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No. 189
September 2000

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In This Issue

Deer Can Threaten Forest Birds

By Robin Meadows

Thanks to conservation efforts, U.S. deer densities are the highest in 100 years. But the downside is that too many deer may be bad for forest birds, according to new research in the August issue of Conservation Biology.

This is the first study showing that deer can drive at-risk bird species out of forests. The link is that deer determine which types of plants grow in the understory, which in turn determine the types of birds that live there.

"Large hooved mammals are landscape engineers and deer are the dominant herbivores in the eastern United States," say William McShea and John Rappole of the Smithsonian Institution's Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia, who collaborated on this study.

In 1991 McShea and Rappole fenced white-tailed deer out of eight 10-acre plots in protected forests in both the Conservation and Research Center and Shenandoah National Park. The researchers assessed the abundance and types of understory vegetation in the plots in 1994 and 1997, and estimated the abundance and types of breeding birds in the plots by mist-netting yearly from 1990 through 1998.

The results showed that excluding deer shifted the understory vegetation from grasses to forbs (non-grass herbaceous plants) to Rubus species (the blackberry family) to woody shrubs. While bird diversity was constant through these shifts, the relative abundance of the 25 species that commonly nested in these forests varied considerably: 10 species increased while four declined.

Those that declined were resident birds (such as the tufted titmouse, blue jay and northern cardinal) that are stable or increasing in the U.S. Those that increased were migratory species (such as the hooded warbler and ovenbird) that are more at-risk based on factors including range-wide abundance and population trends.

While it is clear that managing deer can benefit at-risk bird species in eastern forests, McShea and Rappole recommend basing that management on the density of understory vegetation rather than on the density of the deer themselves. This is because deer at a given density can result in different vegetation densities, depending on factors including soil wetness and richness. Specifically, the researchers suggest monitoring orchids and lilies, which are common throughout the eastern U.S. and are sensitive to changes in deer densities.

The International Biodiversity Observation Year, 2001-2002

A year to focus global attention on biodiversity and observations of its status and trends is being planned for 2001-20021. The International Biodiversity Observation Year (IBOY) is an initiative of DIVERSITAS, the international program of biodiversity science sponsored by IUBS, SCOPE, UNESCO, ICSU, IGBP and IUMS. IBOY is endorsed by the XVI International Botanical Congress and the IUCN.

An international steering committee, chaired by Diana Wall and an advisory board is directing IBOY towards its primary goals, to:

  • Promote and integrate biodiversity research, advancing a holistic understanding of biodiversity and its connections to ecosystems and societies;
  • Educate the public about biodiversity, explaining the implications of biodiversity research for daily life and the opportunities for further discovery.

At the core of IBOY is a diverse portfolio of international research, informatics and education and outreach projects, addressing the questions: What biodiversity do we have and where is it? How is biodiversity changing? What goods and services does biodiversity provide? How can we conserve biodiversity?

Projects can participate in the IBOY at two levels:

Core Projects over 40 projects, across more than 50 countries. Core Projects are international and will have a peak of activity and products during 2001 or 2002. They will be the focus of the IBOYs publicity and synergistic activities.

Approved Projects - often smaller-scale projects. IBOY will highlight them through a web-based map and directory of biodiversity research and education projects occurring around the world in 2001 and 2002.

IBOY does not fund projects, but will highlight them, provide opportunities for networking and cross-collaboration, and explain their significance to a broad audience. IBOY meetings will bring scientific disciplines together to advance integrated research and will build bridges between science, education and the media to improve transfer of science-based information on biodiversity into public and policy spheres. Other synergistic activities being planned include a television series and accompanying educational materials, media campaign, publications, webpages and participation in national biodiversity events.

Proposals for projects are still being accepting. More information on how to get involved or details on projects can be found at, or by contacting Dr. Diana Wall (IBOY Chair) or Dr. Gina Adams (IBOY Program Officer), Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499, USA. Tel: +1 970 491 1984; Fax: +1 970 491 3945; email

1 Norris S. 2000. A Year for Biodiversity. BioScience 50(2): 103-107.


The Central American Institute for Biological Research and Conservation (a non-governmental, non-profit organization) promotes and develops scientific research in the areas of biology and conservation in the Central American Isthmus. The organization is currently offering three short training field courses in Costa Rica: "Multivariate Methods in Biology2000" (starting: Oct 22; ending: Nov 5; application deadline: Sept 1); "Field Ecology2001" (starting: 15 Apr 2001; ending: Apr 31, 2001; application deadline Jan 30, 2001); "Cladistic Phylogenetics2001" (starting: Jan 21, 2001; ending: Feb 4, 2001; application deadline: Nov 24, 2000). More information including course cost and application procedures could be found at or email

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Cole, J.R., and Woinarski, J.C.Z. 2000. Rodents of the arid Northern Territory: conservation status and distribution. Wildlife Res. 27(4):437-449.

Constantz, G. 2000. Grassroots-based watershed conservation in central Appalachia. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(2):122-125.

Cork, S.J., Clark, T.W., and Mazur, N. 2000. Conclusions and recommendations for koala conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):702-704.

Cork, S.J., Clark, T.W., and Mazur, N. 2000. Introduction: an interdisciplinary effort for koala conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):606-609.

Cork, S.J., Hume, L.D., and Foley, W.J. 2000. Improving habitat models and their utility in koala conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):660-668.

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Crandall, K.A., Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Mace, G.M., and Wayne, R.K. 2000. Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology. TREE 15(7):290-295.

Cunningham, S.A. 2000. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology of four plant species in mallee woodland. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):758-768.

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Davenport, D.E., Lancia, R.A., Walters, J.R., and Doerr, P.D. 2000. Red-cockaded woodpeckers: a relationship between reproductive fitness and habitat in the North Carolina sandhills. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(2):426-434.

de Forges, B.R., Koslow, J.A., and Poore, G.C.B. 2000. Diversity and endemism of the benthic seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific. Nature 405(6789):944-947.

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Dickman, C.R., Lunney, D., and Matthews, A. 2000. Ecological attributes and conservation of native rodents in New South Wales. Wildlife Res. 27(4):347-355.

du Toit, J.T., and Broomhall, L.S. 2000. Mammal research in southern Africa: present patterns and future priorities. S. Afr. J. Sci. 96(5):225-230.

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Emberton, K.C., and Pearce, T.A. 2000. Charopid snails of Mounts Mahermana, Ilapiry, and Vasiha, southeastern Madagascar, with description of a new genus and with conservation statuses of nine species. Veliger 43(3):248-264.

Epstein, P.R. 2000. Is global warming harmful to health? Sci. Amer. 283(2):50-57.

Eriksson, A., and Eriksson, O. 2000. Population dynamics of the perennial Plantago media in semi-natural grasslands. J. Veg. Sci. 11(2):245-252.

Fieberg, J., and Ellner, S.P. 2000. When is it meaningful to estimate an extinction probability? Ecology 81(7):2040-2047.

Fiumera, A.C., Parker, P.G., and Fuerst, P.A. 2000. Effective population size and maintenance of genetic diversity in captive-bred populations of a Lake Victoria cichlid. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):886-892.

Fjeldså, J. 2000. The relevance of systematics in choosing priority areas for global conservation. Environ. Conserv. 27(1):67-75.

Foster, D.R. 2000. From bobolinks to bears: interjecting geographical history into ecological studies, environmental interpretation, and conservation planning. J. Biogeogr. 27(1):27-30.

Francisco-Ortega, J., Santos-Guerra, A., Kim, S.C., and Crawford, D.J. 2000. Plant genetic diversity in the Canary Islands: a conservation perspective. Am. J. Bot. 87(7):909-919.

Gagliardi, R.F., Pacheco, G.P., Coculilo, S.P., Valls, J.F.M., and Mansur, E. 2000. In vitro plant regeneration from seed explants of wild groundnut species (genus Arachis, section Extranervosae). Biodivers. Conserv. 9(7):943-951.

Ganeshaiah, K.N., and Shaanker, R.U. 2000. Measuring biological heterogeneity of forest vegetation types: avalanche index as an estimate of biological diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(7):953-963.

Geenen, S., Jordaens, K., De Block, M., Stoks, R., and De Bruyn, L. 2000. Genetic differentiation and dispersal among populations of the damselfly Lestes viridis (Odonata). J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 19(2):321-328.

Gilligan, D.M., Woodworth, L.M., Montgomery, M.E., Nurthen, R.K., Briscoe, D.A., and Frankham, R. 2000. Can fluctuating asymmetry be used to detect inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in endangered populations? Anim. Conserv. 3(2):97-104.

Gitzendanner, M.A., and Soltis, P.S. 2000. Patterns of genetic variation in rare and widespread plant congeners. Am. J. Bot. 87(6):783-792.

Godoy, R., Wilkie, D., Overman, H., Cubas, A., Cubas, G., Demmer, J., McSweeney, K., and Brokaw, N. 2000. Valuation of consumption and sale of forest goods from a Central American rain forest. Nature 406(6791):62-63.

Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., and Angón, A.C. 2000. The conservation value for birds of cacao plantations with diverse planted shade in Tabasco, Mexico. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):105-112.

Guzman, H.M., and Guevara, C.A. 1999. Coral reefs of Bocas del Toro, Panama: III Distribution, structure, diversity and conservation status of reefs in Pastores, Cristobal, Popa and Cayo Agua islands. Rev. Biol. Trop. 47(4):659-676.

Haddad, N. 2000. Corridor length and patch colonization by a butterfly, Junonia coenia. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):738-745.

Haig, A., Matthes, U., and Larson, D.W. 2000. Effects of natural habitat fragmentation on the species richness, diversity, and composition of cliff vegetation. Can. J. Bot. 78(6):786-797.

Hansson, L. 2000. Interactions by vascular plants and birds between isolated ancient oak-hazel woods and a matrix of conifer plantations. Biol. Conserv. 95(2):191-196.

Harden, C.P., and Mathews, L. 2000. Rainfall response of degraded soil following reforestation in the Copper Basin, Tennessee, USA. Environ. Manag. 26(2):163-174.

Harris, L.K., and Ruther, S. 2000. Ecological characteristics of riparian washes in southeastern Arizona, USA. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):221-226.

Harrison, S., Maron, J., and Huxel, G. 2000. Regional turnover and fluctuation in populations of five plants confined to serpentine seeps. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):769-779.

Harwood, J. 2000. Risk assessment and decision analysis in conservation. Biol. Conserv. 95(2):219-226.

Hendrickson, S.L., Mayer, G.C., Wallen, E.P., and Quigley, K. 2000. Genetic variability and geographic structure of three subspecies of tigers (Panthera tigris) based on MHC class I variation. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):135-143.

Hernandez-Carmona, G., Garcia, O., Robledo, D., and Foster, M. 2000. Restoration techniques for Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) populations at the southern limit of their distribution in Mexico. Botanica Marina 43(3):273-284.

Hession, W.C., Johnson, T.E., Charles, D.F., Hart, D.D., Horwitz, R.J., Kreeger, D.A., Pizzuto, J.E., Velinsky, D.J., Newbold, J.D., Cianfrani, C., Clason, T., Compton, A.M., Coulter, N., Fuselier, L., Marshall, B.D., and Reed, J. 2000. Ecological benefits of riparian reforestation in urban watersheds: study design and preliminary results. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 63(1):211-222.

Hocking, G.J., and Driessen, M.M. 2000. Status and conservation of the rodents of Tasmania. Wildlife Res. 27(4):371-377.

Howard, P.C., Davenport, T.R.B., Kigenyi, F.W., Viskanic, P., Baltzer, M.C., Dickinson, C.J., Lwanga, J., Matthews, R.A., and Mupada, E. 2000. Protected area planning in the tropics: Uganda's national system of forest nature reserves. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):858-875.

Inouye, D.W., and Dietz, J.M. 2000. Creating academically and practically trained graduate students. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):595-596.

Janss, G.F.E. 2000. Avian mortality from power lines: a morphologic approach of a species-specific mortality. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):353-359.

Johnston, D.W., Meisenheimer, P., and Lavigne, D.M. 2000. An evaluation of management objectives for Canada's commercial harp seal hunt, 1996-1998. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):729-737.

Jorgensen, E.E., Canfield, T.J., and Kutz, F.W. 2000. Restored riparian buffers as tools for ecosystem restoration in the Maia; processes, endpoints, and measures of success for water, soil, flora, and fauna. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 63(1):199-210.

Kang, U., Chang, C.S., and Kim, Y.S. 2000. Genetic structure and conservation considerations of rare endemic Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai (Oleaceae) in Korea. J. Plant Res. 113(1110):127-138.

Keller, V. 2000. Winter distribution and population change of red-crested pochard Netta rufina in southwestern and central Europe. Bird Study 47:176-185.

Kelly, M.J., and Durant, S.M. 2000. Viability of the Serengeti cheetah population. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):786-797.

Kelt, D.A., and Brown, J.H. 2000. Species as units of analysis in ecology and biogeography: are the blind leading the blind? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 9(3):213-217.

Kitchener, A.C., and Dugmore, A.J. 2000. Biogeographical change in the tiger, Panthera tigris. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):113-124.

Kleidon, A., and Mooney, H.A. 2000. A global distribution of biodiversity inferred from climatic constraints: results from a process-based modelling study. Global Change Biol. 6(5):507-523.

Knowles, L., and Witkowski, E.T.F. 2000. Conservation biology of the succulent shrub, Euphorbia barnardii, a serpentine endemic of the Northern Province, South Africa. Austral Ecol. 25(3):241-252.

Kohm, K., Boersma, P.D., Meffe, G.K., and Noss, R. 2000. Putting the science into practice and the practice into science. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):593-594.

Krishtalka, L., and Humphrey, P.S. 2000. Can natural history museums capture the future? BioScience 50(7):611-617.

Kutiel, P., Eden, E., and Zhevelev, Y. 2000. Effect of experimental trampling and off-road motorcycle traffic on soil and vegetation of stabilized coastal dunes, Israel. Environ. Conserv. 27(1):14-23.

Laatsch, J.R., and Anderson, R.C. 2000. An evaluation of oak woodland management in northeastern Illinois, USA. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):211-220.

Lawrence, A., Ambrose-Oji, B., Lysinge, R., and Tako, C. 2000. Exploring local values for forest biodiversity on Mount Cameroon. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(2):112-115.

Lee, S.L., Wickneswari, R., Mahani, M.C., and Zakri, A.H. 2000. Genetic diversity of a tropical tree species, Shorea leprosula Miq. (Dipterocarpaceae), in Malaysia: implications for conservation of genetic resources and tree improvement. Biotropica 32(2):213-224.

Lenton, S.M., Fa, J.E., and Del Val, J.P. 2000. A simple non-parametric GIS model for predicting species distribution: endemic birds in Bioko Island, West Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(7):869-885.

Lewis, S.A., and Gould, W.R. 2000. Survey effort effects on power to detect trends in raptor migration counts. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(2):317-329.

Li, Y.M., Gao, Z.X., Li, X.H., Wang, S., and Niemela, J. 2000. Illegal wildlife trade in the Himalayan region of China. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(7):901-918.

Linnell, J.D.C., Swenson, J.E., and Andersen, R. 2000. Conservation of biodiversity in Scandinavian boreal forests: large carnivores as flagships, umbrellas, indicators, or keystones? Biodivers. Conserv. 9(7):857-868.

Lode, T. 2000. Effect of a motorway on mortality and isolation of wildlife populations. Ambio 29(3):163-166.

Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C., and Ferrier, S. 2000. Incorporating habitat mapping into practical koala conservation on private lands. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):669-680.

Macdonald, D.W., Tattersall, F.H., Rushton, S., South, A.B., Rao, S., Maitland, P., and Strachan, R. 2000. Reintroducing the beaver (Castor fiber) to Scotland: a protocol for identifying and assessing suitable release sites. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):125-133.

Maharadatunkamsi, Hisheh, S., Kitchener, D.J., and Schmitt, L.H. 2000. Genetic and morphometric diversity in Wallacea: geographical patterning in the horse shoe bat, Rhinolophus affinis. J. Biogeogr. 27(1):193-201.

Maikhuri, R.K., Nautiyal, S., Rao, K.S., Chandrasekhar, K., Gavali, R., and Saxena, K.G. 2000. Analysis and resolution of protected area - people conflicts in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. Environ. Conserv. 27(1):43-53.

Marrs, R., and Britton, A. 2000. Conservation problems on Breckland heaths: from theory to practice. Biol. Conserv. 95(2):143-151.

Marshall, C.J., and Liebherr, J.K. 2000. Cladistic biogeography of the Mexican transition zone. J. Biogeogr. 27(1):203-216.

Martell, M.S., McNicoll, J.L., and Redig, P.T. 2000. Probable effect of delisting of the peregrine falcon on availability of urban nest sites. J. Raptor Res. 34(2):126-132.

Matsuda, H., Yahara, T., and Kaneko, Y. 2000. Extinction risk assessment of threatened species. Pop. Ecol. 42(1):3-4.

McDuff, M., and Jacobson, S. 2000. Impacts and future directions of youth conservation organizations: wildlife clubs in Africa. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(2):414-425.

Melzer, A., Carrick, F., Menkhorst, P., Lunney, D., and St. John, B. 2000. Overview, critical assessment, and conservation implications of koala distribution and abundance. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):619-628.

Milne, T., and Bull, C.M. 2000. Burrow choice by individuals of different sizes in the endangered pygmy blue tongue lizard Tiliqua adelaidensis. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):295-301.

Mitchell, R.J., Auld, M.H.D., Hughes, J.M., and Marrs, R.H. 2000. Estimates of nutrient removal during heathland restoration on successional sites in Dorset, southern England. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):233-246.

Morgan, J.W. 2000. Reproductive success in reestablished versus natural populations of a threatened grassland daisy (Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides). Conserv. Biol. 14(3):780-785.

Morillo, C., and Gomez-Campo, C. 2000. Conservation in Spain, 1980-2000. Biol. Conserv. 95(2):165-174.

Morris, A.V., Roberts, C.M., and Hawkins, J.P. 2000. The threatened status of groupers (Epinephelinae). Biodivers. Conserv. 9(7):919-942.

Morris, K.D. 2000. The status and conservation of native rodents in Western Australia. Wildlife Res. 27(4):405-419.

Morris, M.G. 2000. The effects of structure and its dynamics on the ecology and conservation of arthropods in British grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 95(2):129-142.

Moser, D.M., Palese, R., Baumler, B., Gygax, A., and Wyler, N. 2000. Swiss floristic notes. Bot. Helvetica 110(1):79-98.

Moss, B. 2000. Biodiversity in fresh waters - an issue of species preservation or system functioning? Environ. Conserv. 27(1):1-4.

Nelson, G., Lawrence, P., and Black, H. 2000. Assessing ecosystem conservation plans for Canadian national parks. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):280-287.

Nelson, W.S., Dean, T., and Avise, J.C. 2000. Matrilineal history of the endangered Cape Sable seaside sparrow inferred from mitochondrial DNA polymorphism. Mol. Ecol. 9(6):809-813.

Newmark, W.D., and Hough, J.L. 2000. Conserving wildlife in Africa: integrated conservation and development projects and beyond. BioScience 50(7):585-592.

Ney-Nifle, M., and Mangel, M. 2000. Habitat loss and changes in the species-area relationship. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):893-898.

Niiler, E. 2000. Island survivors. Sci. Amer. 283(2):18-20.

Novaro, A.J., Redford, K.H., and Bodmer, R.E. 2000. Effect of hunting in source-sink systems in the Neotropics. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):713-721.

O'Connor, E.J. 2000. Expert systems, fuzzy logic, and coral reef development under environmental stress. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):904-906.

O'Donnell, C.F.J. 2000. Conservation status and causes of decline of the threatened New Zealand long-tailed bat Chalinolobus tuberculatus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Mammal Rev. 30(2):89-106.

O'Leary, C.H., and Nyberg, D.W. 2000. Treelines between fields reduce the density of grassland birds. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):243-249.

Olupot, W. 2000. Mass differences among male mangabey monkeys inhabiting logged and unlogged forest compartments. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):833-843.

Ostfeld, R.S., and Keesing, F. 2000. Biodiversity and disease risk: the case of lyme disease. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):722-728.

Ostro, L.E.T., Silver, S.C., Koontz, F.W., and Young, T.P. 2000. Habitat selection by translocated black howler monkeys in Belize. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):175-181.

Ota, H. 2000. Current status of the threatened amphibians and reptiles of Japan. Pop. Ecol. 42(1):5-9.

Paddack, M.J., and Estes, J.A. 2000. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):855-870.

Palomares, F., Delibes, M., Ferreras, P., Fedriani, J.M., Calzada, J., and Revilla, E. 2000. Iberian lynx in a fragmented landscape: predispersal, dispersal, and postdispersal habitats. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):809-818.

Papadaki-Klavdianou, A., Tsakiridou, E., and Giasemi, E. 2000. Comparison of perceptions and implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) between IPM and conventional farmers of greenhouse vegetables in northern Greece. Environ. Conserv. 27(1):36-42.

Parker, A.J., Parker, K.C., and Wiggins-Brown, H. 2000. Disturbance and scale effects on southern old-growth forests (USA): the sand pine example. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):273-279.

Parker, I.M. 2000. Invasion dynamics of Cytisus scoparius: a matrix model approach. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):726-743.

Pascarella, J.B., Aide, T.M., Serrano, M.I., and Zimmerman, J.K. 2000. Land-use history and forest regeneration in the Cayey Mountains, Puerto Rico. Ecosystems 3(3):217-228.

Patel, A., and Rapport, D.J. 2000. Assessing the impacts of deer browsing, prescribed burns, visitor use, and trails on an oak-pine forest: Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):250-260.

Pausas, J.G., and Saez, L. 2000. Pteridophyte richness in the NE Iberian Peninsula: biogeographic patterns. Plant Ecol. 148(2):195-205.

Pedrono, M., and Sarovy, A. 2000. Trial release of the world's rarest tortoise Geochelone yniphora in Madagascar. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):333-342.

Penn, A.M., Sherwin, W.B., Gordon, G., Lunney, D., Melzer, A., and Lacy, R.C. 2000. Demographic forecasting in koala conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):629-638.

Pergams, O.R.W., Lacy, R.C., and Ashley, M.V. 2000. Conservation and management of Anacapa Island deer mice. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):819-832.

Perkins, A.J., Whittingham, M.J., Bradbury, R.B., Wilson, J.D., Morris, A.J., and Barnett, P.R. 2000. Habitat characteristics affecting use of lowland agricultural grassland by birds in winter. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):279-294.

Phillips, S.S. 2000. Population trends and the koala conservation debate. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):650-659.

Pickart, A.J., Eicher, A.L., Bivin, M.M., and Hayler, K.F. 2000. Changes in a metapopulation of the endangered Humboldt Bay wallflower (Erysimum menziesii [Hook.] Wettst. ssp eurekense R.A. Price) in relation to disease incidence and management. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):234-242.

Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., and Morrison, D. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience 50(1):53-65.

Pimm, S.L. 2000. Conservation connections. TREE 15(7):262-263.

Possessky, S.L., Williams, C.E., and Moriarity, W.J. 2000. Glossy buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula L.: a threat to riparian plant communities of the northern Allegheny Plateau (USA). Nat. Areas J. 20(3):290-292.

Potvin, F., Bélanger, L., and Lowell, K. 2000. Marten habitat selection in a clearcut boreal landscape. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):844-857.

Prance, G. 2000. The failure of biogeographers to convey the conservation message. J. Biogeogr. 27(1):51-53.

Pykälä, J. 2000. Mitigating human effects on European biodiversity through traditional animal husbandry. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):705-712.

Ralls, K., Ballou, J.D., Rideout, B.A., and Frankham, R. 2000. Genetic management of chondrodystrophy in California condors. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):145-153.

Revilla, E., Palomares, F., and Delibes, M. 2000. Defining key habitats for low density populations of Eurasian badgers in Mediterranean environments. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):269-277.

Rice, R.A., and Greenberg, R. 2000. Cacao cultivation and the conservation of biological diversity. Ambio 29(3):167-173.

Rilov, G., and Benayahu, Y. 2000. Fish assemblage on natural versus vertical artificial reefs: the rehabilitation perspective. Marine Biology 136(5):931-942.

Rinkevich, B. 2000. Steps towards the evaluation of coral reef restoration by using small branch fragments. Marine Biology 136(5):807-812.

Ripple, W.J., and Larsen, E.J. 2000. Historic aspen recruitment, elk, and wolves in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):361-370.

Robertson, M., Nichols, P., Horwitz, P., Bradby, K., and MacKintosh, D. 2000. Environmental narratives and the need for multiple perspectives to restore degraded landscapes in Australia. Ecosystem Health 6(2):119-133.

Robinson, A.C., Kemper, C.M., Medlin, G.C., and Watts, C.H.S. 2000. The rodents of South Australia. Wildlife Res. 27(4):379-404.

Roff, J.C., and Taylor, M.E. 2000. National frameworks for marine conservation - a hierarchical geophysical approach. Aquatic Conserv. 10(3):209-223.

Romero-Alcaraz, E., and Avila, J.M. 2000. Landscape heterogeneity in relation to variations in epigaeic beetle diversity of a Mediterranean ecosystem. Implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(7):985-1005.

Salinas, M.J., Blanca, G., and Romero, A.T. 2000. Evaluating riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean watercourses in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. Environ. Conserv. 27(1):24-35.

Samant, S.S., Dhar, U., and Rawal, R.S. 2000. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management. Environ. Conserv. 27(1):5-13.

Sasal, P., Durand, P., Faliex, E., and Morand, S. 2000. Experimental approach to the importance of parasitism in biological conservation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 198:293-302.

Schiller, J.R., Zedler, P.H., and Black, C.H. 2000. The effect of density-dependent insect visits, flowering phenology, and plant size on seed set of the endangered vernal pool plant Pogogyne abramsii (Lamiaceae) in natural compared to created vernal pools. Wetlands 20(2):386-396.

Seebeck, J., and Menkhorst, P. 2000. Status and conservation of the rodents of Victoria. Wildlife Res. 27(4):357-369.

Semlitsch, R.D. 2000. Principles for management of aquatic-breeding amphibians. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(3):615-631.

Sergio, F., and Bogliani, G. 2000. Hobby nest-site selection and productivity in relation to intensive agriculture and forestry. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(3):637-646.

Seydack, A.H.W., Vermeulen, C., and Huisamen, J. 2000. Habitat quality and the decline of an African elephant population: implications for conservation. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 30(1):34-42.

Sharma, I.K., Clements, M.A., and Jones, D.L. 2000. Observations of high genetic variability in the endangered Australian terrestrial orchid Pterostylis gibbosa R. Br. (Orchidaceae). Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 28(7):651-663.

Sherwin, W.B., Timms, P., Wilcken, J., and Houlden, B. 2000. Analysis and conservation implications of koala genetics. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):639-649.

Shields, F.D., Simon, A., and Steffen, L.J. 2000. Reservoir effects on downstream river channel migration. Environ. Conserv. 27(1):54-66.

Shimada, M., and Ishihama, F. 2000. Asynchronization of local population dynamics and persistence of a metapopulation: a lesson from an endangered composite plant, Aster kantoensis. Pop. Ecol. 42(1):63-72.

Siebert, S.F. 2000. Primary forests and medicinal plants. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):596.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2000. Predicting population recovery rates for endangered western Atlantic sawfishes using demographic analysis. Environ. Biol. Fishes 58(4):371-377.

Slotow, R., and Hamer, M. 2000. Biodiversity research in South Africa: comments on current trends and methods. S. Afr. J. Sci. 96(5):222-224.

Smith, H. 2000. The status and conservation of the fen raft spider (Dolomedes plantarius) at Redgrave and Lopham Fen National Nature Reserve, England. Biol. Conserv. 95(2):153-164.

Soberon, J., Rodriguez, P., and Vazquez-Dominguez, E. 2000. Implications of the hierarchical structure of biodiversity for the development of ecological indicators of sustainable use. Ambio 29(3):136-142.

Sovada, M.A., Zicus, M.C., Greenwood, R.J., Rave, D.P., Newton, W.E., Woodward, R.O., and Beiser, J.A. 2000. Relationships of habitat patch size to predator community and survival of duck nests. J. Wildlife Manag. 64(3):820-831.

Stratford, E., Mazur, N., Lunney, D., and Bennett, D. 2000. Managing the koala problem: interdisciplinary perspectives. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):610-618.

Suarez, A.V., Richmond, J.Q., and Case, T.J. 2000. Prey selection in horned lizards following the invasion of Argentine ants in southern California. Ecol. Appl. 10(3):711-725.

Sullivan, M.S., Gilbert, F., Rotheray, G., Croasdale, S., and Jones, M. 2000. Comparative analyses of correlates of Red data book status: a case study using European hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Anim. Conserv. 3(2):91-95.

Swanson, C., Reid, T., Young, P.S., and Cech, J.J. 2000. Comparative environmental tolerances of threatened delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) and introduced wakasagi (H. nipponensis) in an altered California estuary. Oecologia 123(3):384-390.

Sweanor, L.L., Logan, K.A., and Hornocker, M.G. 2000. Cougar dispersal patterns, metapopulation dynamics, and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):798-808.

Tanaka, Y. 2000. Extinction of populations by inbreeding depression under stochastic environments. Pop. Ecol. 42(1):55-62.

Torres, N., Saez, L., Rossello, J.A., and Blanche, C. 2000. A new Delphinium subsp from Formentera (Balearic Islands). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 133(3):371-377.

Trakolis, D., Platis, P., and Meliadis, I. 2000. Biodiversity and conservation actions on Mount Voras, Greece. Environ. Manag. 26(2):145-151.

Trombulak, S.C., and Klyza, C.M. 2000. The new natural history. Nat. Areas J. 20(3):267-272.

Tye, A., and Jager, H. 2000. Galvezia leucantha subsp porphyrantha (Scrophulariaceae), a new shrub snapdragon endemic to Santiago Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Novon 10(2):164-168.

Uliczka, H., and Angelstam, P. 2000. Assessing conservation values of forest stands based on specialised lichens and birds. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):343-351.

van Wyk, E., Cilliers, S.S., and Bredenkamp, G.J. 2000. Vegetation analysis of wetlands in the Klerksdorp municipal area, North West Province, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 66(1):52-62.

Vanderwoude, C., de Bruyn, L.A.L., and House, A.P.N. 2000. Response of an open-forest ant community to invasion by the introduced ant, Pheidole megacephala. Austral Ecol. 25(3):253-259.

Viisteensaari, J., Johansson, S., Kaarakka, V., and Luukkanen, O. 2000. Is the alien tree species Maesopsis eminii Engl. (Rhamnaceae) a threat to tropical forest conservation in the East Usambaras, Tanzania? Environ. Conserv. 27(1):76-81.

Volpe, J.P., Taylor, E.B., Rimmer, D.W., and Glickman, B.W. 2000. Evidence of natural reproduction of aquaculture-escaped Atlantic salmon in a coastal British Columbia river. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):899-903.

Walters, C., Korman, J., Stevens, L.E., and Gold, B. 2000. Ecosystem modeling for evaluation of adaptive management policies in the Grand Canyon. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(2):1. <>

Warner, R.E., Etter, S.L., David, L.M., and Mankin, P.C. 2000. Annual set-aside programs: a long-term perspective of habitat quality in Illinois and the Midwest. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(2):347-354.

Webb, G.J.W., and Carrillo, E. 2000. Risk of extinction and categories of endangerment: perspectives from long-lived reptiles. Pop. Ecol. 42(1):11-17.

Weber, E. 2000. Switzerland and the invasive plant species issue. Bot. Helvetica 110(1):11-24.

Weber, T., and Wolf, J. 2000. Maryland's green infrastructure - using landscape assessment tools to identify a regional conservation strategy. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 63(1):265-277.

White, A.T., and Vogt, H.P. 2000. Philippine coral reefs under threat: lessons learned after 25 years of community-based reef conservation. Mar. Pollution Bull. 40(6):537-550.

White, T.H., Bowman, J.L., Leopold, B.D., Jacobson, H.A., Smith, W.P., and Vilella, F.J. 2000. Influence of Mississippi alluvial valley rivers on black bear movements and dispersal: implications for Louisiana black bear recovery. Biol. Conserv. 95(3):323-331.

Whiting, A.S., Lawler, S.H., Horwitz, P., and Crandall, K.A. 2000. Biogeographic regionalization of Australia: assigning conservation priorities based on endemic freshwater crayfish phylogenetics. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):155-163.

Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T., and Perrin, M.R. 2000. Abundance of the Cape parrot in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 30(1):43-52.

Woinarski, J.C.Z. 2000. The conservation status of rodents in the monsoonal tropics of the Northern Territory. Wildlife Res. 27(4):421-435.

Wolff, W.J. 2000. Causes of extirpations in the Wadden Sea, an estuarine area in the Netherlands. Conserv. Biol. 14(3):876-885.

Wolff, W.J. 2000. The south-eastern North Sea: losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years. Biol. Conserv. 95(2):209-217.

Woodroffe, R. 2000. Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Anim. Conserv. 3(2):165-173.

Wuethrich, B. 2000. Combined insults spell trouble for rainforests. Science 289(5476):35-37.

Wuethrich, B. 2000. Feds team up with a company to protect 17 threatened fish species. Science 289(5478):385.

Wuethrich, B. 2000. When protecting one species hurts another. Science 289(5478):383-385.

Young, K.A. 2000. Riparian zone management in the Pacific Northwest: who's cutting what? Environ. Manag. 26(2):131-144.

Yu, J.P., and Dobson, F.S. 2000. Seven forms of rarity in mammals. J. Biogeogr. 27(1):131-139.

Zabinski, C., Wojtowicz, T., and Cole, D. 2000. The effects of recreation disturbance on subalpine seed banks in the Rocky Mountains of Montana. Can. J. Bot. 78(5):577-582.

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