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Department ofBotany

No. 188
August 2000

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In This Issue

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Center for Plant Conservation Sign Agreement to Conserve North American Plants

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) announced an agreement to work together to protect native plants, including those listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The memorandum of understanding, announced during the 2000 World Botanic Gardens Congress in Asheville, North Carolina, establishes a broad framework for joint conservation efforts and public education about the biological, medical, economic, and aesthetic contributions native plant species and their habitats make to the Nation's quality of life.

Originally founded in 1984, the CPC is supported by a consortium of 29 botanical gardens and arboreta throughout the United States. With approximately one out of every 10 plant species in the United States facing potential extinction, the CPC is the only national organization dedicated exclusively to preventing extinction of the rare plants of the United States.

Knowlton cactus
(Pediocactus knowltonii)
Endangered in CO and NM
Credit: Robert Savannah, USFWS

USFWS and CPC agree to seek opportunities to work together to support the conservation needs of all endangered native North American plant species and their habitats. The partners will support research and education efforts, and the recovery process for imperiled plant species, help CPC member institutions and USFWS regional and field offices identify potential conservation partnerships, and encourage participation by the CPC in the development of USFWS recovery plans for federally listed plant species.

The United States currently is home to 735 threatened or endangered plant species. Native plants are important for their economic and aesthetic values. Plants play an important role in development of crops that resist disease, insects, and drought. At least 25 percent of prescription drugs contain ingredients derived from plant compounds, including medicines used to treat cancer, heart disease, juvenile leukemia, and malaria, and to assist organ transplant recipients. Plants are also used to develop natural pesticides.

Putting Conservation Science into Practice and Conservation Practice into Science

The Society for Conservation Biology has launched the first issue of their new magazine: Conservation Biology in Practice. Their new venture is designed for conservation practitioners and policymakers who are short on time but long on information needs. This high quality professional trade magazine is dedicated to the fast-growing fields of conservation biology and ecosystem management. It will help you stay in touch with state-of-the-art conservation biology and ecosystem management, evaluate management options and shape your conservation agenda. For subscription information and/or to order a sample copy contact: Journals Subscription Department, Blackwell Science Inc., 350 Main St., Malden MA 02148 USA. Toll-free 888-661-5800; phone (781) 388-8250; fax (781) 388-8270. More information is also available at their website:

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) announces a new web site of the Forest Policy and Environment Group (FPEG) at The site contains a wealth of information on forestry-related issues, and includes the latest research papers by FPEG research Fellows, as well as a searchable database of all of FPEG's Rural Development Forestry Network (RDFN) papers, which are published in English, French and Spanish. The site is still expanding, and will soon provide access to much of the ODI library's forestry gray literature collection. Together, the RDFN papers and the gray literature archive contain a wealth of information on the social and economic aspects of forestry in the last 15 years. The materials chart the development of people-oriented forestry from both the donor and the host country perspective, combining project-level experience and policy-level insights in all regions of the world (but with a clear focus on developing countries). The website also has an extensive links section with descriptions of many of the Internet's most important Forestry websites, and an Online Noticeboard.

The Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy announces the online posting of the first of an ongoing series of research bibliographies on wildlife issues at <>. This searchable bibliography focuses on law, science and policy issues related to small cetaceans (dolphins, porpoises and small whales), collecting citations of peer-reviewed and gray literature (including journal articles, newspaper articles, reports, and materials on the Internet). Over 2350 citations have been included to date and the bibliography will be updated every two months, with future updates focused more on law and policy issues. The bibliography is formatted in both HTML and PDF, and the HTML version can be searched using Boolean logic or key words.

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have combined forces to produce Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species <> on the use of satellite tracking to monitor migration routes of endangered birds. Targeting the general public, the site introduces readers to satellite tracking (using Direct Readout technology), offers animations of bird flight paths (see the section entitled Birdtracks), and gives additional information on birds (in the Bird Data Archives, select a bird and watch its flight path through time). While bird information is limited to several larger species (due to the size/weight of attached transmitters), the resource serves as a useful information base for anyone wishing to learn more about satellite tracking.

- from The Scout Report for Science & Engineering, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2000. <>

The Natural History Museum in London indexes the bumblebees (genus Bombus) of the world at List of World Bumblebees <>. The list is searchable by biogeographic region or species name. The introduction page features a clickable map showing bumblebee densities of the world, a scatterplot showing the relationship between date of first description, taxonomic synonymies and range size (to demonstrate possible bias), and links to references. This site also holds a clickable cladogram (after Williams, 1995) of subspecies of Bombus with links to biogeographic maps and information. The colorful bumblebee images and informative figures (.gif) make this site a goldmine for entomology students and researchers.

- from The Scout Report

New Publications

Trogons and Quetzals of the World

Smithsonian Institution Press announces the release of the new publication "Trogons and Quetzals of the World" by Paul A. Johnsgard. Of all bird groups, none is more closely associated with the world's tropical forests than trogons and quetzals. Since deforestation and fires have ravaged many of the reclusive group's prime habitats, ornithologists and conservationists may soon be unable to study many of the world's trogonids in their native environments. Beautifully illustrated with color plates and line drawings, this comprehensive review of trogons and quetzalsthe first to be published in more than 150 yearscovers all thirty-nine extant species. The book includes detailed species accounts, range maps, and identification keys as well as a chapter that discusses comparative biology in terms of evolution, anatomy and morphology, behavior, ecology, breeding, biology, and populations. This up-to-date survey will serve as a valuable reference for ornithologists, conservationists, aviculurists, and bird-watchers worldwide. The book is available for $49.95; ISBN:1-56098-388-4. To place an order or to get more information, please call SI Press at 1-800-782-4612, or visit

Current Literature

Akcakaya, H.R. 2000. Conservation and management for multiple species: integrating field research and modeling into management decisions. Environ. Manag. 26:S75-S83.

Alonso, J.C., Lane, S.J., Dawson, R., and Idaghdour, Y. 2000. Great bustards Otis tarda in Morocco: status in spring 1999 and evidence of a decline in recent decades. Oryx 34(2):141-146.

Altieri, M.A. 2000. Enhancing the productivity and multifunctionality of traditional farming in Latin America. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol. 7(1):50-61.

Altieri, M.A. 2000. Multifunctional dimensions of ecologically-based agriculture in Latin America. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol. 7(1):62-75.

Amori, G., and Gippoliti, S. 2000. What do mammalogists want to save? Ten years of mammalian conservation biology. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):785-793.

Andersen, A.N., and Müller, W.J. 2000. Arthropod responses to experimental fire regimes in an Australian tropical savannah: ordinal-level analysis. Austral Ecol. 25(2):199-209.

Anderson, R.S., and Ashe, J.S. 2000. Leaf litter inhabiting beetles as surrogates for establishing priorities for conservation of selected tropical montane cloud forests in Honduras, Central America (Coleoptera; Staphylinidae, Curculionidae). Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):617-653.

Andrew, N., Rodgerson, L., and York, A. 2000. Frequent fuel-reduction burning: the role of logs and associated leaf litter in the conservation of ant biodiversity. Austral Ecol. 25(1):99-107.

Attwell, C.A.M., and Cotterill, F.P.D. 2000. Postmodernism and African conservation science. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):559-577.

Banks, M.A., Rashbrook, V.K., Calavetta, M.J., Dean, C.A., and Hedgecock, D. 2000. Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California's Central Valley. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57(5):915-927.

Baur, B., Schileyko, A.A., and Baur, A. 2000. Ecological observations on Arianta aethiops aethiops (Helicidae), a land snail endemic to the south Carpathian Mountains, Romania. J. Molluscan Stud. 66:285-289.

Benson, E.E., Danaher, J.E., Pimbley, I.M., Anderson, C.T., Wake, J.E., Daley, S., and Adams, L.K. 2000. In vitro micropropagation of Primula scotica: a rare Scottish plant. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):711-726.

Bierbaum, R. 2000. A federal science perspective on land use. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):682-685.

Bijlsma, R., Bundgaard, J., and Boerema, A.C. 2000. Does inbreeding affect the extinction risk of small populations? Predictions from Drosophila. J. Evol. Biol. 13(3):502-514.

Bodini, A., Ricci, A., and Viaroli, P. 2000. A multimethodological approach for the sustainable management of perifluvial wetlands of the Po River (Italy). Environ. Manag. 26(1):59-72.

Bokdam, J., and Gleichman, J.M. 2000. Effects of grazing by free-ranging cattle on vegetation dynamics in a continental north-west European heathland. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(3):415-431.

Bonadie, W.A., and Bacon, P.R. 2000. Year-round utilisation of fragmented palm swamp forest by red-bellied macaws (Ara manilata) and orange-winged parrots (Amazona amazonica) in the Nariva Swamp (Trinidad). Biol. Conserv. 95(1):1-5.

Bowler, P.A. 2000. Ecological restoration of coastal sage scrub and its potential role in habitat conservation plans. Environ. Manag. 26:S85-S96.

Bro, E., Sarrazin, F., Clobert, J., and Reitz, F. 2000. Demography and the decline of the grey partridge Perdix perdix in France. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(3):432-448.

Brown, A.H.D., and Brubaker, C.L. 2000. Genetics and the conservation and use of Australian wild relatives of crops. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):297-303.

Byrne, M., and Macdonald, B. 2000. Phylogeography and conservation of three oil mallee taxa, Eucalyptus kochii ssp kochii, ssp plenissima and E. horistes. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):305-312.

Carlson, A. 2000. The effect of habitat loss on a deciduous forest specialist species: the white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos). Forest Ecol. Manag. 131(1-3):215-221.

Charlier, R.H., and De Meyer, C.P. 2000. Ask nature to protect and build-up beaches. J. Coastal Res. 16(2):385-390.

Clarke, M., Campbell, A.C., Hameid, W.S., and Ghoneim, S. 2000. Preliminary report on the status of marine turtle nesting populations on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):363-371.

Coates, D.J. 2000. Defining conservation units in a rich and fragmented flora: implications for the management of genetic resources and evolutionary processes in south-west Australian plants. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):329-339.

Collins, A.C., and Dubach, J.M. 2000. Biogeographic and ecological forces responsible for speciation in Ateles. Int. J. Primatol. 21(3):421-444.

Collins, A.C., and Dubach, J.M. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of spider monkeys (Ateles) based on mitochondrial DNA variation. Int. J. Primatol. 21(3):381-420.

Cooper, D.J., and MacDonald, L.H. 2000. Restoring the vegetation of mined peatlands in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):103-111.

Cresswell, I.D., and Bridgewater, P. 2000. The Global Taxonomy Initiative - Quo vadis? Biology International 38:12-16.

Cronon, W. 2000. Resisting monoliths and tabulae rasae. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):673-675.

Cullen, L., Bodmer, R.E., and Valladares Pádua, C. 2000. Effects of hunting in habitat fragments of the Atlantic forests, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):49-56.

Curnutt, J.L. 2000. Host-area specific climatic-matching: similarity breeds exotics. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):341-351.

da Fonseca, G.A.B., Balmford, A., Bibby, C., Boitani, L., Corsi, F., Brooks, T., Gascon, C., Olivieri, S., Mittermeier, R.A., Burgess, N., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D., Hannah, L., Lovett, J., Moyer, D., Rahbek, C., Stuart, S., and Williams, P. 2000. Following Africa's lead in setting priorities. Nature 405(6785):393-394.

Dale, V.H., Brown, S., Haeuber, R.A., Hobbs, N.T., Huntly, N., Naiman, R.J., Riebsame, W.E., Turner, M.G., and Valone, T.J. 2000. Ecological principles and guidelines for managing the use of land. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):639-670.

Dale, V.H., and Haeuber, R.A. 2000. Perspectives on land use. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):671-672.

De Souza-Mazurek, R.R., Pedrinho, T., Feliciano, X., Hilario, W., Geroncio, S., and Marcelo, E. 2000. Subsistence hunting among the Waimiri Atroari Indians in central Amazonia, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):579-596.

Dhar, U., Rawal, R.S., and Upreti, J. 2000. Setting priorities for conservation of medicinal plants - a case study in the Indian Himalaya. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):57-65.

Dowler, R.C., Carroll, D.S., and Edwards, C.W. 2000. Rediscovery of rodents (genus Nesoryzomys) considered extinct in the Galapagos Islands. Oryx 34(2):109-117.

Dugger, K.M., Ryan, M.R., and Renken, R.B. 2000. Least tern chick survival on the lower Mississippi River. J. Field Ornithol. 71(2):330-338.

Dupain, J., Van Krunkelsven, E., Van Elsacker, L., and Verheyen, R.F. 2000. Current status of the bonobo (Pan paniscus) in the proposed Lomako Reserve (Democratic Republic of Congo). Biol. Conserv. 94(3):265-272.

Echelle, A.A., Van den Bussche, R.A., Malloy, T.P., Haynie, M.L., and Minckley, C.O. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA variation in pupfishes assigned to the species Cyprinodon macularius (Atherinomorpha: Cyprinodontidae): taxonomic implications and conservation genetics. Copeia (2):353-364.

Elster, C. 2000. Reasons for reforestation success and failure with three mangrove species in Colombia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 131(1-3):201-214.

Emneborg, H., and Gotmark, F. 2000. The role of threat to areas and initiative from actors for establishment of nature reserves in southern Sweden 1926-1996. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):727-738.

Fajardo, I., Babiloni, G., and Miranda, Y. 2000. Rehabilitated and wild barn owls (Tyto alba): dispersal, life expectancy and mortality in Spain. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):287-295.

Ferber, D. 2000. Orangutans face extinction in the wild. Science 288(5469):1147-1150.

Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2000. Local and regional effects of pedestrians on forest birds in a fragmented landscape. The Condor 102(2):247-255.

Fischer, A., and Vasseur, L. 2000. The crisis in shifting cultivation practices and the promise of agroforestry: a review of the Panamanian experience. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):739-756.

Fisher, D.O., Hoyle, S.D., and Blomberg, S.P. 2000. Population dynamics and survival of an endangered wallaby: a comparison of four methods. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):901-910.

Foley, P. 2000. Problems in extinction model selection and parameter estimation. Environ. Manag. 26:S55-S73.

Galindo-Leal, C. 2000. Conservation science in Latin America. Interciencia 25(3):129-135.

García, D., Zamora, R., Hódar, J.A., Gómez, J.M., and Castro, J. 2000. Yew (Taxus baccata L.) regeneration is facilitated by fleshy-fruited shrubs in Mediterranean environments. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):31-38.

Grandjean, F., and Souty-Grosset, C. 2000. Genetic and morphological variation in the endangered crayfish species, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) (Crustacea, Astacidae) from the Poitou-Charentes region (France). Aquatic Sci. 62(1):1-19.

Guerold, F., Boudot, J.P., Jacquemin, G., Vein, D., Merlet, D., and Rouiller, J. 2000. Macroinvertebrate community loss as a result of headwater stream acidification in the Vosges Mountains (NE France). Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):767-783.

Hanazaki, N., Tamashiro, J.Y., Leitao, H.F., and Begossi, A. 2000. Diversity of plant uses in two Caicara communities from the Atlantic forest coast, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):597-615.

Hawkins, J.P., Roberts, C.M., and Clark, V. 2000. The threatened status of restricted-range coral reef fish species. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):81-88.

Hedge, P., and Kriwoken, L.K. 2000. Evidence for effects of Spartina anglica invasion on benthic macrofauna in Little Swanport estuary, Tasmania. Austral Ecol. 25(2):150-159.

Hillebrand, H., and Sommer, U. 2000. Diversity of benthic microalgae in response to colonization time and eutrophication. Aquatic Bot. 67(3):221-236.

Hogbin, P.M., Peakall, R., and Sydes, M.A. 2000. Achieving practical outcomes from genetic studies of rare Australian plants. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):375-382.

Hopper, S.D. 2000. How well do phylogenetic studies inform the conservation of Australian plants? Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):321-328.

Hughes, J.B., and Roughgarden, J. 2000. Species diversity and biomass stability. Amer. Natural. 155(5):618-627.

Huijser, M.P., and Bergers, P.J.M. 2000. The effect of roads and traffic on hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) populations. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):111-116.

Hulse, D., and Ribe, R. 2000. Land conversion and the production of wealth. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):679-682.

James, E.A., and Brown, A.J. 2000. Morphological and genetic variation in the endangered Victorian endemic grass Agrostis adamsonii Vickery (Poaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):383-395.

James, S.H. 2000. Genetic systems in the south-west flora: implications for conservation strategies for Australian plant species. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):341-347.

Jiang, Z.G., Li, D.Q., and Wang, Z.W. 2000. Population declines of Przewalski's gazelle around Qinghai Lake, China. Oryx 34(2):129-135.

Johnson, G. 2000. Spatial ecology of the eastern massasauga (Sistrurus c. catenatus) in a New York peatland. J. Herpetol. 34(2):186-192.

Keith, D.A., Auld, T.D., Ooi, M.K.J., and Mackenzie, B.D.E. 2000. Sensitivity analyses of decision rules in World Conservation Union (IUCN) red list criteria using Australian plants. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):311-319.

Kemper, J., Cowling, R.M., Richardson, D.M., Forsyth, G.G., and McKelly, D.H. 2000. Landscape fragmentation in South Coast Renosterveld, South Africa, in relation to rainfall and topography. Austral Ecol. 25(2):179-186.

Kingsford, R.T. 2000. Ecological impacts of dams, water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia. Austral Ecol. 25(2):109-127.

Kloor, K. 2000. Everglades restoration plan hits rough waters. Science 288(5469):1166-1167.

Kluza, D.A., Griffin, C.R., and Degraaf , R.M. 2000. Housing developments in rural New England: effects on forest birds. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):15-26.

Krauss, S.L. 2000. Patterns of mating in Persoonia mollis (Proteaceae) revealed by an analysis of paternity using AFLP: implications for conservation. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):349-356.

Kremen, C., Niles, J.O., Dalton, M.G., Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R., Fay, J.P., Grewal, D., and Guillery, R.P. 2000. Economic incentives for rain forest conservation across scales. Science 288(5472):1828-1832.

Lacaze, J.F. 2000. Forest management for recreation and conservation: new challenges. Forestry 73(2):137-141.

Lande, R., DeVries, P.J., and Walla, T.R. 2000. When species accumulation curves intersect: implications for ranking diversity using small samples. Oikos 89(3):601-605.

Laurian, C., Ouellet, J.P., Courtois, R., Breton, L., and St-Onge, S. 2000. Effects of intensive harvesting on moose reproduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(3):515-531.

Lawes, M.J., Eeley, H.A.C., and Piper, S.E. 2000. The relationship between local and regional diversity of indigenous forest fauna in Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):683-705.

Leong, J.M., and Bailey, E.L. 2000. The incidence of a generalist thrips herbivore among natural and translocated patches of an endangered vernal pool plant, Blennosperma bakeri. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):127-134.

Letnic, M. 2000. The politics of science and conservation: why not anonymous publication? Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):707-709.

Lockwood, J.L., Brooks, T.M., and Mckinney, M.L. 2000. Taxonomic homogenization of the global avifauna. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):27-35.

Loew, B. 2000. Multiple species habitat conservation planning: goals and strategies of local governments. Environ. Manag. 26:S15-S21.

Lopez-Rojas, H., and Bonilla-Rivero, A.L. 2000. Anthropogenically induced fish diversity reduction in Lake Valencia Basin, Venezuela. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):757-765.

Lyver, P.O. 2000. Identifying mammalian predators from bite marks: a tool for focusing wildlife protection. Mammal Rev. 30(1):31-43.

Mac Nally, R. 2000. Regression and model-building in conservation biology, biogeography and ecology: the distinction between and reconciliation of 'predictive' and 'explanatory' models. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):655-671.

Mac Nally, R., Bennett, A.F., and Horrocks, G. 2000. Forecasting the impacts of habitat fragmentation. Evaluation of species-specific predictions of the impact of habitat fragmentation on birds in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):7-29.

Mace, G.M., Balmford, A., Boitani, L., Cowlishaw, G., Dobson, A.P., Faith, D.P., Gaston, K.J., Humphries, C.J., Vane-Wright, R.I., Williams, P.H., Lawton, J.H., Margules, C.R., May, R.M., Nicholls, A.O., Possingham, H.P., Rahbek, C., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2000. It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation efforts. Nature 405(6785):393.

Mack, R.N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Evans, H., Clout, M., and Bazzaz, F.A. 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):689-710.

Maisels, F.G., Cheek, M., and Wild, C. 2000. Rare plants on Mount Oku summit, Cameroon. Oryx 34(2):136-140.

Marttila, O., Saarinen, K., and Marttila, P. 2000. Six years from passing bell to recovery: habitat restoration of the threatened chequered blue butterfly (Scolitantides orion) in SE Finland. Entomologica Fennica 11(2):113-117.

Mirkin, B.M., and Khaziakhmetov, R.M. 2000. Sustainable development - food security - agroecology. Russian J. Ecol. 31(3):162-166.

Mitani, J.C., Struhsaker, T.T., and Lwanga, J.S. 2000. Primate community dynamics in old growth forest over 23.5 years at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda: implications for conservation and census methods. Int. J. Primatol. 21(2):269-286.

Morales-Vela, B., Olivera-Gómez, D., Reynolds, J.E., and Rathbun, G.B. 2000. Distribution and habitat use by manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize and Chetumal Bay, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):67-75.

Moran, G.F., Butcher, P.A., and Glaubitz, J.C. 2000. Application of genetic markers in the domestication, conservation and utilisation of genetic resources of Australasian tree species. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):313-320.

Morrison, M.L. 2000. Facilitating development of multiple-species conservation reserves and habitat conservation plans: a synthesis of recommendations. Environ. Manag. 26:S3-S6.

Moser, D.E. 2000. Habitat conservation plans under the US Endangered Species Act: the legal perspective. Environ. Manag. 26:S7-S13.

Muller, S. 2000. Assessing occurrence and habitat of Ophioglossum vulgatum L. and other Ophioglossaceae in European forests. Significance for nature conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(5):673-681.

Negi, H.R., and Upreti, D.K. 2000. Species diversity and relative abundance of lichens in Rumbak catchment of Hemis National Park in Ladakh. Curr. Sci. 78(9):1105-1112.

Nguyen, N. 2000. A survey of Tonkin snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus avunculus) in northern Vietnam. Folia Primatolog. 71(3):157-160.

O'Dwyer, C., and Attiwill, P.M. 2000. Restoration of a native grassland as habitat for the golden sun moth Synemon plana Walker (Lepidoptera; Castniidae) at Mount Piper, Australia. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):170-174.

Oliveira, R.F., Machado, J.L., Jordão, J.M., Burford, F.L., Latruffe, C., and Mcgregor, P.K. 2000. Human exploitation of male fiddler crab claws: behavioural consequences and implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):1-5.

Oliver, D.L. 2000. Foraging behaviour and resource selection of the regent honeyeater Xanthomyza phrygia in northern New South Wales. Emu 100:12-30.

Parra-Tabla, V., Vargas, C.F., Magaña-Rueda, S., and Navarro, J. 2000. Female and male pollination success of Oncidium ascendens Lindey (Orchidaceae) in two contrasting habitat patches: forest vs agricultural field. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):335-340.

Parsons, R.F. 2000. Causes of rarity in Abutilon oxycarpum and Hibiscus brachysiphonius (Malvaceae) on the River Murray floodplain, south-eastern Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 124:41-44.

Parviainen, J., Bucking, W., Vandekerkhove, K., Schuck, A., and Paivinen, R. 2000. Strict forest reserves in Europe: efforts to enhance biodiversity and research on forests left for free development in Europe (EU-COST-Action E4). Forestry 73(2):107-118.

Passell, H.D. 2000. Recovery of bird species in minimally restored Indonesian tin strip mines. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):112-118.

Pearson, D.C. 2000. Developing multiple-species conservation reserves and habitat conservation plans. Environ. Manag. 26:S1.

Pelkey, N.W., Stoner, C.J., and Caro, T.M. 2000. Vegetation in Tanzania: assessing long term trends and effects of protection using satellite imagery. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):297-309.

Pepper, J.W., Male, T.D., and Roberts, G.E. 2000. Foraging ecology of the South Australian glossy black-cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus). Austral Ecol. 25(1):16-24.

Petchey, O.L. 2000. Species diversity, species extinction, and ecosystem function. Amer. Natural. 155(5):696-702.

Peterson, C.H., Hickerson, D.H.M., and Johnson, G.G. 2000. Short-term consequences of nourishment and bulldozing on the dominant large invertebrates of a sandy beach. J. Coastal Res. 16(2):368-378.

Pino, J., Roda, F., Ribas, J., and Pons, X. 2000. Landscape structure and bird species richness: implications for conservation in rural areas between natural parks. Landscape Urban Plan. 49(1-2):35-48.

Pouta, E., Rekola, M., Kuuluvainen, J., Tahvonen, O., and Li, C.Z. 2000. Contingent valuation of the Natura 2000 nature conservation programme in Finland. Forestry 73(2):119-128.

Powell, R., Ottenwalder, J.A., Inchaustegui, S.J., Henderson, R.W., and Glor, R.E. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of the Dominican Republic: species of special concern. Oryx 34(2):118-128.

Prieur-Richard, A.H., and Lavorel, S. 2000. Invasions: the perspective of diverse plant communities. Austral Ecol. 25(1):1-7.

Provencher, L., Herring, B.J., Gordon, D.R., Rodgers, H.L., Tanner, G.W., Brennan, L.A., and Hardesty, J.L. 2000. Restoration of northwest Florida sandhills through harvest of invasive Pinus clausa. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):175-185.

Putz, F.E. 2000. Some roles for North American ecologists in land-use planning in the tropics. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):676-679.

Radeloff, V.C., Mladenoff, D.J., and Boyce, M.S. 2000. A historical perspective and future outlook on landscape scale restoration in the northwest Wisconsin pine barrens. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):119-126.

Ranius, T. 2000. Minimum viable metapopulation size of a beetle, Osmoderma eremita, living in tree hollows. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):37-43.

Ranius, T., and Jansson, N. 2000. The influence of forest regrowth, original canopy cover and tree size on saproxylic beetles associated with old oaks. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):85-94.

Rappole, J.H., King, D.I., and Leimgruber, P. 2000. Winter habitat and distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Anim. Conserv. 3(1):45-59.

Redak, R.A. 2000. Arthropods and multispecies habitat conservation plans: are we missing something? Environ. Manag. 26:S97-S107.

Reed, D.H., and Bryant, E.H. 2000. Experimental tests of minimum viable population size. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):7-14.

Richardson, M.B.G., Ayre, D.J., and Whelan, R.J. 2000. Pollinator behaviour, mate choice and the realised mating systems of Grevillea mucronulata and Grevillea sphacelata. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):357-366.

Risbey, D.A., Calver, M.C., Short, J., Bradley, J.S., and Wright, I.W. 2000. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia. II. A field experiment. Wildlife Res. 27(3):223-235.

Rokich, D.P., Dixon, K.W., Sivasithamparam, K., and Meney, K.A. 2000. Topsoil handling and storage effects on woodland restoration in Western Australia. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):196-208.

Roman, J., and Bowen, B.W. 2000. The mock turtle syndrome: genetic identification of turtle meat purchased in the south-eastern United States of America. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):61-65.

Rose, M. 2000. Business and biodiversity - a mutually profitable partnership. Oryx 34(2):83-84.

Rossetto, M., Harriss, F.C.L., Mclauchlan, A., Henry, R.J., Baverstock, P.R., and Lee, L.S. 2000. Interspecific amplification of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia myrtaceae) microsatellite loci potential implications for conservation studies. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):367-373.

Rout, G.R., Samantaray, S., and Das, P. 2000. In vitro manipulation and propagation of medicinal plants. Biotechnology Advances 18(2):91-120.

Roy, P.S., and Tomar, S. 2000. Biodiversity characterization at landscape level using geospatial modelling technique. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):95-109.

Rozenberg, G.S., and Krasnoshchekov, G.P. 2000. The origin and development of nature conservation: a view from the boundary between millennia. Russian J. Ecol. 31(3):145-161.

Rushton, S.P., Barreto, G.W., Cormack, R.M., Macdonald, D.W., and Fuller, R. 2000. Modelling the effects of mink and habitat fragmentation on the water vole. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(3):475-490.

Schmidt, K., and Jensen, K. 2000. Genetic structure and AFLP variation of remnant populations in the rare plant Pedicularis palustris (Scrophulariaceae) and its relation to population size and reproductive components. Am. J. Bot. 87(5):678-689.

Schwartz, M.W., Hermann, S.M., and van Mantgem, P.J. 2000. Estimating the magnitude of decline of the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia Arn.). Biol. Conserv. 95(1):77-84.

Scott, T.A., and Sullivan, J.E. 2000. The selection and design of multiple-species habitat preserves. Environ. Manag. 26:S37-S53.

Scowcroft, P.G., Meinzer, F.C., Goldstein, G., Melcher, P.J., and Jeffrey, J. 2000. Moderating night radiative cooling reduces frost damage to Metrosideros polymorpha seedlings used for forest restoration in Hawaii. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):161-169.

Seijas, A.E., and Chávez, C. 2000. Population status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in the Cojedes River System, Venezuela. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):353-361.

Shackleton, C.M. 2000. Comparison of plant diversity in protected and communal lands in the Bushbuckridge lowveld savanna, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):273-285.

Shapcott, A. 2000. Conservation and genetics in the fragmented monsoon rainforest in the Northern Territory, Australia: a case study of three frugivore-dispersed species. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):397-407.

Smallwood, K.S. 2000. A crosswalk from the Endangered Species Act to the HCP handbook and real HCPs. Environ. Manag. 26:S23-S35.

Smart, S.M. 2000. Ecological assessment of vegetation from a nature reserve using regional reference data and indicator scores. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):811-832.

Smart, S.M., Firbank, L.G., Bunce, R.G.H., and Watkins, J.W. 2000. Quantifying changes in abundance of food plants for butterfly larvae and farmland birds. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(3):398-414.

Stiling, P., Rossi, A., and Gordon, D. 2000. The difficulties of single factor thinking in restoration: replanting a rare cactus in the Florida Keys. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):327-333.

Stone, R. 2000. California team to map rare species' DNA. Science 288(5469):1150-1151.

Sullivan, B.K. 2000. Long-term shifts in snake populations: a California site revisited. Biol. Conserv. 94(3):321-325.

Sutherland, G.D., Harestad, A.S., Price, K., and Lertzman, K.P. 2000. Scaling of natal dispersal distances in terrestrial birds and mammals. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(1):16. <>

Tansley, S.A., and Brown, C.R. 2000. RAPD variation in the rare and endangered Leucadendron elimense (Proteaceae): implications for their conservation. Biol. Conserv. 95(1):39-48.

Taylor, R.H., Kaiser, G.W., and Drever, M.C. 2000. Eradication of Norway rats for recovery of seabird habitat on Langara Island, British Columbia. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):151-160.

Thunes, K.H., Midtgaard, F., and Gjerde, I. 2000. Diversity of Coleoptera of the bracket fungus Fomitopsis pinicola in a Norwegian spruce forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):833-852.

Toivonen, H. 2000. Integrating forestry and conservation in boreal forests: ecological, legal and socioeconomic aspects. Forestry 73(2):129-135.

Trainor, C., Fisher, A., Woinarski, J., and Churchill, S. 2000. Multiscale patterns of habitat use by the Carpentarian rock-rat (Zyzomys palatalis) and the common rock-rat (Z. argurus). Wildlife Res. 27(3):319-332.

Uhl, C., and Nepstad, D. 2000. Amazonia at the millennium. Interciencia 25(3):159-164.

van Soest, D., and Lensink, R. 2000. Foreign transfers and tropical deforestation: what terms of conditionality? Am. J. Agricult. Econom. 82(2):389-399.

Vasconcelos, H.L., Vilhena, J.M.S., and Caliri, G.J.A. 2000. Responses of ants to selective logging of a central Amazonian forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(3):508-514.

Wayda, M. 2000. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae) in Poland. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 69(1):75-78.

Wessels, K.J., Reyers, B., and Van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2000. Incorporating land cover information into regional biodiversity assessments in South Africa. Anim. Conserv. 3(1):67-79.

Whited, D., Galatowitsch, S., Tester, J.R., Schik, K., Lehtinen, R., and Husveth, J. 2000. The importance of local and regional factors in predicting effective conservation - planning strategies for wetland bird communities in agricultural and urban landscapes. Landscape Urban Plan. 49(1-2):49-65.

Woldu, Z., and Saleem, M.A.M. 2000. Grazing induced biodiversity in the highland ecozone of east Africa. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 79(1):43-52.

Woolnough, A.P., and Johnson, C.N. 2000. Assessment of the potential for competition between two sympatric herbivores - the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii, and the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Wildlife Res. 27(3):301-308.

Wu, J.J., Adams, R.M., and Boggess, W.G. 2000. Cumulative effects and optimal targeting of conservation efforts: steelhead trout habitat enhancement in Oregon. Am. J. Agricult. Econom. 82(2):400-413.

Yanez, M., and Floater, G. 2000. Spatial distribution and habitat preference of the endangered tarantula, Brachypelma klaasi (Araneae: Theraphosidae) in Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(6):795-810.

Yates, C.J., Hobbs, R.J., and Atkins, I. 2000. Establishment of perennial shrub and tree species in degraded Eucalyptus salmonophloia (salmon gum) remnant woodlands: effects of restoration treatments. Restoration Ecol. 8(2):135-143.

Yates, C.J., Norton, D.A., and Hobbs, R.J. 2000. Grazing effects on plant cover, soil and microclimate in fragmented woodlands in south-western Australia: implications for restoration. Austral Ecol. 25(1):36-47.

Young, A.G., and Murray, B.G. 2000. Genetic bottlenecks and dysgenic gene flow into re-established populations of the grassland daisy, Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides. Aust. J. Bot. 48(3):409-416.

Zanette, L., Doyle, P., and Tremont, S.M. 2000. Food shortage in small fragments: evidence from an area-sensitive passerine. Ecology 81(6):1654-1666.

Zipperer, W.C., Wu, J.G., Pouyat, R.V., and Pickett, S.T.A. 2000. The application of ecological principles to urban and urbanizing landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):685-688.

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