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Department ofBotany

No. 190
October 2000

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In This Issue

Lichen Conservation

Current research in conservation biology within Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History is coming from an unlikely source as of lately. Paula DePriest, of the Department of Botany and her graduate student Rebecca Yahr at Duke University have been conducting research on Cladonia perforata, a federally listed endangered lichen species. Of the 962 species listed as endangered in the U.S., only two are lichens. Compare that to the 565 flowering plant species, and it comes as no surprise that lichens typically do not make headlines. Recently, Science News devoted its cover issue to lichen biodiversity (Vol. 158; August 2000).

Cladonia perforata was described in 1952 by lichenologist Alexander Evans from a species collected on Santa Rosa Island off of Florida's panhandle. Since its description, it has been found in 13 other locations, all in central Florida. In 1995, Hurrican Opal flattened and denuded the dunes on Santa Rosa Island, reducing the C. perforata community by seventy percent. Current research by DePriest and Yahr focuses on reintroduction of the lichen to its original habitat. Replanting efforts are proving to be astonishingly difficult. Molecular research shows that lineages from the central Florida populations differ sharply with the panhandle population, reducing hope of working with transplants. The survivors of the hurricane, however, are beginning to show recolonization efforts on areas of exposed sand. The research by DePriest and Yahr has been funded through grants by the National Science Foundation's Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET), the US Fish and Wildlife Services and the US Air Force.

Entomological Bibliography on the Web

The Department of Entomology at Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History announces a new database to their website - The Entomological Bibliography of New Guinea including the Solomon Islands <>. The bibliography is a "work in progress" still under editing and development, and currently includes 10,500 citations. This version combines the original bibliography of some 7,100 citations through 1967, published by Gressitt and Szent-Ivany in 1968 by Bishop Museum as Pacific Insects Monograph 18, and a supplement, compiled by Scott Miller and colleagues, including some 3,400 citations since 1967. Please see the online introduction for further information and acknowledgements. Note that the keywords and abstracts often include names of vertebrate and plant hosts. Various projects and individuals have contributed toward this interim product, which supports the insect ecology research funded by the US National Science Foundation, amongst others. The citations are also being added to Ecoport <>. Additions and corrections are welcomed.

WWF and IUCN Warn of a Global Inferno


In the aftermath of devastating fires across the globe, World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) and The World Conservation Union (IUCN) warned that many more lives would be lost, livelihoods destroyed and vast areas of the world's most important forest ecosystems burnt to ashes unless urgent action is taken immediately by world leaders to address the underlying causes of forest fires before the next El Niño year hits. According to some experts this could happen in as little as 18 months time.

The "Global Review of Forest Fires" by Andy Rowell and Dr. Peter Moore <>, concludes that since the devastation of 1997/98, fires have slipped off the media and political agendas. At an international level little has been done to address the underlying causes of forest fires, and although some nations are attempting to face their forest fire problems many such responses are too slow and often misdirected.

The situation in Greece is a microcosm of what is happening on a global scale. "WWF Greece has repeatedly warned the government over the past two years that there was a catastrophe in the making yet the official response continues to be characterized by political expediency, short-termism and policy failure," said Aristotelis Papageorgiou of WWF Greece.

Over 70,000 hectares of forests have burnt to ashes this past summer. The environmental impact has yet to be calculated but we know that the fires hit two of the most important wildlife areas in the country. The Pindos Mountains is home to countless plant species and a key habitat for brown bear, wild cat and wolves. The Island of Samos has now lost its crucial brutia pine, which provided islanders with the only alternative income to tourism. Practically all the forests around Athens have now gone.

IUCN and WWF are encouraging the European Union to invest more in addressing the underlying causes of Mediterranean forest fires. The EU has been one of the few international institutions that has started to support innovative approaches to fire management in some areas of the tropics; it is now time to apply these in its own backyard.

The economic cost of the fires in South East Asia in 1998 is estimated at up to $10 billion with around 70 million people's health being affected. Tragically the next fires could be worse, as forests have not recovered from the previous burn and piles of dead and decaying logs will act as a ready fuel supply therefore increasing the likelihood and the intensity of the burn.

WWF and IUCN stress the 1997/98 fires in Indonesia and this year's fires in Greece are only a foretaste of a global disaster waiting to happen. The next El Niño may coincide with the "Rio +10 Earth Summit" when world leaders meet to consider global environmental issues. Governments must act now and not wait until the next catastrophe happens. Steve Howard of WWF said, "Whether it is in two years or two weeks time, governments must realize that we need to fight fires before they ignite, rather than wait until the world's forests go up in smoke."

Information Highway Hi-Lites

On September 7, 1936, the last Tasmanian Tiger died in captivity. September 7 now marks an annual event in Australia, known as National Threatened Species Day. The Threatened Species Network <> homepage, co-hosted by Environment Australia's Biodiversity Group and the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF), describes Australia's commitment to stemming human-caused extinctions of the 1,400 species that are now at risk in Australia. The website offers a wealth of general and Australia-specific information, including resources on community action, education, and endangered species research. In addition, viewers will find links related to international sites, a summary of Australian strategies and laws, and an impressive list of upcoming events. For those interested in learning more about Australia's threatened species or in studying another country's approach to wildlife conservation, this site will be informative.

The Biological Resources Research Center of the University of Nevada at Reno provides a resource on the Animals of the Great Basin <>. Organized under two main sections (Invertebrates and Vertebrates), the site offers a series of hyperlinked state species lists, distribution maps, and photos of select fauna. In addition, an annotated, indexed bibliography on Trout points users to more in-depth information on that taxa. While not all fauna (nor states within the Great Basin) are represented in every case, this site nevertheless serves a useful purpose in centralizing available information on certain taxa and states. In addition, users will appreciate the care that site authors have taken in providing information on the authority behind each information source.

Current Literature

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Adams, S.R., Hoover, J.J., and Killgore, K.J. 2000. Swimming performance of the Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) an endangered midwestern minnow. Am. Midl. Nat. 144(1):178-186.

Adriaensen, F., Louette, M., Stevens, J., Plompen, W., and Verheyen, G. 2000. The status of the Forest Fody on Mayotte (Comores). Ostrich 71(1-2):330-331.

Akçakaya, H.R., Ferson, S., Burgman, M.A., Keith, D.A., Mace, G.M., and Todd, C.R. 2000. Making consistent IUCN classifications under uncertainty. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1001-1013.

Akinsola, O.A., Ezealor, A.U., and Polet, G. 2000. Conservation of waterbirds in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands, Nigeria: current efforts and problems. Ostrich 71(1-2):118-121.

Ammar, M.S.A., Amin, E.M., Gundacker, D., and Mueller, W.E.G. 2000. One rational strategy for restoration of coral reefs: application of molecular biological tools to select sites for rehabilitation by asexual recruits. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 40(7):618-627.

Amsberry, L., Baker, M.A., Ewanchuk, P.J., and Bertness, M.D. 2000. Clonal integration and the expansion of Phragmites australis. Ecol. Appl. 10(4):1110-1118.

Anderson, M.D. 2000. Raptor conservation in the Northern Cape province, South Africa. Ostrich 71(1-2):25-32.

Araujo, R., and Ramos, M.A. 2000. A critical revision of the historical distribution of the endangered Margaritifera auricularia (Spengler, 1782) (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae) based on museum specimens. J. Conchology 37:49-59.

Arinaitwe, J., Byaruhanga, A., and Mafabi, P. 2000. Key sites for the conservation of waterbirds in Uganda. Ostrich 71(1-2):102-105.

Armstrong, D.P., and Perrott, J.K. 2000. An experiment testing whether condition and survival are limited by food supply in a reintroduced Hihi population. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1171-1181.

Balmford, A. 2000. Separating fact from artifact in analyses of zoo visitor preferences. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1193-1195.

Beibro, K.H.Y., and Ellenberg, H. 2000. A contribution to the study of the avifauna of the Bossematie Forest (Abengorou/Cote d'Ivoire). The future of Bossematie Forest: current status. Ostrich 71(1-2):292-294.

Belk, D., and Fugate, M. 2000. Two new Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from the southwestern United States. Southwest. Nat. 45(2):111-117.

Bennett, E.L. 2000. Timber certification: where is the voice of the biologist? Conserv. Biol. 14(4):921-923.

Bennun, L. 2000. Assessing and monitoring bird populations in Africa: an overview. Ostrich 71(1-2):214-215.

Bennun, L., and Fishpool, L. 2000. The Important Bird Areas Programme in Africa: an outline. Ostrich 71(1-2):150-153.

Bennun, L., and Njoroge, P. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Ostrich 71(1-2):164-167.

Bennun, L.A., Njoroge, P., and Pomeroy, D. 2000. Birds to watch: a Red Data List for East Africa. Ostrich 71(1-2):310-314.

Bentley, J.M., Catterall, C.P., and Smith, G.C. 2000. Effects of fragmentation of araucarian vine forest on small mammal communities. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1075-1087.

Biswas, S.P., and Boruah, S. 2000. Ecology of the river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in the upper Brahmaputra. Hydrobiologia 430(1-3):97-111.

Blake, J.G., and Loiselle, B.A. 2000. Diversity of birds along an elevational gradient in the Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The Auk 117(3):663-686.

Bolger, D.T., Suarez, A.V., Crooks, K.R., Morrison, S.A., and Case, T.J. 2000. Arthropods in urban habitat fragments in Southern California: area, age, and edge effects. Ecol. Appl. 10(4):1230-1248.

Borghesio, L., and Massa, R. 2000. Status and conservation of Prince Ruspoli's Turaco Tauraco ruspolii. Ostrich 71(1-2):355-358.

Brito, D., and Fernandez, F.A.S. 2000. Metapopulation viability of the marsupial Micoureus demerarae in small Atlantic Forest fragments in south-eastern Brazil. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):201-209.

Burgess, N., de Klerk, H., Fjeldsa, J., Crowe, T., and Rahbek, R. 2000. A preliminary assessment of congruence between biodiversity patterns in Afrotropical forest birds and forest mammals. Ostrich 71(1-2):286-290.

Busch, J.D., Miller, M.P., Paxton, E.H., Sogge, M.K., and Keim, P. 2000. Genetic variation in the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher. The Auk 117(3):586-595.

Cairns, J. 2000. Setting ecological restoration goals for technical feasibility and scientific validity. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):171-180.

Cam, E., Nichols, J.D., Sauer, J.R., Hines, J.E., and Flather, C.H. 2000. Relative species richness and community completeness: birds and urbanization in the Mid-Atlantic states. Ecol. Appl. 10(4):1196-1210.

Chown, S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2000. Areas, cradles and museums: the latitudinal gradient in species richness. TREE 15(8):311-315.

Ciofolo, I., Le Pendu, Y., and Gosser, A. 2000. The giraffes of Niger, the last West African giraffes. Rev. Ecol. - Terre Vie 55(2):117-128.

Coen, L.D., and Luckenbach, M.W. 2000. Developing success criteria and goals for evaluating oyster reef restoration: ecological function or resource exploitation? Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):323-343.

Cooper, N.S. 2000. How natural is a nature reserve?: an ideological study of British nature conservation landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1131-1152.

Cooper, N.S. 2000. Speaking and listening to nature: ethics within ecology. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1009-1027.

Cooper, N.S., and Samways, M.J. 2000. Background and aims of this special issue. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1007-1008.

Costello, D.A., Lunt, I.D., and Williams, J.E. 2000. Effects of invasion by the indigenous shrub Acacia sophorae on plant composition of coastal grasslands in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):113-121.

Curry, P. 2000. Redefining community: towards an ecological republicanism. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1059-1071.

D'Agrosa, C., Lennert-Cody, C.E., and Vidal, O. 2000. Vaquita bycatch in Mexico's artisanal gillnet fisheries: driving a small population to extinction. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1110-1119.

Dahlgaard, J., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2000. Stress resistance and environmental dependency of inbreeding depression in Drosophila melanogaster. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1187-1192.

Daly, H.E. 2000. What Neo-Darwinism does not explain: response to Trombulak and Matter and McPherson. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1206-1207.

Davis, M., Douglas, C., Calcote, R., Cole, K.L., Winkler, M.G., and Flakne, R. 2000. Holocene climate in the western Great Lakes national parks and lakeshores: implications for future climate change. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):968-983.

de Jong, M., and Kwa, C.L. 2000. Ecological theories and Dutch nature conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1171-1186.

de Jonge, V.N., de Jong, D.J., and van Katwijk, M.M. 2000. Policy plans and management measures to restore eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Helgoland Mar. Res. 54(2-3):151-158.

Diaz, J.A., Carbonell, R., Virgos, E., Santos, T., and Telleria, J.L. 2000. Effects of forest fragmentation on the distribution of the lizard Psammodromus algirus. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):235-240.

Dodman, T., and Rose, P. 2000. Distribution and abundance of African waterfowl: examples from the African Waterfowl Census. Ostrich 71(1-2):235-243.

Dranzoa, C. 2000. Implications of forest utilisation on bird conservation. Ostrich 71(1-2):257-261.

Duellman, W.E., (Ed.). 1999. Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective. Johns Hopkins Univ Press. Baltimore, MD. 648 pp.

Durant, S.M. 2000. Predator avoidance, breeding experience and reproductive success in endangered cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus. Anim. Behav. 60:121-130.

Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2000. Evaluating wetlands within an urban context. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):253-265.

Evans, T.D., Duckworth, J.W., and Timmins, R.J. 2000. Field observations of larger mammals in Laos, 1994-1995. Mammalia 64(1):55-99.

Eve, E., Arguelles, F.A., and Fearnside, P.M. 2000. How well does Brazil's environmental law work in practice? Environmental impact assessment and the case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan. Environ. Manage. 26(3):251-267.

Fausser, J.L., Rabarivola, C., Meier, B., Hahn, T., and Rumpler, Y. 2000. Genetic comparison between different populations of Eulemur macaco flavifrons in northwest Madagascar using RAPD markers. Am. J. Primatol. 51(4):249-255.

Ferreira, S.M., and McKinlay, B. 2000. Recent vegetation trends at the Cromwell Chafer Beetle Nature Reserve in Central Otago, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Bot. 38(2):235-244.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2000. An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):1-11.

Fisher, D.O. 2000. Effects of vegetation structure, food and shelter on the home range and habitat use of an endangered Wallaby. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(4):660-671.

Flather, C.H., and Sieg, C.H. 2000. Applicability of Montreal Process Criterion 1 - conservation of biological diversity - to rangeland sustainability. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 7(2):81-96.

Fonseca, M.S., Julius, B.E., and Kenworthy, W.J. 2000. Integrating biology and economics in seagrass restoration: how much is enough and why? Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):227-237.

Fridman, J. 2000. Conservation of forest in Sweden: a strategic ecological analysis. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):95-103.

Gatarabirwa, W., Kanyamibwa, S., and Ukizintambara, T. 2000. Promoting sustainable conservation under conditions of poverty and civil strife in the Albertine Rift. Ostrich 71(1-2):33-35.

Gerlach, G., and Musolf, K. 2000. Fragmentation of landscape as a cause for genetic subdivision in bank voles. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1066-1074.

Gibson, D.J., Adams, E.D., Ely, J.S., Gustafson, D.J., McEwen, D., and Evans, T.R. 2000. Eighteen years of herbaceous layer recovery of a recreation area in a mesic forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(3):230-239.

Gichuki, C.M. 2000. Community participation in the protection of Kenya's wetlands. Ostrich 71(1-2):122-125.

Gotelli, N.J., and Arnett, A.E. 2000. Biogeographic effects of red fire ant invasion. Ecol. Lett. 3(4):257-261.

Greulich, S., Bornette, G., and Amoros, C. 2000. Persistence of a rare aquatic species along gradients of disturbance and sediment richness. J. Veg. Sci. 11(3):415-424.

Grundel, R., Pavlovic, N.B., and Sulzman, C.L. 2000. Nectar plant selection by the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Am. Midl. Nat. 144(1):1-10.

Guariguata, M.R., Adame, J.J.R., and Finegan, B. 2000. Seed removal and fate in two selectively logged lowland forests with constrasting protection levels. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1046-1054.

Hackney, C.T. 2000. Restoration of coastal habitats: expectation and reality. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):165-170.

Hailey, A. 2000. Implications of high intrinsic growth rate of a tortoise population for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):185-189.

Hall-Spencer, J.M., and Moore, P.G. 2000. Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea): a neglected reef-forming keystone species. Aquat. Conserv. 10(4):267-277.

Harrison, C., and Burgess, J. 2000. Valuing nature in context: the contribution of common-good approaches. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1115-1130.

Hastie, L.C., Young, M.R., Boon, P.J., Cosgrove, P.J., and Henninger, B. 2000. Sizes, densities and age structures of Scottish Margaritifera margaritifera (L.) populations. Aquat. Conserv. 10(4):229-247.

Hoctor, T.S., Carr, M.H., and Zwick, P.D. 2000. Identifying a linked reserve system using a regional landscape approach: the Florida ecological network. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):984-1000.

Holl, K.D., Steele, H.N., Fusari, M.H., and Fox, L.R. 2000. Seed banks of maritime chaparral and abandoned roads: potential for vegetation recovery. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(3):207-220.

Hudson, Q.J., Wilkins, R.J., Waas, J.R., and Hogg, I.D. 2000. Low genetic variability in small populations of New Zealand kokako Callaeas cinerea wilsoni. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):105-112.

Hughes, R.G., Lloyd, D., Ball, L., and Emson, D. 2000. The effects of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the distribution and transplanting success of Zostera noltii. Helgoland Mar. Res. 54(2-3):129-136.

Hutchings, J.A. 2000. Collapse and recovery of marine fishes. Nature 406(6798):882-885.

Izsak, J., and Papp, L. 2000. A link between ecological diversity indices and measures of biodiversity. Ecol. Model. 130(1-3):151-156.

Jaap, W.C. 2000. Coral reef restoration. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):345-364.

Jha, C.S., Dutt, C.B.S., and Bawa, K.S. 2000. Deforestation and land use changes in Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 79(2):231-238.

Kaiser, J. 2000. Rift over biodiversity divides ecologists. Science 289(5483):1282-1283.

Kang, U., Chang, C.S., and Kim, Y.S. 2000. Genetic structure and conservation considerations of rare endemic Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai (Oleaceae) in Korea. J. Plant Res. (Japan) 113:127-138.

Kathiresan, K. 2000. A review of studies on Pichavaram mangrove, southeast India. Hydrobiologia 430(1-3):185-205.

Kelsey, R., and Collins, C.T. 2000. Estimated population size of the island scrub-jay Aphelocoma insularis. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(2):137-148.

Kentula, M.E. 2000. Perspectives on setting success criteria for wetland restoration. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):199-209.

Lambert, J.D., and Hannon, S.J. 2000. Short-term effects of timber harvest on abundance territory characteristics, and pairing success of ovenbirds in riparian buffer strips. The Auk 117(3):687-698.

Larison, B., Smith, T.B., Fotso, R., and McNiven, D. 2000. Comparative avian biodiversity of five mountains in northern Cameroon and Bioko. Ostrich 71(1-2):269-276.

Lawes, M.J., Mealin, P.E., and Piper, S.E. 2000. Patch occupancy and potential metapopulation dynamics of three forest mammals in fragmented afromontane forest in South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1088-1098.

Ledig, F.T., Bermejo-Velazquez, B., Hodgskiss, P.D., Johnson, D.R., Flores-Lopez, C., and Jacob-Cervantes, V. 2000. The mating system and genic diversity in Martinez spruce, an extremely rare endemic of Mexico's Sierra Madre Oriental: an example of facultative selfing and survival in interglacial refugia. Can. J. Forest Res. 30(7):1156-1164.

Lee, M.S.Y. 2000. A worrying systematic decline. TREE 15(8):346.

Lens, L., Muchai, M., Bennun, L.A., and Duchateau, L. 2000. Conservation planning in an agricultural landscape: the case of Sharpe's Longclaw. Ostrich 71(1-2):300-303.

Letty, J., Marchandeau, S., Clobert, J., and Aubineau, J. 2000. Improving translocation success: an experimental study of anti-stress treatment and release method for wild rabbits. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):211-219.

Lewis, R.R. 2000. Ecologically based goal setting in mangrove forest and tidal marsh restoration. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):191-198.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Margules, C.R., and Botkin, D.B. 2000. Indicators of biodiversity for ecologically sustainable forest management. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):941-950.

Lodge, D.M., Taylor, C.A., Holdich, D.M., and Skurdal, J. 2000. Nonindigenous crayfishes threaten North American freshwater biodiversity: lessons from Europe. Fisheries 25(8):7-20.

Lowe, A.J., Gillies, A.C.M., Wilson, J., and Dawson, I.K. 2000. Conservation genetics of bush mango from central/west Africa: implications from random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Mol. Ecol. 9(7):831-841.

Lykke, A.M. 2000. Local perceptions of vegetation change and priorities for conservation of woody-savanna vegetation in Senegal. J. Environ. Manage. 59(2):107-120.

Maddock, A.H., and Samways, M.J. 2000. Planning for biodiversity conservation based on the knowledge of biologists. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1153-1169.

Mafabi, P. 2000. The role of wetland policies in the conservation of waterbirds: the case of Uganda. Ostrich 71(1-2):96-98.

Magin, C. 2000. Birdlife International's Important Bird Areas Programme in Morocco. Ostrich 71(1-2):175-176.

Malhi, Y., and Grace, J. 2000. Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide. TREE 15(8):332-337.

Marcus, L. 2000. Restoring tidal wetlands at Sonoma Baylands, San Francisco Bay, California. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):373-383.

Marshall, T.C., and Spalton, J.A. 2000. Simultaneous inbreeding and outbreeding depression in reintroduced Arabian oryx. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):241-248.

Matiku, P.M., Bennun, L.A., and Nemeth, E. 2000. Distribution and population size of the threatened East Coast Akalat in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. Ostrich 71(1-2):282-285.

Matter, W.J., and McPherson, G.R. 2000. No lurking inconsistency. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1204-1205.

McKay, C., and Coulthard, N. 2000. The Kilum-Ijim Forests IBA in Cameroon: monitoring biodiversity using birds as indicators. Ostrich 71(1-2):177-180.

McShea, W.J., and Rappole, J.H. 2000. Managing the abundance and diversity of breeding bird populations through manipulation of deer populations. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1161-1170.

Meretsky, V.J., Snyder, N.F.R., Beissinger, S.R., Clendenen, D.A., and Wiley, J.W. 2000. Demography of the California condor: implications for reestablishment. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):957-967.

Mitsch, W.J., and Wang, N.M. 2000. Large-scale coastal wetland restoration on the Laurentian Great Lakes: determining the potential for water quality improvement. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):267-282.

Montalvo, A.M., and Ellstrand, N.C. 2000. Transplantation of the subshrub Lotus scoparius: testing the home-site advantage hypothesis. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1034-1045.

Morin, P.A. 2000. Preservation of DNA from endangered species. Science 289(5480):725-726.

Mosseler, A., Major, J.E., Simpson, J.D., Daigle, B., Lange, K., Park, Y.S., Johnsen, K.H., and Rajora, O.P. 2000. Indicators of population viability in red spruce, Picea rubens. I. Reproductive traits and fecundity. Can. J. Bot. 78(7):928-940.

Muller, R.N., and Maehr, D.S. 2000. Are universities leaders in the stewardship of conservation lands? BioScience 50(8):707-712.

Myers, J.H., Simberloff, D., Kuris, A.M., and Carey, J.R. 2000. Eradication revisited: dealing with exotic species. TREE 15(8):316-320.

Narain, P. 2000. Genetic diversity - conservation and assessment. Curr. Sci. 79(2):170-175.

Nemeth, E., and Bennun, L. 2000. Distribution, habitat selection and behaviour of the East Coast akalat Sheppardia gunningi sokokensis in Kenya and Tanzania. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(2):115-130.

Nesje, M., Roed, K.H., Bell, D.A., Lindberg, P., and Lifjeld, J.T. 2000. Microsatellite analysis of population structure and genetic variability in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Anim. Conserv. 3(3):267-275.

Ng, S.C., and Corlett, R.T. 2000. Genetic variation and structure in six Rhododendron species (Ericaceae) with contrasting local distribution patterns in Hong Kong, China. Mol. Ecol. 9(7):959-969.

Nigussie, A.T., and Dellelegn, Y. 2000. Developing national conservation programmes through the IBA process. Ostrich 71(1-2):162-163.

Njoroge, P., and Bennun, L.A. 2000. Status and conservation of Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei, a threatened species in an agricultural landscape. Ostrich 71(1-2):69-72.

Norton, B.G. 2000. Biodiversity and environmental values: in search of a universal Earth ethic. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1029-1044.

Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y., Owusu, E.H., Asamoah, S., and Owusu-Boateng, K. 2000. Distribution and abundance of forest birds in Ghana. Ostrich 71(1-2):262-268.

Ødegaard, F., Diserud, O.H., Engen, S., and Aagaard, K. 2000. The magnitude of local host specificity for phytophagous insects and its implications for estimates of global species richness. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1182-1186.

Orr, D.W. 2000. Ideasclerosis: part one. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):926-928.

Orth, R.J., Harwell, M.C., Bailey, E.M., Bartholomew, A., Jawad, J.T., Lombana, A.V., Moore, K.A., Rhode, J.M., and Woods, H.E. 2000. A review of issues in seagrass seed dormancy and germination: implications for conservation and restoration. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 200:277-288.

Owens, I.P.F., and Bennett, P.M. 2000. Quantifying biodiversity: a phenotypic perspective. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1014-1022.

Passell, H. 2000. A common thread to a new global paradigm. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):924-925.

Perault, D.R., and Lomolino, M.V. 2000. Corridors and mammal community structure across a fragmented, old-growth forest landscape. Ecol. Monogr. 70(3):401-422.

Peterson, A.T., Ball, L.G., and Brady, K.W. 2000. Distribution of the birds of the Philippines: biogeography and conservation priorities. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(2):149-167.

Platt, S.G., and Thorbjarnarson, J.B. 2000. Population status and conservation of Morelet's crocodile, Crocodylus moreletii, in northern Belize. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):21-29.

Platt, S.G., and Thorbjarnarson, J.B. 2000. Status and conservation of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, in Belize. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):13-20.

Poinar, H.N., and Eglinton, G. 2000. Preservation of DNA from endangered species. Science 289(5480):726.

Postel, S.L. 2000. Entering an era of water scarcity: the challenges ahead. Ecol. Appl. 10(4):941-948.

Pressey, R.L., Hager, T.C., Ryan, K.M., Schwarz, J., Wall, S., Ferrier, S., and Creaser, P.M. 2000. Using abiotic data for conservation assessments over extensive regions: quantitative methods applied across New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):55-82.

Pringle, C.M. 2000. Threats to US public lands from cumulative hydrologic alterations outside of their boundaries. Ecol. Appl. 10(4):971-989.

Putz, F.E., Dykstra, D.P., and Heinrich, R. 2000. Why poor logging practices persist in the tropics. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):951-956.

Rajora, O.P., Mosseler, A., and Major, J.E. 2000. Indicators of population viability in red spruce, Picea rubens. II. Genetic diversity, population structure, and mating behavior. Can. J. Bot. 78(7):941-956.

Rakotonomenjanahary, M.O., and Hawkins, A.F.A. 2000. The Important Bird Areas Programme in Madagascar. Ostrich 71(1-2):168-171.

Rands, M. 2000. Birdlife International: who we are and where we have come from. Ostrich 71(1-2):148-149.

Razdan, M.K., and Cocking, E.C., (Eds.). 2000. Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources in vitro Vol. 2: Applications and Limitations. Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield, NH. 320 pp.

Read, A.J., and Wade, P.R. 2000. Status of marine mammals in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):929-940.

Redfield, G.W. 2000. Ecological research for aquatic science and environmental restoration in south Florida. Ecol. Appl. 10(4):990-1005.

Redmond, A.M. 2000. Dredge and fill regulatory constraints in meeting the ecological goals of restoration projects. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):181-189.

Reed, A.W., and Kennedy, M.L. 2000. Conservation status of the eastern spotted skunk Spilogale putorius in the Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee. Am. Midl. Nat. 144(1):133-138.

Regan, H.M., and Colyvan, M. 2000. Fuzzy sets and threatened species classification. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1197-1199.

Ripa, J., and Lundberg, P. 2000. The route to extinction in variable environments. Oikos 90(1):89-96.

Rivard, D.H., Poitevin, J., Plasse, D., Carleton, M., and Currie, D.J. 2000. Changing species richness and composition in Canadian national parks. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1099-1109.

Rolston, H. 2000. The land ethic at the turn of the millennium. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1045-1058.

Roosenburg, W.M. 2000. Hypothesis testing, decision theory, and common sense in resource management. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1208-1210.

Rozzi, R., Silander, J., Armesto, J.J., Feinsinger, P., and Massardo, F. 2000. Three levels of integrating ecology with the conservation of South American temperate forests: the initiative of the Institute of Ecological Research Chiloé, Chile. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1199-1217.

Ryder, O.A., McLaren, A., Zhang, Y.P., Brenner, S., and Benirschke, K. 2000. Preservation of DNA from endangered species - response. Science 289(5480):726-727.

Sainsbury, A.W., Nettleton, P., Gilray, J., and Gurnell, J. 2000. Grey squirrels have high seroprevalence to a parapoxvirus associated with deaths in red squirrels. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):229-233.

Samways, M.J. 2000. A conceptual model of ecosystem restoration triage based on experiences from three remote oceanic islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1073-1083.

Schwartz, M.W., Hermann, S.M., and Van Mantgem, P.J. 2000. Population persistence in Florida torreya: comparing modeled projections of a declining coniferous tree. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1023-1033.

Schweiger, E.W., Diffendorfer, J.E., Holt, R.D., Pierotti, R., and Gaines, M.S. 2000. The interaction of habitat fragmentation, plant, and small mammal succession in an old field. Ecol. Monogr. 70(3):383-400.

Selman, R.G., Hunter, M.L., and Perrin, M.R. 2000. Ruppell's Parrot: status, ecology and conservation biology. Ostrich 71(1-2):347-348.

Sheail, J. 2000. Ecology - a science put to use. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1099-1113.

Sherry, T.W. 2000. Shade coffee: a good brew even in small doses. The Auk 117(3):563-568.

Short, F.T., Burdick, D.M., Short, C.A., Davis, R.C., and Morgan, P.A. 2000. Developing success criteria for restored eelgrass, salt marsh and mud flat habitats. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):239-252.

Sieving, K.E., Willson, M.F., and De Santo, T.L. 2000. Defining corridor functions for endemic birds in fragmented south-temperate rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1120-1132.

Simberloff, D. 2000. Extinction-proneness of island species - causes and management implications. Raffles Bull. Zool. 48(1):1-9.

Simenstad, C.A., and Cordell, J.R. 2000. Ecological assessment criteria for restoring anadromous salmonid habitat in Pacific Northwest estuaries. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):283-302.

Simons, T.R., Farnsworth, G.L., and Shriner, S.A. 2000. Evaluating Great Smoky Mountains National Park as a population source for the wood thrush. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1133-1144.

Sodhi, N.S., and Liow, L.H. 2000. Improving conservation biology research in Southeast Asia. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1211-1212.

Soehartono, T., and Newton, A.C. 2000. Conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees in the genus Aquilaria I. Status and distribution in Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):83-94.

Soran, V., Biro, J., Moldovan, O., and Ardelean, A. 2000. Conservation of biodiversity in Romania. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1187-1198.

Steyer, G.D., and Llewellyn, D.W. 2000. Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act: a programmatic application of adaptive management. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):385-395.

Stokstad, E. 2000. Virginia gets crabby about harvest limits. Science 289(5482):1122.

Tallacchini, M. 2000. A legal framework from ecology. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(8):1085-1098.

Tattersall, F.H., Avundo, A.E., Manley, W.J., Hart, B.J., and Macdonald, D.W. 2000. Managing set-aside for field voles (Microtus agrestis). Biol. Conserv. 96(1):123-128.

Terry, E.L., Mclellan, B.N., and Watts, G.S. 2000. Winter habitat ecology of mountain caribou in relation to forest management. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(4):589-602.

Thom, R.M. 2000. Adaptive management of coastal ecosystem restoration projects. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):365-372.

Thomas, D.H.L., Anders, S., and Penn, N.J. 2000. Conservation in the community: the Kilum-Ijim forest project, Cameroon. Ostrich 71(1-2):157-161.

Thompson, H.S., and Fotso, R. 2000. Conservation of two threatened species: Picathartes. Ostrich 71(1-2):154-156.

Todd, C.R. 2000. Perspectives on the definition of fuzzy sets: a reply to Regan and Colyvan. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1200-1201.

Trombulak, S.C. 2000. Misunderstanding Neo-Darwinism: a reaction to Daly. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1202-1203.

Tushabe, H., Pomeroy, D., and Reynolds, J. 2000. Predicting bird species occurrences for conservation planning in Uganda. Ostrich 71(1-2):307-309.

Vallan, D. 2000. Influence of forest fragmentation on amphibian diversity in the nature reserve of Ambohitantely, highland Madagascar. Biol. Conserv. 96(1):31-43.

van Katwijk, M.M., Hermus, D.C.R., de Jong, D.J., Asmus, R.M., and de Jonge, V.N. 2000. Habitat suitability of the Wadden Sea for restoration of Zostera marina beds. Helgoland Mar. Res. 54(2-3):117-128.

Vander Haegen, W.M., Dobler, F.C., and Pierce, D.J. 2000. Shrubsteppe bird response to habitat and landscape variables in eastern Washington, USA. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1145-1160.

Virani, M. 2000. Home range and movement patterns of Sokoke Scops owl Otus ireneae. Ostrich 71(1-2):139-142.

Vucetich, J.A., and Waite, T.A. 2000. Is one migrant per generation sufficient for the genetic management of fluctuating populations? Anim. Conserv. 3(3):261-266.

Waits, J.L., and Leberg, P.L. 2000. Biases associated with population estimation using molecular tagging. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):191-199.

Waiyaki, E., and Bennun, L.A. 2000. The avifauna of coastal forests in southern Kenya: status and conservation. Ostrich 71(1-2):247-256.

Walker, C.W., Harveson, L.A., Pittman, M.T., Tewes, M.E., and Honeycutt, R.L. 2000. Microsatellite variation in two populations of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Texas. Southwest. Nat. 45(2):196-203.

Waltert, M. 2000. Forest management and the distribution of understorey birds in the Bossematie Forest, Eastern Ivory Coast. Ostrich 71(1-2):295-299.

Warburton, C.L., James, E.A., Fripp, Y.J., Trueman, S.J., and Wallace, H.M. 2000. Clonality and sexual reproductive failure in remnant populations of Santalum lanceolatum (Santalaceae). Biol. Conserv. 96(1):45-54.

Ward, P.I. 2000. Zoo visitor preferences: reply to Balmford. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1196.

Watson, R.T., Berkelman, J., Rabarisoa, R., Thorstrom, R., and Watson, C.R.B. 2000. Description of nesting and foraging habitat of the Madagascar Fish-Eagle Haliaeetus vociferoides: a conservation initiative. Ostrich 71(1-2):336-340.

Watson, R.T., and Rabarisoa, R. 2000. Sakalava fishermen and Madagascar fish eagles: enhancing traditional conservation rules to control resource abuse that threatens a key breeding area for an endangered eagle. Ostrich 71(1-2):2-10.

Wefering, F.M., Danielson, L.E., and White, N.M. 2000. Using the AMOEBA approach to measure progress toward ecosystem sustainability within a shellfish restoration project in North Carolina. Ecol. Model. 130(1-3):157-166.

West, T.L., Clough, L.M., and Ambrose, W.C. 2000. Assessment of function in an oligohaline environment: lessons learned by comparing created and natural habitats. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):303-321.

White, A.T., Vogt, H.P., and Arin, T. 2000. Philippine coral reefs under threat: the economic losses caused by reef destruction. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 40(7):598-605.

Whittingham, M.J., Percival, S.M., and Brown, A.F. 2000. Time budgets and foraging of breeding golden plover Pluvialis apricaria. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(4):632-646.

Williams, P.H., Burgess, N.D., and Rahbek, C. 2000. Flagship species, ecological complementarity and conserving the diversity of mammals and birds in sub-Saharan Africa. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):249-260.

Willott, S.J., Lim, D.C., Compton, S.G., and Sutton, S.L. 2000. Effects of selective logging on the butterflies of a Bornean rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 14(4):1055-1065.

Wiseman, R., O'Ryan, C., and Harley, E.H. 2000. Microsatellite analysis reveals that domestic cat (Felis catus) and southern African wild cat (F. lybica) are genetically distinct. Anim. Conserv. 3(3):221-228.

Worm, B., and Reusch, T.B.H. 2000. Do nutrient availability and plant density limit seagrass colonization in the Baltic Sea? Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 200:159-166.

Zedler, J.B., and Callaway, J.C. 2000. Evaluating the progress of engineered tidal wetlands. Ecol. Eng. 15(3-4):211-225.

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