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Department ofBotany

No. 186
June 2000

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In This Issue

Museum Data Found Useful for Conservation Planning

Researchers at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution have recently shown that museum collection data can be useful in making conservation decisions. In the paper "Amazonian Biotic Data and Conservation Decisions" published in the latest issue of Ciência e Cultura Journal of the Brazilian Association for the Advancement of Science (1999)1, scientists from the Departments of Vertebrate Zoology, Entomology, Botany, and Anthropology compare recently assembled data sets on various Amazonian taxa to primates, an indicator taxon in which distributional data are thought to be relatively complete and unbiased. The data used in the analyses include one group of amphibians, two groups each of fishes and flowering plants, and four groups of terrestrial arthropods, all of which are well known taxonomically.

South America Statistical and graphical methods indicate that some of the taxa in the data set are adequately sampled at the species level (heliconias, the plant genus Talisia, certain fish genera from both large and small rivers, the frog genus Leptodactylus, and primates); other taxa are not adequately sampled (the arthropod genera, Agra, Batesiana, Deinopis, and Hemiceras). Geographic ranges for all taxa also appear to be undersampled, including those for the indicator group.

Amazonian bird, heliconiine and ithomiine butterfly, and primate data are generally considered more robust than data for other Amazonian groups, and these groups are generally used preferentially in making conservation recommendations. However, the authors emphasize that there are several taxonomic groups, other than birds, butterflies, and primates, with adequate museum-associated data to use for species richness analyses at the level of the Amazon basin. Species richness is an important piece of information used in making informed conservation decisions. There are many other groups in Amazonia that remain undersampled, yet incomplete data can also be used effectively in conservation planning.

For information on obtaining reprints of "Amazonian Biotic Data and Conservation Decisions," contact W. Ronald Heyer, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, MRC 162, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20560; E-mail:

1 Heyer, W.R., J. Coddington, W.J. Kress, P. Acevedo, D. Cole, T.L. Erwin, B.J. Meggers, M.G. Pogue, R.W. Thorington, R.P. Vari, M.J. Weitzman, & S.H. Weitzman. 1999. Amazonian biotic data and conservation decisions. Ciência e Cultura Journal of the Brazilian Association for the Advancement of Science 51(5/6):372-385.

Conservation Group Purchases Pristine Tropical Island

In what will be one of its most important land acquisitions to date, The Nature Conservancy announced its intention to purchase Palmyra Atoll, the last intact marine wilderness in the U.S. tropics. The atoll, located 1,052 miles south of Hawaii, consists of 680 acres of land and 15,512 acres of pristine coral reefs, emerald islets and turquoise lagoons. Palmyra is the only nesting habitat for migratory seabirds and shorebirds within 450,000 square miles of ocean.

Acquisition of the atoll by the Conservancy is being made possible by the generosity of Palmyra's current owners, the Fullard-Leo family of Hawaii. To ensure the atoll's preservation, the family has signed a purchase agreement with the Conservancy to sell Palmyra for considerably less than its $47 million asking price. The Conservancy will have until the first quarter of 2001 to raise the money to purchase and close on the property. Before agreeing to sell the atoll to the Conservancy, the Fullard-Leo family received a number of offers for commercial developments at Palmyra, including a repository for spent nuclear fuel and a major resort and casino development.

Palmyra provides habitat for remarkably diverse assortment of coral and marine species. Species from both the eastern and western Pacific meet in the waters around Palmyra, including a diverse assortment of coral. The atoll's reefs support three times the number of coral species found in Hawaii and the Caribbean, and five times the number of species found in the Florida Keys. Other marine species found around Palmyra include pilot whales, bottle-nosed dolphins, hawksbill turtles, black-tip sharks, tiger sharks, manta rays and giant clams. The globally threatened green sea turtle nests on Palmyra's white sand beaches. The atoll also is home to the world's largest land-based invertebrate, the coconut crab, so-named because of its ability to crack open a coconut with its huge claws.

The vegetation provides forage and shelter for thick flocks of birds. Resident species include the world's second largest colony of red footed boobies, second only to the Galapagos Islands; brown boobies and masked boobies; white terns and sooty terns. Palmyra also provides a solitary and vital rest stop for migratory bird species, such as the bristle-thighed curlew. The curlew, which is listed as a species of concern, migrates from Alaska to French Polynesia and other areas in the Southern Pacific. Some 4,000 miles from Alaska, Palmyra is the first place the bird rests on its journey. Only 6,000 of these birds are thought to exist. Several hundred curlews spend the winter on Palmyra.

In addition to raising the money to cover the costs of acquiring Palmyra, the Conservancy will begin immediately working to produce a management plan for the atoll. Priorities for the atoll include protection and enhancement of wildlife habitat and determining how best to manage public access to the atoll. For more information on The Nature Conservancy and the purchase of Palmyra Atoll, visit

Training Courses

The Global BioDiversity Institute (GBDI) is an organization that provides up-to-date information and training in biodiversity and biotechnology to scientists, lawyers, intellectual property professionals, government officials, and other stakeholders in developing countries to stimulate economic development and biodiversity conservation. GBDI offers a wide range of training courses that result in better use and conservation of biodiversity and improved sustainable economic development in rural communities of the developing world. GBDI and the University of Botswana announce the training course "Southern Africa Biodiversity, Biotechnology and Law" to be held August 14 - September 7, 2000, at the Botswana National Productivity Center (BNPC) in Gaborone, Botswana. For more information on this training course and others, contact GBDI at or visit

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) and the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) have officially launched their new web site to examine the relationships among population, health, and environmental issues. will feature an on-line moderated Bulletin Board where notices can be posted, ideas shared, and questions asked. Discussion topics include environment and health issues, water pollution and scarcity, land resources and degradation, protection of biological, flora and mineral resources, and environmental health impacts. Visitors can post questions, opinions, experiences, and observations about population-health-environment projects, research and data, and can network with other visitors. addresses three regions and features nine countries in a briefing book format (in English, Spanish, and French) that will include data and information on key trends for each region and country. The briefing books will provide an overview and in-depth analysis of regional and country-specific information on the varied and complex relationships between population, health, environmental quality and sustainable economic and human development. The diversity of topics in the briefing books addresses forestry and desertification, biodiversity, energy, environmental health, environmental law, cultural resources, ecotourism and sustainable development issues. Currently, the regional briefing books cover Africa (Madagascar, Tanzania, and Nigeria), Central America (Costa Rica, Belize, and Guatemala), and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines).

A new web resource is available on Environmental Values and Policy Making. The Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs (New York) launched a project in 1998 on "Understanding Values: A Comparative Study of Values in Environmental Policy Making in China, Japan, India, and the United States." This multisite, multiyear collaborative research project is designed to help explain and compare values held by diverse constituencies in each of the four countries and their role in environmental policy making. The new web resource that draws from this project is available at Information at the site includes (1) brief descriptions of the project's specific case studies, collaborating researchers and institutes, (2) interviews with the project researchers, (3) notifications and reports of environmental values seminars and events hosted by the Carnegie Council, (4) a detailed description of the project methodology, and (5) project papers available to download in PDF format.

Current Literature

Abbott, I. 2000. Improving the conservation of threatened and rare mammal species through translocation to islands: case study Western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):195-201.

Aberg, J., Swenson, J.E., and Andren, H. 2000. The dynamics of hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia L.) occurrence in habitat fragments. Can. J. Zool. 78(3):352-358.

Angermeier, P.L. 2000. The natural imperative for biological conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):373-381.

Archibald, C., Feigner, S., and Visser, J. 2000. Seed and seedling production of blue wild-rye (Elymus glaucus). Native Plants J. 1(1):32-34.

Ayyad, M.A., Fakhry, A.M., and Moustafa, A.R.A. 2000. Plant biodiversity in the Saint Catherine area of the Sinai peninsula, Egypt. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(2):265-281.

Baguette, M., Petit, S., and Queva, F. 2000. Population spatial structure and migration of three butterfly species within the same habitat network: consequences for conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(1):100-108.

Baker, S.M., and Hornbach, D.J. 2000. Physiological status and biochemical composition of a natural population of unionid mussels (Amblema plicata) infested by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Am. Mid. Natural. 143(2):443-452.

Balmford, A., Lyon, A.J.E., and Lang, R.M. 2000. Testing the higher-taxon approach to conservation planning in a megadiverse group: the macrofungi. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):209-217.

Barahona, F., Evans, S.E., Mateo, J.A., Garcia-Marquez, M., and Lopez-Jurado, L.F. 2000. Endemism, gigantism and extinction in island lizards: the genus Gallotia on the Canary Islands. J. Zool. 250:373-388.

Barnes, J.I., Schier, C., and Van Rooy, G. 1999. Tourists' willingness to pay for wildlife viewing and wildlife conservation in Namibia. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 29(4):101-111.

Barnett, J.P., and McGilvray, J.M. 2000. Growing longleaf pine seedlings in containers. Native Plants J. 1(1):54-58.

Baskin, J.M., Walck, J.L., Baskin, C.C., and Buchele, D.E. 2000. Ecology and conservation biology of the endangered plant species Solidago shortii (Asteraceae). Native Plants J. 1(1):35-41.

Baumgärtner, J., and Hartmann, J. 2000. The use of phenology models in plant conservation programmes: the establishment of the earliest cutting date for the wild daffodil Narcissus radiiflorus. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):155-161.

Beringer, J.E. 2000. Releasing genetically modified organisms: will any harm outweigh any advantage? J. Appl. Ecol. 37(2):207-214.

Bixler, A. 2000. Genetic variability in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Am. Mid. Natural. 143(2):370-376.

Bledsoe, B.P., and Shear, T.H. 2000. Vegetation along hydrologic and edaphic gradients in a North Carolina coastal plain creek bottom and implications for restoration. Wetlands 20(1):126-147.

Borges, S.H., and Carvalhaes, A. 2000. Bird species of black water inundation forests in the Jaú National Park (Amazonas state, Brazil): their contribution to regional species richness. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(2):201-214.

Borner, A., Chebotar, S., and Korzun, V. 2000. Molecular characterization of the genetic integrity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm after long-term maintenance. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100(3-4):494-497.

Brandt, L.A., Portier, K.M., and Kitchens, W.M. 2000. Patterns of change in tree islands in Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge from 1950 to 1991. Wetlands 20(1):1-14.

Bretagnolle, V., Ghestemme, T., Thiollay, J.M., and Attie, C. 2000. Distribution, population size and habitat use of the Reunion Marsh Harrier, Circus m. maillardi. J. Raptor Res. 34(1):8-17.

Briggs, B.G. 2000. What is significant - the wollemi pine or the southern rushes? Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):72-80.

Brook, B.W. 2000. Pessimistic and optimistic bias in population viability analysis. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):564-566.

Brooke, M.D. 2000. Why museums matter. TREE 15(4):136-137.

Brooke, R.K., Allan, D.G., Cooper, J., Cyrus, D.P., Dean, W.R.J., Dyer, B.M., Martin, A.P., and Taylor, R.H. 1999. Breeding distribution, population size and conservation of the greyheaded gull Larus cirrocephalus in southern Africa. Ostrich 70(3-4):157-163.

Brooks, D.R., and Hoberg, E.P. 2000. Triage for the biosphere: the need and rationale for taxonomic inventories and phylogenetic studies of parasites. Comparative Parasitol. 67(1):1-25.

Broomhall, S.D., Osborne, W.S., and Cunningham, R.B. 2000. Comparative effects of ambient ultraviolet-B radiation on two sympatric species of Australian frogs. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):420-427.

Brusca, R.C. 2000. Unraveling the history of arthropod biodiversification. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):13-25.

Buza, L., Young, A., and Thrall, P. 2000. Genetic erosion, inbreeding and reduced fitness in fragmented populations of the endangered tetraploid pea Swainsona recta. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):177-186.

Cabin, R.J., Weller, S.G., Lorence, D.H., Flynn, T.W., Sakai, A.K., Sandquist, D., and Hadway, L.J. 2000. Effects of long-term ungulate exclusion and recent alien species control on the preservation and restoration of a Hawaiian tropical dry forest. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):439-453.

Callicott, J.B., Crowder, L.B., and Mumford, K. 2000. Normative concepts in conservation biology: reply to Willers and Hunter. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):575-578.

Canterbury, G.E., Martin, T.E., Petit, D.R., Petit, L.J., and Bradford, D.F. 2000. Bird communities and habitat as ecological indicators of forest condition in regional monitoring. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):544-558.

Castro, R., Tattenbach, F., Gamez, L., and Olson, N. 2000. The Costa Rican experience with market instruments to mitigate climate change and conserve biodiversity. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 61(1):75-92.

Chase, M.K., Kristan, W.B., Lynam, A.J., Price, M.V., and Rotenberry, J.T. 2000. Single species as indicators of species richness and composition in California coastal sage scrub birds and small mammals. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):474-487.

Claridge, A.W., Barry, S.C., Cork, S.J., and Trappe, J.M. 2000. Diversity and habitat relationships of hypogeous fungi. II. Factors influencing the occurrence and number of taxa. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(2):175-199.

Claridge, A.W., Cork, S.J., and Trappe, J.M. 2000. Diversity and habitat relationships of hypogeous fungi. I. Study design, sampling techniques and general survey results. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(2):151-173.

Clayton, L.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Sinaga, D.W., and Mustari, A.H. 2000. Effects of a proposed ex situ conservation program on in situ conservation of the babirusa, an endangered suid. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):382-385.

Collares-Pereira, M.J., Cowx, I.G., Ribeiro, F., Rodrigues, J.A., and Rogado, L. 2000. Threats imposed by water resource development schemes on the conservation of endangered fish species in the Guadiana River basin in Portugal. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 7(1-2):167-178.

Cornelius, C., Cofré, H., and Marquet, P.A. 2000. Effects of habitat fragmentation on bird species in a relict temperate forest in semiarid Chile. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):534-543.

Cornett, M.W., Frelich, L.E., Puettmann, K.J., and Reich, P.B. 2000. Conservation implications of browsing by Odocoileus virginianus in remnant upland Thuja occidentalis forests. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):359-369.

Critchley, C.N.R. 2000. Ecological assessment of plant communities by reference to species traits and habitat preferences. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):87-105.

Culver, D.C., Master, L.L., Christman, M.C., and Hobbs, H.H. 2000. Obligate cave fauna of the 48 contiguous United States. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):386-401.

Darby, J.T., and Dawson, S.M. 2000. Bycatch of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) in gillnets in New Zealand waters 1979-1997. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):327-332.

Debinski, D.M., and Holt, R.D. 2000. A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):342-355.

Dennis, R.L.H., Donato, B., Sparks, T.H., and Pollard, E. 2000. Ecological correlates of island incidence and geographical range among British butterflies. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):343-359.

di Castri, F. 2000. Ecology in a context of economic globalization. BioScience 50(4):321-332.

Dimopoulos, P., Bergmeier, E., Sykora, K., and Papastergiadou, E. 2000. Evaluation system of the relative importance of vegetation syntaxa for nature conservation in Greece. Biologia 55(1):57-67.

Donoghue, M.J., and Alverson, W.S. 2000. A new age of discovery. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):110-126.

Dumroese, R.K., Pequignot, S., and Horvath, D. 2000. Mason State Nursery – a model for prairie plant production. Native Plants J. 1(1):10-17.

Emberton, K.C., and Pearce, T.A. 2000. Small, high-spired pulmonates from Mounts Mahermana, Ilapiry, and Vasiha, southeastern Madagascar, with description of a new genus, and with conservation statuses of 15 streptaxid species. Veliger 43(2):126-153.

Ertter, B. 2000. Floristic surprises in North America north of Mexico. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):81-109.

Esler, D. 2000. Applying metapopulation theory to conservation of migratory birds. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):366-372.

Fernández-Juricic, E. 2000. Avifaunal use of wooded streets in an urban landscape. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):513-521.

Ferreira, L.V. 2000. Effects of flooding duration on species richness, floristic composition and forest structure in river margin habitat in Amazonian blackwater floodplain forests: implications for future design of protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):1-14.

Ferrier, S., Pressey, R.L., and Barrett, T.W. 2000. A new predictor of the irreplaceability of areas for achieving a conservation goal, its application to real-world planning, and a research agenda for further refinement. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):303-325.

Figurny-Puchalska, E., Gadeberg, R.M.E., and Boomsma, J.J. 2000. Comparison of genetic population structure of the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and M. teleius. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):419-432.

Filippi, E., and Luiselli, L. 2000. Status of the Italian snake fauna and assessment of conservation threats. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):219-225.

Floater, G.J., and Zalucki, M.P. 2000. Habitat structure and egg distributions in the processionary caterpillar Ochrogaster lunifer: lessons for conservation and pest management. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(1):87-99.

Flood, R., Horvath, D., and Blessman, G. 2000. Protocol for growing Kankakee mallow (Iliamna remota). Native Plants J. 1(1):13-14.

Forcada, J. 2000. Can population surveys show if the Mediterranean monk seal colony at Cap Blanc is declining in abundance? J. Appl. Ecol. 37(1):171-181.

Ford, W.M., Odom, R.H., Hale, P.E., and Chapman, B.R. 2000. Stand-age, stand characteristics, and landform effects on understory herbaceous communities in southern Appalachian cove-hardwoods. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):237-246.

Forsyth, D.M., Parkes, J.P., and Hickling, G.J. 2000. A case for multi-species management of sympatric herbivore pest impacts in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Ecol. 24(1):97-103.

Fraser, I., and Chisholm, T. 2000. Conservation or cultural heritage? Cattle grazing in the Victoria Alpine National Park. Ecol. Econom. 33(1):63-75.

García-Perea, R. 2000. Survival of injured Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and non-natural mortality in central-southern Spain. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):265-269.

Gatto, M., and De Leo, G.A. 2000. Pricing biodiversity and ecosystem services: the never-ending story. BioScience 50(4):347-355.

Gigon, A., Langenauer, R., Meier, C., and Nievergelt, B. 2000. Blue lists of threatened species with stabilized or increasing abundance: a new instrument for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):402-413.

Glick, B. 2000. Meehania cordata: a great ground cover for the landscape. Native Plants J. 1(1):30-31.

Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., and Hernández, H.M. 2000. Diversity, geographical distribution, and conservation of Cactaceae in the Mier Y Noriega region, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):403-418.

Hanski, I., and Ovaskainen, O. 2000. The metapopulation capacity of a fragmented landscape. Nature 404(6779):755-758.

Harcourt, A.H. 2000. Coincidence and mismatch of biodiversity hotspots: a global survey for the order, Primates. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):163-175.

Harris, R.J., and Burns, B.R. 2000. Beetle assemblages of kahikatea forest fragments in a pasture-dominated landscape. N. Z. J. Ecol. 24(1):57-67.

Hartley, L., Waas, J., O'Connor, C., and Matthews, L. 2000. Colour preferences and coloured bait consumption by weka Gallirallus australis, an endemic New Zealand rail. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):255-263.

Hee, J.J., Holway, D.A., Suarez, A.V., and Case, T.J. 2000. Role of propagule size in the success of incipient colonies of the invasive Argentine ant. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):559-563.

Henderson, I.G., Cooper, J., Fuller, R.J., and Vickery, J. 2000. The relative abundance of birds on set-aside and neighbouring fields in summer. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(2):335-347.

Heyer, W.R., Coddington, J., Kress, W.J., Acevedo, P., Cole, D., Erwin, T.L., Meggers, B.J., Pogue, M.G., Thorington, R.W., Vari, R.P., Weitzman, M.J., and Weitzman, S.H. 1999. Amazonian biotic data and conservation decisions. Ciência e Cultura Journal of the Brazilian Association for the Advancement of Science 51(5/6):372-385.

Hsiang, L.L. 2000. Mangrove conservation in Singapore: a physical or a psychological impossibility? Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):309-332.

Hunter, M.L. 2000. Refining normative concepts in conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):573-574.

Hyde, K.D., and Alias, S.A. 2000. Biodiversity and distribution of fungi associated with decomposing Nypa fruticans. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):393-402.

Jackson, D.B., and Green, R.E. 2000. The importance of the introduced hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) as a predator of the eggs of waders (Charadrii) on machair in South Uist, Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):333-348.

Jansson, R., Nilsson, C., and Renofalt, B. 2000. Fragmentation of riparian floras in rivers with multiple dams. Ecology 81(4):899-903.

Jones, D.T., and Eggleton, P. 2000. Sampling termite assemblages in tropical forests: testing a rapid biodiversity assessment protocol. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(1):191-203.

Kaiser, J. 2000. Bringing science to the national parks. Science 288(5463):34.

Kala, C.P. 2000. Status and conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants in the Indian trans-Himalaya. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):371-379.

Kirubi, C., Wamicha, W.N., and Laichena, J.K. 2000. The effects of woodfuel consumption in the ASAL areas of Kenya: the case of Marsabit Forest. Afr. J. Ecol. 38(1):47-52.

Kleiman, D.G., Reading, R.P., Miller, B.J., Clark, T.W., Scott, M., Robinson, J., Wallace, R.L., Cabin, R.J., and Felleman, F. 2000. Improving the evaluation of conservation programs. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):356-365.

Kline, J.D., Alig, R.J., and Johnson, R.L. 2000. Forest owner incentives to protect riparian habitat. Ecol. Econom. 33(1):29-43.

Knapp, R.A., and Matthews, K.R. 2000. Non-native fish introductions and the decline of the mountain yellow-legged frog from within protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):428-438.

Komers, P.E., and Curman, G.P. 2000. The effect of demographic characteristics on the success of ungulate re-introductions. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):187-193.

Kozlowski, T.T. 2000. Responses of woody plants to human-induced environmental stresses: issues, problems, and strategies for alleviating stress. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 19(2):91-170.

Kristin, A., Hoi, H., Valera, F., and Hoi, C. 2000. Breeding biology and breeding success of the Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor in a stable and dense population. Ibis 142(2):305-311.

Landis, T.D. 2000. Where there’s smoke. . . there’s germination? Native Plants J. 1(1):25-29.

Lariviere, S., and Messier, F. 2000. Habitat selection and use of edges by striped skunks in the Canadian prairies. Can. J. Zool. 78(3):366-372.

Laurance, W.F. 2000. Do edge effects occur over large spatial scales? TREE 15(4):134-135.

Laurance, W.F. 2000. Mega-development trends in the Amazon: implications for global change. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 61(1):113-122.

Laurance, W.F., Delamônica, P., Laurance, S.G., Vasconcelos, H.L., and Lovejoy, T.E. 2000. Rainforest fragmentation kills big trees. Nature 404(6780):836.

Le Pendu, Y., Ciofolo, I., and Gosser, A. 2000. The social organization of giraffes in Niger. Afr. J. Ecol. 38(1):78-85.

Lemly, A.D., Kingsford, R.T., and Thompson, J.R. 2000. Irrigated agriculture and wildlife conservation: conflict on a global scale. Environ. Manag. 25(5):485-512.

Letnic, M. 2000. Dispossession, degradation and extinction: environmental history in arid Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):295-308.

Lindenmayer, D.B. 2000. Factors at multiple scales affecting distribution patterns and their implications for animal conservation - Leadbeater's Possum as a case study. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):15-35.

Loomis, J., Kent, P., Strange, L., Fausch, K., and Covich, A. 2000. Measuring the total economic value of restoring ecosystem services in an impaired river basin: results from a contingent valuation survey. Ecol. Econom. 33(1):103-117.

Louette, D., and Smale, M. 2000. Farmers' seed selection practices and traditional maize varieties in Cuzalapa, Mexico. Euphytica 113(1):25-41.

Lovett, J.C., Rudd, S., Taplin, J., and Frimodt-Møller, C. 2000. Patterns of plant diversity in Africa south of the Sahara and their implications for conservation management. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):37-46.

Luna, T. 2000. Native fern propagation in Glacier National Park's native plant nursery. Native Plants J. 1(1):5-9.

Lundberg, J.G., Kottelat, M., Smith, G.R., Stiassny, M.L.J., and Gill, A.C. 2000. So many fishes, so little time: an overview of recent ichthyological discovery in continental waters. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):26-62.

Lyaruu, H.V., Eliapenda, S., and Backéus, I. 2000. Floristic, structural and seed bank diversity of a dry Afromontane forest at Mafai, central Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(2):241-263.

Mac Nally, R., Soderquist, T.R., and Tzaros, C. 2000. The conservation value of mesic gullies in dry forest landscapes: avian assemblages in the box-ironbark ecosystem of southern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):293-302.

MacIver, D.C., and Urquizo, N. 2000. Atmospheric change and biodiversity: co-networks and networking. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 61(1):93-100.

MacKinnon, J. 2000. New mammals in the 21st century? Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):63-66.

Madigan, M.T. 2000. Extremophilic bacteria and microbial diversity. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):3-12.

Malmqvist, B. 2000. How does wing length relate to distribution patterns of stoneflies (Plecoptera) and mayflies (Ephemeroptera)? Biol. Conserv. 93(2):271-276.

McAllister, L.S., Peniston, B.E., Leibowitz, S.G., Abbruzzese, B., and Hyman, J.B. 2000. A synoptic assessment for prioritizing wetland restoration efforts to optimize flood attenuation. Wetlands 20(1):70-83.

McCarthy, M.A., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2000. Spatially-correlated extinction in a metapopulation model of Leadbeater's Possum. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):47-63.

McCreary, D.D., and Tecklin, J. 2000. Home-made dibble facilitates planting willow and cottonwood cuttings. Native Plants J. 1(1):59-60.

McLeod, K.W., Reed, M.R., and Wike, L.D. 2000. Elevation, competition control, and species affect bottomland forest restoration. Wetlands 20(1):162-168.

Meyer, S.E., and Paulsen, A. 2000. Chilling requirements for seed germination of 10 Utah species of perennial wild buckwheat (Eriogonum Michx. [Polygonaceae]). Native Plants J. 1(1):18-24.

Mumme, R.L., Schoech, S.J., Woolfenden, G.W., and Fitzpatrick, J.W. 2000. Life and death in the fast lane: demographic consequences of road mortality in the Florida scrub-jay. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):501-512.

Muya, S.M., and Oguge, N.O. 2000. Effects of browse availability and quality on black rhino (Diceros bicornis michaeli Groves 1967) diet in Nairobi National Park, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 38(1):62-71.

Nicholls, C.N., and Pullin, A.S. 2000. A comparison of larval survivorship in wild and introduced populations of the large copper butterfly (Lycaena dispar batavus). Biol. Conserv. 93(3):349-358.

Nijs, I., and Impens, I. 2000. Biological diversity and probability of local extinction of ecosystems. Functional Ecol. 14(1):46-54.

Noss, R.F. 2000. Science on the bridge. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):333-335.

O'Connell-Rodwell, C.E., Rodwell, T., Rice, M., and Hart, L.A. 2000. Living with the modern conservation paradigm: can agricultural communities co-exist with elephants? A five-year case study in East Caprivi, Namibia. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):381-391.

Orr, D. 2000. 2020: a proposal. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):338-341.

Outcalt, K.W. 2000. The longleaf pine ecosystem of the South. Native Plants J. 1(1):42-53.

Parkinson, C.L., Zamudio, K.R., and Greene, H.W. 2000. Phylogeography of the pitviper clade Agkistrodon: historical ecology, species status, and conservation of cantils. Mol. Ecol. 9(4):411-420.

Parrish, F.A., Craig, M.P., Ragen, T.J., Marshall, G.J., and Buhleier, B.M. 2000. Identifying diurnal foraging habitat of endangered Hawaiian monk seals using a seal-mounted video camera. Mar. Mammal Sci. 16(2):392-412.

Pasinelli, G. 2000. Oaks (Quercus Sp.) and only oaks? Relations between habitat structure and home range size of the middle spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius). Biol. Conserv. 93(2):227-235.

Pavon, N.P., and Rico-Gray, V. 2000. An endangered and potentially economic tree of Mexico: Tilia mexicana (Tiliaceae). Econom. Bot. 54(1):113-114.

Pellerin, S., and Lavoie, C. 2000. Peatland fragments of southern Quebec: recent evolution of their vegetation structure. Can. J. Bot. 78(2):255-265.

Pennock, D.S., and Dimmick, W.W. 2000. Distinct population segments and congressional intent: reply to Waples. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):567-569.

Pezzey, J.C.V., Roberts, C.M., and Urdal, B.T. 2000. A simple bioeconomic model of a marine reserve. Ecol. Econom. 33(1):77-91.

Pittman, T., and Karrfalt, R.P. 2000. Wiregrass propagation at the Andrews Nursery in Florida. Native Plants J. 1(1):45-47.

Prance, G.T., Beentje, H., Dransfield, J., and Johns, R. 2000. The tropical flora remains undercollected. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):67-71.

Purvis, A., Agapow, P.M., Gittleman, J.L., and Mace, G.M. 2000. Nonrandom extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science 288(5464):328-330.

Randi, E., Lucchini, V., Christensen, M.F., Mucci, N., Funk, S.M., Dolf, G., and Loeschcke, V. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA variability in Italian and east European wolves: detecting the consequences of small population size and hybridization. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):464-473.

Richard-Hansen, C., Vié, J.C., and de Thoisy, B. 2000. Translocation of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):247-253.

Richardson, P.M. 2000. Our unknown planet: recent discoveries and the future. Introduction. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(1):1-2.

Ryder, O.A., McLaren, A., Brenner, S., Zhang, Y.P., and Benirschke, K. 2000. DNA banks for endangered animal species. Science 288(5464):275-277.

Sabater, S., Guasch, H., Romani, A., and Muñoz, I. 2000. Stromatolitic communities in Mediterranean streams: adaptations to a changing environment. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):379-392.

Salmi, P., Auvinen, H., Jurvelius, J., and Sipponen, M. 2000. Finnish lake fisheries and conservation of biodiversity: coexistence or conflict? Fish. Manag. Ecol. 7(1-2):127-138.

Sangster, G. 2000. Taxonomic stability and avian extinctions. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):579-581.

Sarrazin, F., and Legendre, S. 2000. Demographic approach to releasing adults versus young in reintroductions. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):488-500.

Sharratt, N.J., Picker, M.D., and Samways, M.J. 2000. The invertebrate fauna of the sandstone caves of the Cape Peninsula (South Africa): patterns of endemism and conservation priorities. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):107-143.

Shmueli, M., Izhaki, I., Arieli, A., and Arad, Z. 2000. Energy requirements of migrating great white pelicans Pelecanus onocrotalus. Ibis 142(2):208-216.

Sih, A., Jonsson, B.G., and Luikart, G. 2000. Habitat loss: ecological, evolutionary and genetic consequences. TREE 15(4):132-134.

Skartvedt, P.H. 2000. Woody riparian vegetation patterns in the upper Mimbres Watershed, southwestern New Mexico. Southwestern Natural. 45(1):6-14.

Snodgrass, J.W., Komoroski, M.J., Bryan, A.L., and Burger, J. 2000. Relationships among isolated wetland size, hydroperiod, and amphibian species richness: implications for wetland regulations. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):414-419.

Soderquist, T.R., and Mac Nally, R. 2000. The conservation value of mesic gullies in dry forest landscapes: mammal populations in the box-ironbark ecosystem of southern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 93(3):281-291.

Söderström, B., and Pärt, T. 2000. Influence of landscape scale on farmland birds breeding in semi-natural pastures. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):522-533.

Stohlgren, T.J., Owen, A.J., and Lee, M. 2000. Monitoring shifts in plant diversity in response to climate change: a method for landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):65-86.

Tella, J.L., and Forero, M.G. 2000. Farmland habitat selection of wintering lesser kestrels in a Spanish pseudosteppe: implications for conservation strategies. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):433-441.

Ter Steege, H., Jansen-Jacobs, M.J., and Datadin, V.K. 2000. Can botanical collections assist in a National Protected Area Strategy in Guyana? Biodivers. Conserv. 9(2):215-240.

Thomasson, M. 1999. Some considerations on biodiversity: floristical richness, originality and endemicity. Acta Bot. Gallica 146(4):403-419.

Thorstrom, R., and de Roland, L.A.R. 2000. First nest description, breeding behaviour and distribution of the Madagascar serpent-eagle Eutriorchis astur. Ibis 142(2):217-224.

Triest, L., and Kabir, S.M.G. 2000. The use of allozymes at three life stages influences genetic variation analysis and clustering in Cicer arietinum germplasm collections. Euphytica 112(2):109-115.

Turner, S.D., Amon, J.P., Schneble, R.M., and Friese, C.F. 2000. Mycorrhizal fungi associated with plants in ground-water fed wetlands. Wetlands 20(1):200-204.

Veith, M., Kosuch, J., Feldmann, R., Martens, H., and Seitz, A. 2000. A test for correct species declaration of frog legs imports from Indonesia into the European Union. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):333-341.

Waits, L., Taberlet, P., Swenson, J.E., Sandegren, F., and Franzén, R. 2000. Nuclear DNA microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and gene flow in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos). Mol. Ecol. 9(4):421-431.

Washburn, B.E., and Barnes, T.G. 2000. Native warm-season grass and forb establishment using imazapic and 2,4-D. Native Plants J. 1(1):61-69.

Wielgus, R.B., and Bunnell, F.L. 2000. Possible negative effects of adult male mortality on female grizzly bear reproduction. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):145-154.

Willers, B. 2000. A response to "Current normative concepts in conservation" by Callicott et al. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):570-572.

Williams, J.E. 2000. The biodiversity crisis and adaptation to climate change: a case study from Australia's forests. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 61(1):65-74.

Wilsey, B.J., and Potvin, C. 2000. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: importance of species evenness in an old field. Ecology 81(4):887-892.

Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T., and Perrin, M.R. 1999. Conservation of the cape parrot in southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 29(4):118-129.

Wolf, A.T., Harrison, S.P., and Hamrick, J.L. 2000. Influence of habitat patchiness on genetic diversity and spatial structure of a serpentine endemic plant. Conserv. Biol. 14(2):454-463.

Xu, H.G., Wang, D.H., and Sun, X.F. 2000. Biodiversity Clearing-House Mechanism in China: present status and future needs. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(3):361-378.

Zaafouri, M.S., and Chaieb, M. 1999. Threatened trees and shrubs of the southern Tunisia. Acta Bot. Gallica 146(4):361-373.

Zalba, S.M., Sonaglioni, M.I., Compagnoni, C.A., and Belenguer, C.J. 2000. Using a habitat model to assess the risk of invasion by an exotic plant. Biol. Conserv. 93(2):203-208.

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