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Department ofBotany



No. 187
July 2000


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In This Issue


Vanishing Pollinators


The Smithsonian Institution has a new exhibit at the National Zoological Park that highlights insect species that serve as pollinators and the global threat to their decline. Vanishing Pollinators is an educational art exhibit that alerts us to a worldwide decline in pollinator populations. This portfolio of 34 stunning color photographs portrays the beauty and grace of flowering plants and their threatened insect pollinators in an attempt to unite the energy of one of natures most important biological systems with the power of visual art.

Hoverfly (Syrphus) feeding on wild rose pollenBees and other pollinators enable many plants to reproduce and give us some of the foods we eat every day. If animal pollinators disappeared, a vital link in our own life support system would also disappear. Today there is a global threat to many of the creatures that provide this indispensable service to our ecosystem.

For this exhibition, biologist and photographer Carll Goodpasture uses his camera as a hand lens to explore the intricate world of pollinators bringing to life the hidden interrelationship between plants and the animals they rely on for reproduction. In the process, he also sheds light on the role humans play in this relationship. A synthesis of art and science, this exhibition is both a visual statement about mans interaction with the environment and a bold reminder of a world we rely upon but often neglect.

This exhibition of digital fine-art photography features two interactive computer programs "What Are Flowers For?" and "From Flower to Apple"; a video on pollination biology; and reference books for visitors of all ages.

Vanishing Pollinators will be on view through April 2001 at the Amazonia Science Gallery and the Visitors Center at the National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. The exhibit is sponsored by National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Thomas K. and Katherine Reed Charitable Fund, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES). Following that, it will go on national tour, sponsored by SITES. An on-line tour of the exhibition is also available at http://www.si.edu/pollinators/.


Eco-Friendly Travel to the Galapagos Islands


Responding to eco-minded tourists who want to visit the Galapagos Islands without damaging the world-famous park, the Corporation for Conservation and Development (CCD), an Ecuadorian conservation group, teamed with the Rainforest Alliance to give a green seal of approval to tour boats that tread lightly on the vibrant but fragile ecosystem. The new SmartVoyager® certification program will minimize the impact of tour boats in the Galapagos Islands. Each year, 60,000 visitors travel from island to island on specially equipped tour boats, which also serve as floating hotels. Working with scientists, conservation experts, tour operators and others, CCD has outlined standards for the maintenance and operation of the tour boats. Tour companies that wish to participate invite a team of specialists aboard their boats to evaluate the vessels according to the guidelines.

The standards cover potential sources of pollution, such as wastewater and fuels, and set rules for the management of everything from the docks to the small craft that ferry visitors ashore. Procurement and supply management guidelines are designed to minimize the chances of introducing alien wildlife species to the area. The standards require good living conditions and advanced training for the boat crew and guides. Passengers must be given maximum opportunity to appreciate the beauty of the islands and close encounters with wildlife while leaving no trace of their visit.

The Galapagos archipelago, located 960 west of mainland Ecuador, is a world-renowned biodiversity hotspot and one of the best places on Earth to see evolution in action. The islands enchant visitors with their stark beauty and wildlife, including sea lions, seals, blue-footed boobies and the famous giant tortoises. Even though all the islands and the waters around them are a national park, land continues to be cleared for farming and tourism-related development, and the waters are being overfished. Species that had been abundant on the islands, such as giant tortoises, are now endangered due to hunting. The biggest threat is the introduction of exotic species by people, disrupting the delicate web of life on the islands and devastating the defenseless native species and habitats.

For more information on the SmartVoyager® program, visit the Rainforest Alliance webpage at http://www.rainforest-alliance.org.


Information Highway Hi-Lites


The online National Library for the Environment <http://www.cnie.org> includes many free resources, including 692 objective, nonpartisan, technically accurate reports produced by the Congressional Research Service. New reports highlighting endangered species and natural resources include (1) "Endangered Species: Continuing Controversy", (2) "The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: The Next Chapter", (3) "Conserving Land Resources: The Clinton Administration Initiatives and Legislative Action" and (4) "Wetlands Issues". The National Library for the Environment is sponsored by The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE). NCSE works to improve the scientific basis for environmental decision-making. Guided by the needs of stakeholders, NCSE educates society about the importance of comprehensive scientific programs that integrate crosscutting research with knowledge assessments, education, information dissemination, and training. NCSE is a nonprofit organization that carries out educational activities and limited advocacy work. The work of NCSE is funded by private and corporate foundations, universities, members of the CNIE Associates Program and individuals.

 

frogDr. David Wake, Curator of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California-Berkeley, and several graduate students have launched AmphibiaWeb <http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/aw/>, an online database of amphibian biology and conservation. The searchable database currently contains 137 species accounts and eventually will provide information "for every species of amphibian in the world." Species accounts include species descriptions, photos, life history information, conservation status information, and literature references. Although the new resource is still under development, more than 100 species are already photo-illustrated, and over 300 species have range maps; the reference list contains in excess of 500 literature references. In addition to the database, the site offers a section on worldwide amphibian declines and information on how to contribute information to the database.

Launched by the British Mycological Society, the Fungus 2000 Database <http://194.131.255.3/bmspages/Fungus2000/Fungus2000.htm> was established "to record at least 2000 species of fungi from the British Isles in the year 2000 and, equally as important, to produce a millennium collection of one dried voucher specimen for each species recorded." The Fungus 2000 Database provides details on the first collections of species made during the year 2000, listed in alphabetical order (scientific name only). Each data entry describes the species name (scientific name only), associated organism(s), location of specimen, date of collection, reference data, and (in some cases) a distribution map for the species. As of May 2000, nearly 800 specimens have been included in the database.

[From The Scout Report for Science & Engineering, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2000. http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/]


Current Literature


Allison, A., and Miller, S.E. 2000. Hawaii biological survey: museum resources in support of conservation. In: Raven, P.H. and Williams, T., (Eds.). Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Proceedings of the 1997 Forum on Biodiversity. Washington, DC. National Academy Press. pp 281-290.

Álvarez-Claudio, C., García-Rovés, P., Ocharan, R., Cabal, J.A., Ocharan, F.J., and Álvarez, M.A. 2000. A new record of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera L. (Bivalvia, Unionoida) from the River Narcea (Asturias, north-western Spain). Aquatic Conserv. 10(2):93-102.

Araujo, R., Bragado, D., and Ramos, M.A. 2000. Occurrence of glochidia of the endangered Margaritifera auricularia (Spengler, 1793) and other mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionoida) in drift and on fishes in an ancient channel of the Ebro River, Spain. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 148(1):147-160.

Baattrup-Pedersen, A., Riis, T., Hansen, H.O., and Friberg, N. 2000. Restoration of a Danish headwater stream: short-term changes in plant species abundance and composition. Aquatic Conserv. 10(1):13-23.

Baltz, M.E., and Ratnaswamy, M.J. 2000. Mascot conservation programs: using college animal mascots to support species conservation efforts. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):159-163.

Bancroft, G.T., Bowman, R., and Sawicki, R.J. 2000. Rainfall, fruiting phenology, and the nesting season of white-crowned pigeons in the upper Florida Keys. The Auk 117(2):416-426.

Bashan, Y., Gonzalez, L.E., Toledo, G., de La Luz, J.L.L., Bethlenfalvay, G.J., Troyo, E., Rojas, A., Holguin, G., Puente, M.E., Lebsky, V.K., Vazquez, P., Castellanos, T., and Glazier, E. 2000. A proposal for conservation of exemplary stands of the giant cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei [S. Wats] Britt. & Rose) in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Nat. Areas J. 20(2):197-200.

Baskin, C.C., and Baskin, J.M. 2000. Seed germination ecology of Lesquerella lyrata Rollins (Brassicaceae), a federally threatened winter annual. Nat. Areas J. 20(2):159-165.

Bass, S.P., and Muller, M.R., (Eds.). 2000. Protecting Biodiversity: National Laws Regulating Access to Genetic Resources in the Americas. IDRC. Ottawa, Canada. 105 pp.

Behera, M.D., Srivastava, S., Kushwaha, S.P.S., and Roy, P.S. 2000. Stratification and mapping of Taxus baccata L. bearing forests in Talle Valley using remote sensing and GIS. Curr. Sci. 78(8):1008-1013.

Beissinger, S.R., Reed, J.M., Wunderle, J.M., Robinson, S.K., and Finch, D.M. 2000. Report of the AOU conservation committee on the partners in flight species prioritization plan. The Auk 117(2):549-561.

Bobiec, A., van der Burgt, H., Meijer, K., Zuyderduyn, C., Haga, J., and Vlaanderen, B. 2000. Rich deciduous forests in Bialowieza as a dynamic mosaic of developmental phases: premises for nature conservation and restoration management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 130(1-3):159-175.

Breck, S. 2000. The value of endangered species. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):282-283.

Breitenstein, M.E., and Kirchhofer, A. 2000. Growth, age structure and species association of the cyprinid Alburnoides bipunctatus in the River Aare, Switzerland. Folia Zoologica 49(1):59-68.

Brown, J.H., and Lomolino, M.V. 2000. Concluding remarks: historical perspective and the future of island biogeography theory. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 9(1):87-92.

Burger, J. 2000. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation. Science Total Environ. 249(1-3):39-49.

Butchart, S.H.M., and Baker, G.C. 2000. Priority sites for conservation of maleos (Macrocephalon maleo) in central Sulawesi. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):79-91.

Carter, M.F., Hunter, W.C., Pashley, D.N., and Rosenberg, K.V. 2000. Setting conservation priorities for landbirds in the United States: the partners in flight approach. The Auk 117(2):541-548.

Chapin, F.S., Zavaleta, E.S., Eviner, V.T., Naylor, R.L., Vitousek, P.M., Reynolds, H.L., Hooper, D.U., Lavorel, S., Sala, O.E., Hobbie, S.E., Mack, M.C., and Diaz, S. 2000. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405(6783):234-242.

Cincotta, R.P., Wisnewski, J., and Engelman, R. 2000. Human population in the biodiversity hotspots. Nature 404(6781):990-992.

Czech, B. 2000. Economic growth as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):4-15.

Czech, B. 2000. The importance of ecological economics to wildlife conservation - an introduction. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):2-3.

Davies, K.E., Margules, C.R., and Lawrence, J.E. 2000. Which traits of species predict population declines in experimental forest fragments? Ecology 81(5):1450-1461.

de la Torre, S., Snowdon, C.T., and Bejarano, M. 2000. Effects of human activities on wild pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 94(2):153-163.

Diserud, O.H., and Engen, S. 2000. A general and dynamic species abundance model, embracing the lognormal and the gamma models. Amer. Natural. 155(4):497-511.

Doledec, S., Olivier, J.M., and Statzner, B. 2000. Accurate description of the abundance of taxa and their biological traits in stream invertebrate communities: effects of taxonomic and spatial resolution. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie 148(1):25-43.

Drechsler, M. 2000. A model-based decision aid for species protection under uncertainty. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):23-30.

Engelhardt, K.A.M., Kadlec, J.A., Roy, V.L., and Powell, J.A. 2000. Evaluation of translocation criteria: case study with trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator). Biol. Conserv. 94(2):173-181.

Erickson, J.D. 2000. Endangering the economics of extinction. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):34-41.

Eshetu, Z., and Hogbeg, P. 2000. Reconstruction of forest site history in Ethiopian highlands based on C-13 natural abundance of soils. Ambio 29(2):83-89.

Fairfax, R.J., and Fensham, R.J. 2000. The effect of exotic pasture development on floristic diversity in central Queensland, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):11-21.

Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2000. Conservation education: the need for regional approaches supporting local initiatives. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):164-167.

Fernández, N., and Palomares, F. 2000. The selection of breeding dens by the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): implications for its conservation. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):51-61.

Fitzgerald, L.A., and Painter, C.W. 2000. Rattlesnake commercialization: long-term trends, issues, and implications for conservation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):235-253.

Flebbe, P.A. 2000. Patterns of aquatic species imperilment in the southern Appalachians: an evaluation of regional databases. Environ. Manag. 25(6):681-694.

Fox, B.J., and Fox, M.D. 2000. Factors determining mammal species richness on habitat islands and isolates: habitat diversity, disturbance, species interactions and guild assembly rules. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 9(1):19-37.

Freese, C.H., and Trauger, D.L. 2000. Wildlife markets and biodiversity conservation in North America. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):42-51.

Gaston, K.J. 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405(6783):220-227.

Gergely, K., Scott, J.M., and Goble, D. 2000. A new direction for the US National Wildlife Refuges: The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997. Nat. Areas J. 20(2):107-118.

Gibbins, C.N., Jeffries, M.J., and Soulsby, C. 2000. Impacts of an inter-basin water transfer: distribution and abundance of Micronecta poweri (Insecta: Corixidae) in the River Wear, north-east England. Aquatic Conserv. 10(2):103-115.

Gilliland, P.M., and Sanderson, W.G. 2000. Re-evaluation of marine benthic species of nature conservation importance: a new perspective on certain 'lagoonal specialists' with particular emphasis on Alkmaria romijni Horst (Polychaeta: Ampharetidae). Aquatic Conserv. 10(1):1-12.

Gilvear, D.J., Cecil, J., and Parsons, H. 2000. Channel change and vegetation diversity on a low-angle alluvial fan, River Feshie, Scotland. Aquatic Conserv. 10(1):53-71.

Glynn, P.W., and Ault, J.S. 2000. A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19(1):1-23.

Gobbi, J.A. 2000. Is biodiversity-friendly coffee financially viable? An analysis of five different coffee production systems in western El Salvador. Ecol. Econom. 33(2):267-281.

Goetze, D. 2000. Biodiversity of landscape sections: assessing and analyzing gamma-diversity by means of vegetation complexes. Phytocoenologia 30(1):1-129.

Gordon, C. 2000. Hypersaline lagoons as conservation habitats: macro-invertebrates at Muni lagoon, Ghana. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(4):465-478.

Gordon, C., Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y., and Ryan, J.M. 2000. The Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(4):447-464.

Gordon, I., and Cobblah, M. 2000. Insects of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(4):479-486.

Gouin, N., Grandjean, F., and Souty-Grosset, C. 2000. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the endangered freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Astacidae) and their potential use in other decapods. Mol. Ecol. 9(5):636-637.

Gowdy, J.M. 2000. Terms and concepts in ecological economics. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):26-33.

Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E., and Blundell, A.G. 2000. 'Marketing' species conservation. Nature 404(6781):923-924.

Hall, C.A.S., Jones, P.W., Donovan, T.M., and Gibbs, J.P. 2000. The implications of mainstream economics for wildlife conservation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):16-25.

Hawthorne, W.D., and Parren, M.P.E. 2000. How important are forest elephants to the survival of woody plant species in upper Guinean forests? J. Trop. Ecol. 16:133-150.

Heaney, L.R. 2000. Dynamic disequilibrium: a long-term, large-scale perspective on the equilibrium model of island biogeography. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 9(1):59-74.

Herremans, M., and Herremans-Tonnoeyr, D. 2000. Land use and the conservation status of raptors in Botswana. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):31-41.

Hódar, J.A., Pleguezuelos, J.M., and Poveda, J.C. 2000. Habitat selection of the common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) (L.) in an area under development in southern Spain: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):63-68.

Holland, B.S. 2000. Genetics of marine bioinvasions. Hydrobiologia 420:63-71.

Hood, W.G., and Naiman, R.J. 2000. Vulnerability of riparian zones to invasion by exotic vascular plants. Plant Ecol. 148(1):105-114.

Hughey, K.F.D. 2000. An evaluation of a management saga: the Banks Peninsula Marine Mammal Sanctuary, New Zealand. J. Environ. Manag. 58(3):179-197.

Isaacs, J.C. 2000. The limited potential of ecotourism to contribute to wildlife conservation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):61-69.

Jäggi, C., Wirth, T., and Baur, B. 2000. Genetic variability in subpopulations of the asp viper (Vipera aspis) in the Swiss Jura mountains: implications for a conservation strategy. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):69-77.

Jamieson, I.G., and Ryan, C.J. 2000. Increased egg infertility associated with translocating inbred takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) to island refuges in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):107-114.

Jordan, F. 2000. A reliability-theory approach to corridor design. Ecol. Model. 128(2-3):211-220.

Kaiser, J. 2000. Does biodiversity help fend off invaders? Science 288(5467):785-786.

Kercher, S.M., and Sytsma, K.J. 2000. Genetic and morphological variation in populations of the rare prairie annual Agalinis skinneriana (Wood) Britton (Scrophulariaceae). Nat. Areas J. 20(2):166-175.

Koranteng, K.A., Ofori-Danson, P.K., and Entsua-Mensah, M. 2000. Fish and fisheries of the Muni lagoon in Ghana, West Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(4):487-499.

Kutiel, P., Peled, Y., and Geffen, E. 2000. The effect of removing shrub cover on annual plants and small mammals in a coastal sand dune ecosystem. Biol. Conserv. 94(2):235-242.

Kuusinen, M., and Penttinen, A. 2000. Spatial pattern of the threatened epiphytic bryophyte Neckera pennata at two scales in a fragmented forest. Lindbergia 25(1):48.

Lancellotti, D.A., and Vasquez, J.A. 2000. Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 73(1):99-129.

Landete-Castillejos, T., Andres-Abellán, M., Argandoña, J.J., and Garde, J. 2000. Distribution of the Cabrera vole (Microtus cabrerae) in its first reported areas reassessed by live trapping. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):127-130.

Langholz, J.A., Lassoie, J.P., Lee, D., and Chapman, D. 2000. Economic considerations of privately owned parks. Ecol. Econom. 33(2):173-183.

Larivière, S., Jolicoeur, H., and Crête, M. 2000. Status and conservation of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in wildlife reserves of Quebec. Biol. Conserv. 94(2):143-151.

Le Duc, M.G., Pakeman, R.J., and Marrs, R.H. 2000. Vegetation development on upland and marginal land treated with herbicide, for bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) control, in Great Britain. J. Environ. Manag. 58(2):147-160.

Le Duc, M.G., Pakeman, R.J., Putwain, P.D., and Marrs, R.H. 2000. The variable responses of bracken fronds to control treatments in Great Britain. Ann. Botany 85:17-29.

Levine, J.M. 2000. Species diversity and biological invasions: relating local process to community pattern. Science 288(5467):852-854.

Linton, S., and Goulder, R. 2000. Botanical conservation value related to origin and management of ponds. Aquatic Conserv. 10(2):77-91.

Lomolino, M.V. 2000. A call for a new paradigm of island biogeography. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 9(1):1-6.

Lomolino, M.V. 2000. A species-based theory of insular zoogeography. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 9(1):39-58.

Loomis, J.B. 2000. Can environmental economic valuation techniques aid ecological economics and wildlife conservation? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):52-60.

Lowry, P.P., and Wood, K.R. 2000. A new, threatened species of Tetraplasandra (Araliaceae) from Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands, and notes on its conservation status. Novon 10(1):40-44.

Ludlow, M.E., and Gore, J.A. 2000. Effects of a cave gate on emergence patterns of colonial bats. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(1):191-196.

Luiselli, L., Politano, E., and Angelici, F.M. 2000. Ecological correlates of the distribution of terrestrial and freshwater Chelonians in the Niger Delta, Nigeria: a biodiversity assessment with conservation implications. Revue D'Ecologie-La Terre Et La Vie 55(1):3-23.

Lushai, G., Fjellsted, W., Marcovitch, O., Aagaard, K., Sherratt, T.N., Allen, J.A., and Maclean, N. 2000. Application of molecular techniques to non-lethal tissue samples of endangered butterfly populations (Parnassiuss apollo L.) in Norway for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):43-50.

Lutz, E., Schneller, J.J., and Holderegger, R. 2000. Understanding population history for conservation purposes: population genetics of Saxifraga aizoides (Saxifragaceae) in the lowlands and lower mountains north of the Alps. Am. J. Bot. 87(4):583-590.

Macdonald, D.W., and Johnson, P.J. 2000. Farmers and the custody of the countryside: trends in loss and conservation of non-productive habitats 1981-1998. Biol. Conserv. 94(2):221-234.

Madsen, T., Olsson, M., Wittzell, H., Stille, B., Gullberg, A., Shine, R., Andersson, S., and Tegelström, H. 2000. Population size and genetic diversity in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) and adders (Vipera berus). Biol. Conserv. 94(2):257-262.

Margules, C.R., and Pressey, R.L. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405(6783):243-253.

Marrero-Gómez, M.V., Arévalo, J.R., Bañares-Baudet, A., and Álamo, E.C. 2000. Study of the establishment of the endangered Echium acanthocarpum (Boraginaceae) in the Canary Islands. Biol. Conserv. 94(2):183-190.

Marrs, R.H., Le Duc, M.G., Mitchell, R.J., Goddard, D., Paterson, S., and Pakeman, R.J. 2000. The ecology of bracken: its role in succession and implications for control. Ann. Botany 85:3-15.

Martikainen, P., Siitonen, J., Punttila, P., Kaila, L., and Rauh, J. 2000. Species richness of Coleoptera in mature managed and old-growth boreal forests in southern Finland. Biol. Conserv. 94(2):199-209.

Martinsen, G.D., Floate, K.D., Waltz, A.M., Wimp, G.M., and Whitham, T.G. 2000. Positive interactions between leafrollers and other arthropods enhance biodiversity on hybrid cottonwoods. Oecologia 123(1):82-89.

Matiru, V., (Ed.). 2000. Forest Cover and Forest Reserves in Kenya: Policy and Practice. Nairobi. IUCN. 58 pp.

McCann, K.S. 2000. The diversity-stability debate. Nature 405(6783):228-233.

McClanahan, T.R. 2000. Recovery of a coral reef keystone predator, Balistapus undulatus, in East African marine parks. Biol. Conserv. 94(2):191-198.

McDaniel, C.J., Crowder, L.B., and Priddy, J.A. 2000. Spatial dynamics of sea turtle abundance and shrimping intensity in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(1):15. <http://www.consecol.org/Journal/vol4/iss1/art15>

Meretsky, V.J., Wegner, D.L., and Stevens, L.E. 2000. Balancing endangered species and ecosystems: a case study of adaptive management in Grand Canyon. Environ. Manag. 25(6):579-586.

Miller, S.E., Gemmill, B., Rogo, L., Allen, M., and Herren, H.R. 2000. Biodiversity of terrestrial invertebrates in tropical Africa: assessing the needs and plan of action. In: Raven, P.H. and Williams, T., (Eds.). Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Proceedings of the 1997 Forum on Biodiversity. Washington, DC. National Academy Press. pp 204-212.

Mittermeier, R.A. 2000. Conservation international and biodiversity conservation. Nature 405(6783):254B.

Montes, N., Gauquelin, T., Badri, W., Bertaudiere, V., and Zaoui, E.H. 2000. A non-destructive method for estimating above-ground forest biomass in threatened woodlands. Forest Ecol. Manag. 130(1-3):37-46.

Moore, G., and Wilson, E.O. 2000. Integrating science and conservation. Nature 405(6783):254A.

Nabuurs, G.J., and Lioubimov, A.V. 2000. Future development of the Leningrad region forests under nature-oriented forest management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 130(1-3):235-251.

Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y., Nyame, S.K., and Nuoh, A.A. 2000. Trends in the use of a small coastal lagoon by waterbirds: Muni lagoon (Ghana). Biodivers. Conserv. 9(4):527-539.

Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y., Owusu, E.H., and Daramani, D.T. 2000. Terrestrial birds of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(4):511-525.

Ochoa, J. 2000. Effects of logging on small-mammal diversity in the lowland forests of the Venezuelan Guyana Region. Biotropica 32(1):146-164.

Oliver, I., Pik, S., Britton, D., Dangerfield, J.M., Colwell, R.K., and Beattie, A.J. 2000. Virtual biodiversity assessment systems. BioScience 50(5):441-450.

Ortubay, S., and Cussac, V. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Gymnocharacinus bergi Steindachner, 1903 (Characidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 58(2):144.

Osborne, M.J., Norman, J.A., Christidis, L., and Murray, N.D. 2000. Genetic distinctness of isolated populations of an endangered marsupial, the mountain pygmy-possum, Burramys parvus. Mol. Ecol. 9(5):609-613.

Pakeman, R.J., Le Duc, M.G., and Marrs, R.H. 2000. Bracken distribution in Great Britain: strategies for its control and the sustainable management of marginal land. Ann. Botany 85:37-46.

Pearce, F. 2000. Worth protecting - is controlled trade the best way to save endangered species? New Scientist 166(2235):19.

Pearce, J., and Ferrier, S. 2000. An evaluation of alternative algorithms for fitting species distribution models using logistic regression. Ecol. Model. 128(2-3):127-147.

Pelley, J. 2000. Quantifying the benefits of biodiversity could help prevent extinction. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(9):205A-206A.

Pence, V.C. 2000. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown fern gametophytes. Amer. Fern J. 90(1):16-23.

Petrov, P., and Marrs, R.H. 2000. Follow-up methods for bracken control following an initial glyphosate application: the use of weed wiping, cutting and reseeding. Ann. Botany 85:31-35.

Plissner, J.H., Haig, S.M., and Oring, L.W. 2000. Postbreeding movements of American avocets and implications for wetland connectivity in the western Great Basin. The Auk 117(2):290-298.

Polasky, S., Camm, J.D., Solow, A.R., Csuti, B., White, D., and Ding, R.G. 2000. Choosing reserve networks with incomplete species information. Biol. Conserv. 94(1):1-10.

Ponton, D., Mérigoux, S., and Copp, G.H. 2000. Impact of a dam in the neotropics: what can be learned from young-of-the-year fish assemblages in tributaries of the River Sinnamary (French Guiana, South America)? Aquatic Conserv. 10(1):25-51.

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