.

Fearnside, P.M. 1999. Biodiversity as an environmental service in Brazil's Amazonian forests: risks, value and conservation. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):305-321.

Fleishman, E., Murphy, D.D., and Brussard, P.E. 2000. A new method for selection of umbrella species for conservation planning. Ecol. Appl. 10(2):569-579.

Fluharty, D. 2000. Habitat protection, ecological issues, and implementation of the Sustainable Fisheries Act. Ecol. Appl. 10(2):325-337.

Fondoun, J.M., and Manga, T.T. 2000. Farmers indigenous practices for conserving Garcinia kola and Gnetum africanum in southern Cameroon. Agroforestry Systems 48(3):289-302.

Foucart, A., Lecoq, M., and Sieglstetter, R. 1999. Alarm on an endemic protected grasshopper of the crau plain (southern France), Prionotropis hystrix rhodanica (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae). Annales De La Societe Entomologique De France 35:337-340.

Fujisaka, S., Escobar, G., and Veneklaas, E.J. 2000. Weedy fields and forests: interactions between land use and the composition of plant communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 78(2):175-186.

Gaff, H., Deangelis, D.L., Gross, L.J., Salinas, R., and Shorrosh, M. 2000. A dynamic landscape model for fish in the Everglades and its application to restoration. Ecol. Model. 127(1):33-52.

Gehlhausen, S.M., Schwartz, M.W., and Augspurger, C.K. 2000. Vegetation and microclimatic edge effects in two mixed-mesophytic forest fragments. Plant Ecol. 147(1):21-35.

Gillespie, T.W., Grijalva, A., and Farris, C.N. 2000. Diversity, composition, and structure of tropical dry forests in Central America. Plant Ecol. 147(1):37-47.

Gonzalez-Candelas, F., and Montolio, A. 2000. Genetic differentiation and structure of Hippocrepis valentina (Leguminosae) populations. J. Heredity 91(2):134-141.

Grace, J.B., Allain, L., and Allen, C. 2000. Vegetation associations in a rare community type - coastal tallgrass prairie. Plant Ecol. 147(1):105-115.

Grant, A., and Benton, T.G. 2000. Elasticity analysis for density-dependent populations in stochastic environments. Ecology 81(3):680-693.

Guerin, T.F. 1999. An Australian perspective on the constraints to the transfer and adoption of innovations in land management. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):289-304.

Hallac, D.E., and Marsden, J.E. 2000. Differences in tolerance to and recovery from zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) fouling by Elliptio complanata and Lampsilis radiata. Can. J. Zool. 78(2):161-166.

Harries, D. 2000. South African wetland conservation. Mar. Pollution Bull. 40(3):202.

Haydon, D.T., and Pianka, E.R. 1999. Metapopulation theory, landscape models, and species diversity. Ecoscience 6(3):316-328.

Hedenås, H., and Ericson, L. 2000. Epiphytic macrolichens as conservation indicators: successional sequence in Populus tremula stands. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):43-53.

Hedrick, P.W., Hedgecock, D., Hamelberg, S., and Croci, S.J. 2000. The impact of supplementation in winter-run chinook salmon on effective population size. J. Heredity 91(2):112-116.

Heppell, S.S., Caswell, H., and Crowder, L.B. 2000. Life histories and elasticity patterns: perturbation analysis for species with minimal demographic data. Ecology 81(3):654-665.

Hester, M.W., and Mendelssohn, I.A. 2000. Long-term recovery of a Louisiana brackish marsh plant community from oil-spill impact: vegetation response and mitigating effects of marsh surface elevation. Mar. Environ. Res. 49(3):233-254.

Hodel, U., and Gessler, M., Eds. 1999. In Situ Conservation of Agrobiodiversity in Vietnamese Home Gardens. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Rome, Italy. 106 pp.

Hughes, R.F., Kauffman, J.B., and Jaramillo, V.J. 2000. Ecosystem-scale impacts of deforestation and land use in a humid tropical region of Mexico. Ecol. Appl. 10(2):515-527.

James, A., Gaston, K.J., and Balmford, A. 2000. Why private institutions alone will not do enough to protect biodiversity. Nature 404(6774):120.

Johnson, P.D., and Brown, K.M. 2000. The importance of microhabitat factors and habitat stability to the threatened Louisiana pearl shell, Margaritifera hembeli (Conrad). Can. J. Zool. 78(2):271-277.

Johnson, W.E., Slattery, J.P., Eizirik, E., Kim, J.H., Raymond, M.M., Bonacic, C., Cambre, R., Crawshaw, P., Nunes, A., Seuanez, H.N., Moreira, M.A.M., Seymour, K.L., Simon, F., Swanson, W., and O'Brien, S.J. 1999. Disparate phylogeographic patterns of molecular genetic variation in four closely related South American small cat species. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S79-S94.

Keddy, P., and Fraser, W. 1999. On the diversity of land plants. Ecoscience 6(3):366-380.

Kerr, J.T., and Currie, D.J. 1999. The relative importance of evolutionary and environmental controls on broad-scale patterns of species richness in North America. Ecoscience 6(3):329-337.

King, T.L., and Burke, T. 1999. Special issue on gene conservation: identification and management of genetic diversity. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S1-S3.

King, T.L., Eackles, M.S., Gjetvaj, B., and Hoeh, W.R. 1999. Intraspecific phylogeography of Lasmigona subviridis (Bivalvia: Unionidae): conservation implications of range discontinuity. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S65-S78.

Kirchner, J.W., and Well, A. 2000. Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record. Nature 404(6774):177-180.

Kondolf, G.M. 2000. Some suggested guidelines for geomorphic aspects of anadromous salmonid habitat restoration proposals. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):48-56.

Koopman, M.E., Cypher, B.L., and Scrivner, J.H. 2000. Dispersal patterns of San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). J. Mammal. 81(1):213-222.

Krauss, K.W., Chambers, J.L., Allen, J.A., Soileau, D.M., and Debosier, A.S. 2000. Growth and nutrition of baldcypress families planted under varying salinity regimes in Louisiana, USA. J. Coastal Res. 16(1):153-163.

Leung, Y.F., and Marion, J.L. 1999. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):270-279.

Lhonore, J., and Lagarde, M. 1999. Biogeography, ecology and conservation of Coenonympha oedippus (Fab., 1787) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Annales De La Societe Entomologique De France 35:299-307.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Lacy, R.C., and Pope, M.L. 2000. Testing a simulation model for population viability analysis. Ecol. Appl. 10(2):580-597.

Lusk, M.R., Bruner, P., and Kessler, C. 2000. The avifauna of Farallon de Medinilla, Mariana Islands. J. Field Ornithol. 71(1):22-33.

Lyons, J., Gutierrez-Hernandez, A., Diaz-Pardo, E., Soto-Galera, E., Medina-Nava, M., and Pineda-Lopez, R. 2000. Development of a preliminary index of biotic integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages to assess ecosystem condition in the lakes of central Mexico. Hydrobiologia 418:57-72.

Lyver, P.O., and Moller, H. 1999. Modern technology and customary use of wildlife: the harvest of Sooty Shearwaters by Rakiura Maori as a case study. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):280-288.

Mackey, B.G. 1999. Environmental scientists, advocacy, and the future of Earth. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):245-249.

Magura, T., Tóthmérész, B., and Bordán, Z. 2000. Effects of nature management practice on carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a non-native plantation. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):95-102.

Mallin, M.A., Cahoon, L.B., Lowe, R.P., Merritt, J.F., Sizemore, R.K., and Williams, K.E. 2000. Restoration of shellfishing waters in a tidal creek following limited dredging. J. Coastal Res. 16(1):40-47.

Marchiol, L., Cesco, S., Pinton, R., and Zerbi, G. 2000. Germination and initial root growth of four legumes as affected by landfill biogas atmosphere. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):93-98.

Marcone, M.F. 2000. First report of the characterization of the threatened plant species Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth). J. Agricult. Food Chem. 48(2):378-382.

Marmiroli, N., Maestri, E., Liviero, L., Massari, A., Malcevschi, A., and Monciardini, P. 1999. Application of genomics in assessing biodiversity in wild and cultivated barley. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S95-S106.

Martin, C., Gonzalez-Benito, M.E., and Iriondo, J.M. 1999. The use of genetic markers in the identification and characterization of three recently discovered populations of a threatened plant species. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S31-S40.

McLean, J.E., Hay, D.E., and Taylor, E.B. 1999. Marine population structure in an anadromous fish: life-history influences patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation in the eulachon, Thaleichthys pacificus. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S143-S158.

McNeely, J.A. 1999. The Convention on Biological Diversity: a solid foundation for effective action. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):250-251.

Medeiros, R., Brito, C., Martins, A.M.F., Jordaens, K., Van Riel, P., De Wolf, H., Breugelmans, K., and Backeljau, T. 2000. Conservation genetics of the endemic Azorean slug Plutonia atlantica (Mollusca, Pulmonata). Biol. Conserv. 93(1):77-84.

Menges, E.S. 2000. Population viability analyses in plants: challenges and opportunities. TREE 15(2):51-56.

Musters, C.J.M., de Graaf, H.J., and ter Keurs, W.J. 2000. Can protected areas be expanded in Africa? Science 287(5459):1759-1760.

Naeem, S., Tjossem, S.F., Byers, D., Bristow, C., and Li, S.B. 1999. Plant neighborhood diversity and production. Ecoscience 6(3):355-365.

Nagelkerken, I., Bouma, S., van den Akker, S., and Bak, R.P.M. 2000. Growth and survival of unattached Madracis mirabilis fragments transplanted to different reef sites, and the implication for reef rehabilitation. Bull. Mar. Sci. 66(2):497-505.

Nicholls, K.H. 1999. Evidence for a trophic cascade effect on north-shore western Lake Erie phytoplankton prior to the zebra mussel invasion. J. Great Lakes Res. 25(4):942-949.

Nielsen, J.L., Crow, K.D., and Fountain, M.C. 1999. Microsatellite diversity and conservation of a relic trout population: McCloud River redband trout. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S129-S142.

Nisbet, I.C.T., and Spendelow, J.A. 1999. Contribution of research to management and recovery of the Roseate Tern: review of a twelve-year project. Waterbirds 22(2):239-252.

Novinger, D.C., and Coon, T.G. 2000. Behavior and physiology of the redside dace, Clinostomus elongatus, a threatened species in Michigan. Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(3):315-326.

Ontiveros, D., and Pleguezuelos, J.M. 2000. Influence of prey densities in the distribution and breeding success of Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus): management implications. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):19-25.

Opperman, J.J., and Merenlender, A.M. 2000. Deer herbivory as an ecological constraint to restoration of degraded riparian corridors. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):41-47.

Ortega-Huerta, M.A., and Medley, K.E. 1999. Landscape analysis of jaguar (Panthera onca) habitat using sighting records in the Sierra de Tamaulipas, Mexico. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):257-269.

Owen, K.M., and Marrs, R.H. 2000. Creation of heathland on former arable land at Minsmere, Suffolk, UK: the effects of soil acidification on the establishment of calluna and ruderal species. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):9-18.

Pautrat, L. 2000. Progress in the conservation of the white-winged guan Penelope albipennis in north-west Peru. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(1):93.

Peres, C.A., and Dolman, P.M. 2000. Density compensation in neotropical primate communities: evidence from 56 hunted and nonhunted Amazonian forests of varying productivity. Oecologia 122(2):175-189.

Peterson, A.T., Egbert, S.L., Sánchez-Cordero, V., and Price, K.P. 2000. Geographic analysis of conservation priority: endemic birds and mammals in Veracruz, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):85-94.

Pezeshki, S.R., Anderson, P.H., and Delaune, R.D. 2000. Effects of nursery pre-conditioning on Panicum hemitomon and Sagittaria lancifolia used for wetland restoration. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):57-64.

Plissner, J.H., and Haig, S.M. 2000. Status of a broadly distributed endangered species: results and implications of the second international piping plover census. Can. J. Zool. 78(1):128-139.

Polunin, N. 1999. Humility and the environment. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):243-244.

Powell, G.V.N., Barborak, J., and Rodriguez, M. 2000. Assessing representativeness of protected natural areas in Costa Rica for conserving biodiversity: a preliminary gap analysis. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):35-41.

Prieditis, N. 1999. Status of wetland forests and their structural richness in Latvia. Environ. Conserv. 26(4):332-346.

Probst, J.M., Le Corre, M., and Thébaud, C. 2000. Breeding habitat and conservation priorities in Pterodroma baraui, an endangered gadfly petrel of the Mascarene archipelago. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):135-138.

Rai, L.K., Prasad, P., and Sharma, E. 2000. Conservation threats to some important medicinal plants of the Sikkim Himalaya. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):27-33.

Rajora, O.P., Rahman, M.H., Buchert, G.P., and Dancik, B.P. 2000. Microsatellite DNA analysis of genetic effects of harvesting in old-growth eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in Ontario, Canada. Mol. Ecol. 9(3):339-348.

Reinartz, G.E., Karron, J.D., Phillips, R.B., and Weber, J.L. 2000. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes). Mol. Ecol. 9(3):315-328.

Ricklefs, R.E. 2000. Rarity and diversity in Amazonian forest trees. TREE 15(3):83-84.

Rimmer, C.C., and McFarland, K.P. 2000. Migrant stopover and postfledging dispersal at a montane forest site in Vermont. Wilson Bull. 112(1):124-136.

Ripple, W.J., Hershey, K.T., and Anthony, R.G. 2000. Historical forest patterns of Oregon's central Coast Range. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):127-133.

Romero, A., and McLeran, A. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965 (Characidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(3):270.

Rose, R.J., Webb, N.R., Clarke, R.T., and Traynor, C.H. 2000. Changes on the heathlands in Dorset, England, between 1987 and 1996. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):117-125.

Rosel, P.E., France, S.C., Wang, J.Y., and Kocher, T.D. 1999. Genetic structure of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena populations in the northwest Atlantic based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S41-S54.

Ruggiero, A. 1999. Spatial patterns in the diversity of mammal species: a test of the geographic area hypothesis in South America. Ecoscience 6(3):338-354.

Sæther, B.E., and Bakke, Ø. 2000. Avian life history variation and contribution of demographic traits to the population growth rate. Ecology 81(3):642-653.

Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M., Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M., and Wall, D.H. 2000. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287(5459):1770-1774.

Schabel, H.G., and Palmer, S.L. 1999. The Dauerwald: its role in the restoration of natural forests. J. Forestry 97(11):20-25.

Schabel, H.G., and Pecore, M. 1999. Dauerwald and Menominee: tale of two forests. Ecoforestry 14(4):31-36.

Shaffer, G., Fellers, G.M., Magee, A., and Voss, R. 2000. The genetics of amphibian declines: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Mol. Ecol. 9(3):245-257.

Sinclair, A., and Catling, P.M. 2000. Status of goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis (Ranunculaceae), in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 114(1):111-120.

South, A., Rushton, S., and Macdonald, D. 2000. Simulating the proposed reintroduction of the European beaver (Castor fiber) to Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):103-116.

Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2000. Resource overlap and possible competition between honey bees and wild bees in central Europe. Oecologia 122(2):288-296.

Sutcliffe, O.L., and Kay, Q.O.N. 2000. Changes in the arable flora of central southern England since the 1960s. Biol. Conserv. 93(1):1-8.

Taylor, B.L., and Dizon, A.E. 1999. First policy then science: why a management unit based solely on genetic criteria cannot work. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S11-S16.

Tufto, J., Saether, B.E., Engen, S., Arcese, P., Jerstad, K., Rostad, O.W., and Smith, J.N.M. 2000. Bayesian meta-analysis of demographic parameters in three small, temperate passerines. Oikos 88(2):273-281.

Urbanska, K.M., and Fattorini, M. 2000. Seed rain in high-altitude restoration plots in Switzerland. Restoration Ecol. 8(1):74-79.

Vogel, G. 2000. Conflict in Congo threatens bonobos and rare gorillas. Science 287(5462):2386-2387.

Vos, P., Meelis, E., and ter Keurs, W.J. 2000. A framework for the design of ecological monitoring programs as a tool for environmental and nature management. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 61(3):317-344.

White, D.H., and Seginak, J.T. 2000. Nest box use and productivity of great crested flycatchers in prescribed-burned longleaf pine forests. J. Field Ornithol. 71(1):147-152.

Whitmore, T. 2000. Biodiversity. New Scientist 165(2229):57.

Whitney, M., and Belk, M.C. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Chasmistes liorus Jordan, 1878 (Catostomidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(4):362.

Wilson, G.M., Van Den Bussche, R.A., Kennedy, P.K., Gunn, A., and Poole, K. 2000. Genetic variability of wolverines (Gulo gulo) from the Northwest Territories, Canada: conservation implications. J. Mammal. 81(1):186-196.

Wisdom, M.J., Mills, L.S., and Doak, D.F. 2000. Life stage simulation analysis: estimating vital-rate effects on population growth for conservation. Ecology 81(3):628-641.

Wunder, S. 2000. Ecotourism and economic incentives - an empirical approach. Ecol. Econom. 32(3):465-479.

Wyner, Y.M., Amato, G., and Desalle, R. 1999. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation genetics of black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata. Mol. Ecol. 8(12):S107-S115.

Yan, H.Y. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Oncorhynchus masou formosanus (Jordan & Oshima, 1919) (Salmonidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 57(3):314.

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