In This Issue
- Lichen Conservation
- Entomological Bibliography on the Web
- WWF and IUCN Warn of a Global Inferno
- Information Highway Hi-Lites
- Current Literature
Current research in conservation biology within Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History is coming from an unlikely source as of lately. Paula DePriest, of the Department of Botany and her graduate student Rebecca Yahr at Duke University have been conducting research on Cladonia perforata, a federally listed endangered lichen species. Of the 962 species listed as endangered in the U.S., only two are lichens. Compare that to the 565 flowering plant species, and it comes as no surprise that lichens typically do not make headlines. Recently, Science News devoted its cover issue to lichen biodiversity (Vol. 158; August 2000).
Cladonia perforata was described in 1952 by lichenologist Alexander Evans from a species collected on Santa Rosa Island off of Florida's panhandle. Since its description, it has been found in 13 other locations, all in central Florida. In 1995, Hurrican Opal flattened and denuded the dunes on Santa Rosa Island, reducing the C. perforata community by seventy percent. Current research by DePriest and Yahr focuses on reintroduction of the lichen to its original habitat. Replanting efforts are proving to be astonishingly difficult. Molecular research shows that lineages from the central Florida populations differ sharply with the panhandle population, reducing hope of working with transplants. The survivors of the hurricane, however, are beginning to show recolonization efforts on areas of exposed sand. The research by DePriest and Yahr has been funded through grants by the National Science Foundation's Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET), the US Fish and Wildlife Services and the US Air Force.
The Department of Entomology at Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History announces a new database to their website - The Entomological Bibliography of New Guinea including the Solomon Islands <http://entomology.si.edu:591/entomology/NewGuineaBib/search.html>. The bibliography is a "work in progress" still under editing and development, and currently includes 10,500 citations. This version combines the original bibliography of some 7,100 citations through 1967, published by Gressitt and Szent-Ivany in 1968 by Bishop Museum as Pacific Insects Monograph 18, and a supplement, compiled by Scott Miller and colleagues, including some 3,400 citations since 1967. Please see the online introduction for further information and acknowledgements. Note that the keywords and abstracts often include names of vertebrate and plant hosts. Various projects and individuals have contributed toward this interim product, which supports the insect ecology research funded by the US National Science Foundation, amongst others. The citations are also being added to Ecoport <http://www.ecoport.org>. Additions and corrections are welcomed.
By WWF and IUCN
In the aftermath of devastating fires across the globe, World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) and The World Conservation Union (IUCN) warned that many more lives would be lost, livelihoods destroyed and vast areas of the world's most important forest ecosystems burnt to ashes unless urgent action is taken immediately by world leaders to address the underlying causes of forest fires before the next El Niño year hits. According to some experts this could happen in as little as 18 months time.
The "Global Review of Forest Fires" by Andy Rowell and Dr. Peter Moore <http://www.panda.org/forests4life>, concludes that since the devastation of 1997/98, fires have slipped off the media and political agendas. At an international level little has been done to address the underlying causes of forest fires, and although some nations are attempting to face their forest fire problems many such responses are too slow and often misdirected.
The situation in Greece is a microcosm of what is happening on a global scale. "WWF Greece has repeatedly warned the government over the past two years that there was a catastrophe in the making yet the official response continues to be characterized by political expediency, short-termism and policy failure," said Aristotelis Papageorgiou of WWF Greece.
Over 70,000 hectares of forests have burnt to ashes this past summer. The environmental impact has yet to be calculated but we know that the fires hit two of the most important wildlife areas in the country. The Pindos Mountains is home to countless plant species and a key habitat for brown bear, wild cat and wolves. The Island of Samos has now lost its crucial brutia pine, which provided islanders with the only alternative income to tourism. Practically all the forests around Athens have now gone.
IUCN and WWF are encouraging the European Union to invest more in addressing the underlying causes of Mediterranean forest fires. The EU has been one of the few international institutions that has started to support innovative approaches to fire management in some areas of the tropics; it is now time to apply these in its own backyard.
The economic cost of the fires in South East Asia in 1998 is estimated at up to $10 billion with around 70 million people's health being affected. Tragically the next fires could be worse, as forests have not recovered from the previous burn and piles of dead and decaying logs will act as a ready fuel supply therefore increasing the likelihood and the intensity of the burn.
WWF and IUCN stress the 1997/98 fires in Indonesia and this year's fires in Greece are only a foretaste of a global disaster waiting to happen. The next El Niño may coincide with the "Rio +10 Earth Summit" when world leaders meet to consider global environmental issues. Governments must act now and not wait until the next catastrophe happens. Steve Howard of WWF said, "Whether it is in two years or two weeks time, governments must realize that we need to fight fires before they ignite, rather than wait until the world's forests go up in smoke."
On September 7, 1936, the last Tasmanian Tiger died in captivity. September 7 now marks an annual event in Australia, known as National Threatened Species Day. The Threatened Species Network <http://nccnsw.org.au/member/tsn/> homepage, co-hosted by Environment Australia's Biodiversity Group and the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF), describes Australia's commitment to stemming human-caused extinctions of the 1,400 species that are now at risk in Australia. The website offers a wealth of general and Australia-specific information, including resources on community action, education, and endangered species research. In addition, viewers will find links related to international sites, a summary of Australian strategies and laws, and an impressive list of upcoming events. For those interested in learning more about Australia's threatened species or in studying another country's approach to wildlife conservation, this site will be informative.
The Biological Resources Research Center of the University of Nevada at Reno provides a resource on the Animals of the Great Basin <http://www.brrc.unr.edu/data/animals/index.html>. Organized under two main sections (Invertebrates and Vertebrates), the site offers a series of hyperlinked state species lists, distribution maps, and photos of select fauna. In addition, an annotated, indexed bibliography on Trout points users to more in-depth information on that taxa. While not all fauna (nor states within the Great Basin) are represented in every case, this site nevertheless serves a useful purpose in centralizing available information on certain taxa and states. In addition, users will appreciate the care that site authors have taken in providing information on the authority behind each information source.
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Ciofolo, I., Le Pendu, Y., and Gosser, A. 2000. The giraffes of Niger, the last West African giraffes. Rev. Ecol. - Terre Vie 55(2):117-128.
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Costello, D.A., Lunt, I.D., and Williams, J.E. 2000. Effects of invasion by the indigenous shrub Acacia sophorae on plant composition of coastal grasslands in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):113-121.
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Dodman, T., and Rose, P. 2000. Distribution and abundance of African waterfowl: examples from the African Waterfowl Census. Ostrich 71(1-2):235-243.
Dranzoa, C. 2000. Implications of forest utilisation on bird conservation. Ostrich 71(1-2):257-261.
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Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2000. Evaluating wetlands within an urban context. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):253-265.
Evans, T.D., Duckworth, J.W., and Timmins, R.J. 2000. Field observations of larger mammals in Laos, 1994-1995. Mammalia 64(1):55-99.
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Fausser, J.L., Rabarivola, C., Meier, B., Hahn, T., and Rumpler, Y. 2000. Genetic comparison between different populations of Eulemur macaco flavifrons in northwest Madagascar using RAPD markers. Am. J. Primatol. 51(4):249-255.
Ferreira, S.M., and McKinlay, B. 2000. Recent vegetation trends at the Cromwell Chafer Beetle Nature Reserve in Central Otago, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Bot. 38(2):235-244.
Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2000. An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):1-11.
Fisher, D.O. 2000. Effects of vegetation structure, food and shelter on the home range and habitat use of an endangered Wallaby. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(4):660-671.
Flather, C.H., and Sieg, C.H. 2000. Applicability of Montreal Process Criterion 1 - conservation of biological diversity - to rangeland sustainability. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 7(2):81-96.
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Gatarabirwa, W., Kanyamibwa, S., and Ukizintambara, T. 2000. Promoting sustainable conservation under conditions of poverty and civil strife in the Albertine Rift. Ostrich 71(1-2):33-35.
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Gichuki, C.M. 2000. Community participation in the protection of Kenya's wetlands. Ostrich 71(1-2):122-125.
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Grundel, R., Pavlovic, N.B., and Sulzman, C.L. 2000. Nectar plant selection by the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Am. Midl. Nat. 144(1):1-10.
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Hackney, C.T. 2000. Restoration of coastal habitats: expectation and reality. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):165-170.
Hailey, A. 2000. Implications of high intrinsic growth rate of a tortoise population for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):185-189.
Hall-Spencer, J.M., and Moore, P.G. 2000. Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea): a neglected reef-forming keystone species. Aquat. Conserv. 10(4):267-277.
Harrison, C., and Burgess, J. 2000. Valuing nature in context: the contribution of common-good approaches. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1115-1130.
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Kaiser, J. 2000. Rift over biodiversity divides ecologists. Science 289(5483):1282-1283.
Kang, U., Chang, C.S., and Kim, Y.S. 2000. Genetic structure and conservation considerations of rare endemic Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai (Oleaceae) in Korea. J. Plant Res. (Japan) 113:127-138.
Kathiresan, K. 2000. A review of studies on Pichavaram mangrove, southeast India. Hydrobiologia 430(1-3):185-205.
Kelsey, R., and Collins, C.T. 2000. Estimated population size of the island scrub-jay Aphelocoma insularis. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(2):137-148.
Kentula, M.E. 2000. Perspectives on setting success criteria for wetland restoration. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):199-209.
Lambert, J.D., and Hannon, S.J. 2000. Short-term effects of timber harvest on abundance territory characteristics, and pairing success of ovenbirds in riparian buffer strips. The Auk 117(3):687-698.
Larison, B., Smith, T.B., Fotso, R., and McNiven, D. 2000. Comparative avian biodiversity of five mountains in northern Cameroon and Bioko. Ostrich 71(1-2):269-276.
Lawes, M.J., Mealin, P.E., and Piper, S.E. 2000. Patch occupancy and potential metapopulation dynamics of three forest mammals in fragmented afromontane forest in South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1088-1098.
Ledig, F.T., Bermejo-Velazquez, B., Hodgskiss, P.D., Johnson, D.R., Flores-Lopez, C., and Jacob-Cervantes, V. 2000. The mating system and genic diversity in Martinez spruce, an extremely rare endemic of Mexico's Sierra Madre Oriental: an example of facultative selfing and survival in interglacial refugia. Can. J. Forest Res. 30(7):1156-1164.
Lee, M.S.Y. 2000. A worrying systematic decline. TREE 15(8):346.
Lens, L., Muchai, M., Bennun, L.A., and Duchateau, L. 2000. Conservation planning in an agricultural landscape: the case of Sharpe's Longclaw. Ostrich 71(1-2):300-303.
Letty, J., Marchandeau, S., Clobert, J., and Aubineau, J. 2000. Improving translocation success: an experimental study of anti-stress treatment and release method for wild rabbits. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):211-219.
Lewis, R.R. 2000. Ecologically based goal setting in mangrove forest and tidal marsh restoration. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):191-198.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Margules, C.R., and Botkin, D.B. 2000. Indicators of biodiversity for ecologically sustainable forest management. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):941-950.
Lodge, D.M., Taylor, C.A., Holdich, D.M., and Skurdal, J. 2000. Nonindigenous crayfishes threaten North American freshwater biodiversity: lessons from Europe. Fisheries 25(8):7-20.
Lowe, A.J., Gillies, A.C.M., Wilson, J., and Dawson, I.K. 2000. Conservation genetics of bush mango from central/west Africa: implications from random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Mol. Ecol. 9(7):831-841.
Lykke, A.M. 2000. Local perceptions of vegetation change and priorities for conservation of woody-savanna vegetation in Senegal. J. Environ. Manage. 59(2):107-120.
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Mafabi, P. 2000. The role of wetland policies in the conservation of waterbirds: the case of Uganda. Ostrich 71(1-2):96-98.
Magin, C. 2000. Birdlife International's Important Bird Areas Programme in Morocco. Ostrich 71(1-2):175-176.
Malhi, Y., and Grace, J. 2000. Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide. TREE 15(8):332-337.
Marcus, L. 2000. Restoring tidal wetlands at Sonoma Baylands, San Francisco Bay, California. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):373-383.
Marshall, T.C., and Spalton, J.A. 2000. Simultaneous inbreeding and outbreeding depression in reintroduced Arabian oryx. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):241-248.
Matiku, P.M., Bennun, L.A., and Nemeth, E. 2000. Distribution and population size of the threatened East Coast Akalat in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. Ostrich 71(1-2):282-285.
Matter, W.J., and McPherson, G.R. 2000. No lurking inconsistency. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1204-1205.
McKay, C., and Coulthard, N. 2000. The Kilum-Ijim Forests IBA in Cameroon: monitoring biodiversity using birds as indicators. Ostrich 71(1-2):177-180.
McShea, W.J., and Rappole, J.H. 2000. Managing the abundance and diversity of breeding bird populations through manipulation of deer populations. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1161-1170.
Meretsky, V.J., Snyder, N.F.R., Beissinger, S.R., Clendenen, D.A., and Wiley, J.W. 2000. Demography of the California condor: implications for reestablishment. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):957-967.
Mitsch, W.J., and Wang, N.M. 2000. Large-scale coastal wetland restoration on the Laurentian Great Lakes: determining the potential for water quality improvement. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):267-282.
Montalvo, A.M., and Ellstrand, N.C. 2000. Transplantation of the subshrub Lotus scoparius: testing the home-site advantage hypothesis. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1034-1045.
Morin, P.A. 2000. Preservation of DNA from endangered species. Science 289(5480):725-726.
Mosseler, A., Major, J.E., Simpson, J.D., Daigle, B., Lange, K., Park, Y.S., Johnsen, K.H., and Rajora, O.P. 2000. Indicators of population viability in red spruce, Picea rubens. I. Reproductive traits and fecundity. Can. J. Bot. 78(7):928-940.
Muller, R.N., and Maehr, D.S. 2000. Are universities leaders in the stewardship of conservation lands? BioScience 50(8):707-712.
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Narain, P. 2000. Genetic diversity - conservation and assessment. Curr. Sci. 79(2):170-175.
Nemeth, E., and Bennun, L. 2000. Distribution, habitat selection and behaviour of the East Coast akalat Sheppardia gunningi sokokensis in Kenya and Tanzania. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(2):115-130.
Nesje, M., Roed, K.H., Bell, D.A., Lindberg, P., and Lifjeld, J.T. 2000. Microsatellite analysis of population structure and genetic variability in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Anim. Conserv. 3(3):267-275.
Ng, S.C., and Corlett, R.T. 2000. Genetic variation and structure in six Rhododendron species (Ericaceae) with contrasting local distribution patterns in Hong Kong, China. Mol. Ecol. 9(7):959-969.
Nigussie, A.T., and Dellelegn, Y. 2000. Developing national conservation programmes through the IBA process. Ostrich 71(1-2):162-163.
Njoroge, P., and Bennun, L.A. 2000. Status and conservation of Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei, a threatened species in an agricultural landscape. Ostrich 71(1-2):69-72.
Norton, B.G. 2000. Biodiversity and environmental values: in search of a universal Earth ethic. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1029-1044.
Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y., Owusu, E.H., Asamoah, S., and Owusu-Boateng, K. 2000. Distribution and abundance of forest birds in Ghana. Ostrich 71(1-2):262-268.
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