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Department ofBotany



No. 192
December 2000


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In This Issue


African Insect Checklist and Bibliographies


Working versions of three products of the biodiversity programme of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institutions National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) have been installed in new searchable interfaces at NMNH. All are still being developed.

One of the most basic needs for inventorying, exploiting and monitoring the changes in the insect diversity of Africa is a complete list of species that are already known to occur in Africa. Checklist of Insects of Subsaharan Africa <http://entomology.si.edu:591/entomology/Subsahara/index.html> reflects the current state of knowledge in the published literature. A demonstration database is provided for the species of the orders Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), Megaloptera (alderflies), Hemiptera-Heteroptera (true bugs), Homoptera (cicadas, leafhoppers, planthoppers, and others), and Trichoptera (caddisflies). The taxa are available in a searchable interface (including type localities and references) or as pre-formated downloadable checklist pages (not including type localities and references).

Afrotropical Entomology: Working Bibliography on Systematics and Ecology <http://entomology.si.edu:591/entomology/AfricaBib/search.html> is a bibliographic database that includes over 7500 citations to papers on the systematics, distribution, and ecology of insects (and related arthropods) of Africa south of the Sahara (including Madagascar and other islands). This is a working compilation derived from multiple sources. It is not yet intended to be comprehensive in coverage of any taxon.

Partial Bibliography of Sampling and Analysis Protocols for Using Terrestrial and Aquatic Arthopods in Biodiversity Studies <http://entomology.si.edu:591/entomology/MethodsBib/search.html> is a bibliographic database that includes over 1100 citations to papers on the use of insects and other terrestrial and freshwater arthropods in biodiversity studies. This is a working compilation derived from multiple sources. It is not intended to be comprehensive in coverage of any taxon or geographic region or subject. Most of the citations include keywords.

Older versions of all three databases remain available on the ICIPE web site at <http://www.icipe.org>. The underlying data are also being incorporated in the ECOPORT database <http://www.ecoport.org>.


GEF Approves Funds for 14 Projects


The governing Council of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) has approved a $153.7 million work program supporting 14 projects ranging from assessing the impact of climate change and reducing shrimp trawlings environmental damage, to helping China harness wind power and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. With non-GEF co-financing, the total cost of the work programs portfolio is $461.2 million. Jointly implemented by the United Nations and the World Bank, the GEF is an independent multilateral financial mechanism helping developing countries protect the global environment.

Among the projects approved was a $7.85 million grant to scientifically assess climate change impacts and adaptation options for the most vulnerable developing countries. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has confidently concluded that greenhouse gases produced mainly by the burning of fossil fuels are altering the atmosphere in ways that affect the earths climate. The panel warns that warming over the next 100 years could be even higher than their estimate in 1995, raising the temperature in the worst case by 11 degrees Fahrenheit, rather than the 6.3 degrees they predicted five years ago. The project will fund 40 to 50 individual research studies in the most vulnerable countries over the next five years.

Another project approved by the Council aims to halve the amount of fish caught in nets of shrimp trawlers in six tropical countriesCosta Rica, Indonesia, Iran, Nigeria, Philippines, and Venezuelaand reduce the accidental killing of sea turtles. The project was primarily developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which also will have major responsibility for executing it. Fishing communities and interested non-governmental organizations helped to initiate the project and will remain involved throughout implementation.

The GEF also agreed to help the worlds third largest energy consumer to harness wind power and reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) received approval of a GEF grant of $12 million for a $98 million project. The project supports efforts by the PRC to diversify its energy sources and reduce its dependence on coal, which accounts for nearly 72 percent of total commercial energy production and contributes significantly to the high level of carbon emissions. The GEF project will accelerate the large-scale development and commercialization of wind-powered electricity connected to the public grid.

A fourth project will help protect Sri Lankas rich biodiversity while alleviating poverty, a root cause of threats to that biodiversity. Sri Lanka houses more than 3,360 species of flowering plants, 1,920 fungi, 242 butterflies, 78 freshwater fishes, 322 non-migrant birds, and 250 amphibians. Half of Sri Lankas species are endemic to the island. The design of this project recognizes that Sri Lankas protected areas cannot protect its biodiversity without the cooperation and support of the nearby communities in the stewardship of biological diversity.


Current Literature


Aagesen, D. 2000. Crisis and conservation at the end of the world: sheep ranching in Argentine Patagonia. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):208-215.

Anderson, R.C., Schwegman, J.E., and Anderson, M.R. 2000. Micro-scale restoration: a 25-year history of a southern Illinois barrens. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):296-306.

Andres, P., and Jorba, M. 2000. Mitigation strategies in some motorway embankments (Catalonia, Spain). Restoration Ecol. 8(3):268-275.

Aronson, J. 2000. Restoration of natural capital: pros and problems. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):214-216.

Badalamenti, F., Ramos, A.A., Voultsiadou, E., Lizaso, L.J.S., D'Anna, G., Pipitone, C., Mas, J., Fernandez, J.A.R., Whitmarsh, D., and Riggio, S. 2000. Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):110-125.

Baillie, S.R., Sutherland, W.J., Freeman, S.N., Gregory, R.D., and Paradis, E. 2000. Consequences of large-scale processes for the conservation of bird populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:88-102.

Barrows, C.W. 2000. Tenebrionid species richness and distribution in the Coachella Valley sand dunes (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Southwest. Nat. 45(3):306-312.

Batabyal, A.A. 2000. Habitat conversion, information acquisition, and the conservation of biodiversity. J. Environ. Manage. 59(3):195-203.

Ben Wu, X., and Smeins, F.E. 2000. Multiple-scale habitat modeling approach for rare plant conservation. Landscape Urban Plan. 51(1):11-28.

Berrebi, P., Povz, M., Jesensek, D., Cattaneo-Berrebi, G., and Crivelli, A.J. 2000. The genetic diversity of native, stocked and hybrid populations of marble trout in the Soca River, Slovenia. Heredity 85(3):277-287.

Berube, M.E., and Lavoie, C. 2000. The natural revegetation of a vacuum-mined peatland: eight years of monitoring. Can. Field-Natural. 114(2):279-286.

Bisby, F.A. 2000. The quiet revolution: biodiversity informatics and the internet. Science 289(5488):2309-2312.

Boon, W.M., Kearvell, J.C., Daugherty, C.H., and Chambers, G.K. 2000. Molecular systematics of New Zealand Cyanoramphus parakeets: conservation of Orange-fronted and Forbes' parakeets. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(3):211-239.

Bosland, P.W., and Gonzalez, M.M. 2000. The rediscovery of Capsicum lanceolatum (Solanaceae), and the importance of nature reserves in preserving cryptic biodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(10):1391-1397.

Bosse, S. 2000. Many plans, one bottom line: save endangered salmon. Science 289(5488):2281-2282.

Bridges, C.M., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2000. Variation in pesticide tolerance of tadpoles among and within species of Ranidae and patterns of amphibian decline. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1490-1499.

Broderick, A.C., Godley, B.J., Reece, S., and Downie, J.R. 2000. Incubation periods and sex ratios of green turtles: highly female biased hatchling production in the eastern Mediterranean. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 202:273-281.

Brown, A.H.D., and Young, A.G. 2000. Genetic diversity in tetraploid populations of the endangered daisy Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides and implications for its conservation. Heredity 85(2):122-129.

Brown, C.E., and Pezeshki, S.R. 2000. A study on waterlogging as a potential tool to control Ligustrum sinense populations in western Tennessee. Wetlands 20(3):429-437.

Brown, J., and Mitchell, N. 2000. Culture and nature in the protection of Andean landscapes. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(3):212-217.

Brown, K. 2000. Ecologists spar over population counts of threatened desert tortoise. Science 290(5489):36.

Buist, M., Yates, C.J., and Ladd, P.G. 2000. Ecological characteristics of Brachychiton populneus (Sterculiaceae) (kurrajong) in relation to the invasion of urban bushland in south-western Australia. Austral Ecol. 25(5):487-496.

Bunn, A.G., Urban, D.L., and Keitt, T.H. 2000. Landscape connectivity: a conservation application of graph theory. J. Environ. Manage. 59(4):265-278.

Caddy, J.F. 2000. A fisheries management perspective on marine protected areas in the Mediterranean. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):98-103.

Caldow, R.W.G., and Racey, P.A. 2000. Large-scale processes in ecology and hydrology. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:6-12.

Carr, M.H. 2000. Marine protected areas: challenges and opportunities for understanding and conserving coastal marine ecosystems. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):106-109.

Cassel-Gintz, M., and Petschel-Held, G. 2000. GIS-based assessment of the threat to world forests by patterns of non-sustainable civilisation nature interaction. J. Environ. Manage. 59(4):279-298.

Castilla, J.C. 2000. Roles of experimental marine ecology in coastal management and conservation. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 250(1-2):3-21.

Centner, T.J. 2000. Coordinating fence law with range management strategies in the USA. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):201-207.

Chadderton, W.L., and Allibone, R.M. 2000. Habitat use and longitudinal distribution patterns of native fish from a near pristine Stewart Island, New Zealand, stream. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 34(3):487-499.

Charton, J.A.G., Williams, I.D., Ruzafa, A.P., Milazzo, M., Chemello, R., Marcos, C., Kitsos, M.S., Koukouras, A., and Riggio, S. 2000. Evaluating the ecological effects of Mediterranean marine protected areas: habitat, scale and the natural variability of ecosystems. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):159-178.

Chernoff, B., Machado-Allison, A., Willink, P., Sarmiento, J., Barrera, S., Menezes, N., and Ortega, H. 2000. Fishes of three Bolivian rivers: diversity, distribution and conservation. Interciencia 25(6):273-283.

Chicchón, A. 2000. Conservation theory meets practice. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1368-1369.

Cliff, G., Compagno, L.J.V., Smale, M.J., van der Elst, R.P., and Wintner, S.P. 2000. First records of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, from Mauritius, Zanzibar, Madagascar and Kenya. S. Afr. J. Sci. 96(7):365-367.

Cogolludo-Agustin, M.A., Agundez, D., and Gil, L. 2000. Identification of native and hybrid elms in Spain using isozyme gene markers. Heredity 85(2):157-166.

Colchester, M. 2000. Self-determination or environmental determinism for indigenous peoples in tropical forest conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1365-1367.

Corbet, S.A. 2000. Conserving compartments in pollination webs. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1229-1231.

Cowley, M.J.R., Wilson, R.J., León-Cortés, J.L., Gutiérrez, D., Bulman, C.R., and Thomas, C.D. 2000. Habitat-based statistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of butterflies and day-flying moths in a fragmented landscape. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:60-72.

Cox, P.A., and Elmqvist, T. 2000. Pollinator extinction in the Pacific Islands. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1237-1239.

Cropp, S., and Boinski, S. 2000. The Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii): introduced hybrid or endemic species? Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 16(3):350-365.

D'Antonio, C.M., Tunison, J.T., and Loh, R.K. 2000. Variation in the impact of exotic grasses on native plant composition in relation to fire across an elevation gradient in Hawaii. Austral Ecol. 25(5):507-522.

Davis, A.J. 2000. Does reduced-impact logging help preserve biodiversity in tropical rainforests? A case study from Borneo using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as indicators. Environ. Entomol. 29(3):467-475.

Debinski, D.M., Jakubauskas, M.E., and Kindscher, K. 2000. Montane meadows as indicators of environmental change. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 64(1):213-225.

Dover, J., and Sparks, T. 2000. A review of the ecology of butterflies in British hedgerows. J. Environ. Manage. 60(1):51-63.

Downey, P.O., and Brown, J.M.B. 2000. Demography of the invasive shrub scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) at Barrington Tops, New South Wales: insights for management. Austral Ecol. 25(5):477-485.

Drayton, B., and Primack, R.B. 2000. Rates of success in the reintroduction by four methods of several perennial plant species in eastern Massachusetts. Rhodora 102(911):299-331.

Duarte, C.M. 2000. Marine biodiversity and ecosystem services: an elusive link. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 250(1-2):117-131.

Dudgeon, D. 2000. Large-scale hydrological changes in tropical Asia: prospects for riverine biodiversity. BioScience 50(9):793-806.

Edwards, J.L., Lane, M.A., and Nielsen, E.S. 2000. Interoperability of biodiversity databases: biodiversity information on every desktop. Science 289(5488):2312-2314.

Eisto, A.K., Kuitunen, M., Lammi, A., Saari, V., Suhonen, J., Syrjäsuo, S., and Tikka, P.M. 2000. Population persistence and offspring fitness in the rare bellflower Campanula cervicaria in relation to population size and habitat quality. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1413-1421.

Ellison, A.M. 2000. Mangrove restoration: do we know enough? Restoration Ecol. 8(3):219-229.

Ellison, A.M. 2000. Restoration of mangrove ecosystems. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):217-218.

Erwin, T.L., and Johnson, P.J. 2000. Naming species, a new paradigm for crisis management in taxonomy: rapid journal validation of scientific names enhanced with more complete descriptions on the internet. Coleopts. Bull. 54(3):269-278.

Estrada, A., Cammarano, P., and Coates-Estrada, R. 2000. Bird species richness in vegetation fences and in strips of residual rain forest vegetation at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(10):1399-1416.

Fenster, C.B., and Galloway, L.F. 2000. Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in natural populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata (Fabaceae). Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1406-1412.

Forney, K.A. 2000. Environmental models of cetacean abundance: reducing uncertainty in population trends. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1271-1286.

Fowler, S.V., Syrett, P., and Hill, R.L. 2000. Success and safety in the biological control of environmental weeds in New Zealand. Austral Ecol. 25(5):553-562.

Franc, V. 2000. Spiders (Araneae) on the Red Lists of European countries. Ekol. Bratislava 19:23-28.

Freilich, J.E., Burnham, K.P., Collins, C.M., and Garry, C.A. 2000. Factors affecting population assessments of desert tortoises. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1479-1489.

Furness, R.W., and Tasker, M.L. 2000. Seabird-fishery interactions: quantifying the sensitivity of seabirds to reductions in sandeel abundance, and identification of key areas for sensitive seabirds in the North Sea. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 202:253-264.

Gaston, K.J., Blackburn, T.M., Greenwood, J.J.D., Gregory, R.D., Quinn, R.M., and Lawton, J.H. 2000. Abundance-occupancy relationships. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:39-59.

Golden, D.M., and Crist, T.O. 2000. Experimental effects of habitat fragmentation on rove beetles and ants: patch area or edge? Oikos 90(3):525-538.

Goni, R., Polunin, N.V.C., and Planes, S. 2000. The Mediterranean: marine protected areas and the recovery of a large marine ecosystem. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):95-97.

Gotmark, F., Soderlundh, H., and Thorell, M. 2000. Buffer zones for forest reserves: opinions of land owners and conservation value of their forest around nature reserves in southern Sweden. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(10):1377-1390.

Graham, R.T., Quigley, T.M., and Gravenmier, R. 2000. An integrated ecosystem assessment of the Interior Columbia Basin. Environ. Monitoring Assess. 64(1):31-40.

Gray, J.S. 2000. The measurement of marine species diversity, with an application to the benthic fauna of the Norwegian continental shelf. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 250(1-2):23-49.

Griffin, A.S., Blumstein, D.T., and Evans, C. 2000. Training captive-bred or translocated animals to avoid predators. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1317-1326.

Haddad, N.M., Rosenberg, D.K., and Noon, B.R. 2000. On experimentation and the study of corridors: response to Beier and Noss. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1543-1545.

Haight, R.G., Ralls, K., and Starfield, A.M. 2000. Designing species translocation strategies when population growth and future funding are uncertain. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1298-1307.

Hamer, K.C., and Hill, J.K. 2000. Scale-dependent effects of habitat disturbance on species richness in tropical forests. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1435-1440.

Hanson, J.M., and Locke, A. 2000. The status of the dwarf wedgemussel, Alasmidonta heterodon, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 114(2):271-278.

Harmelin, J.G. 2000. Mediterranean marine protected areas: some prominent traits and promising trends. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):104-105.

Harmon, S.A., and Van den Bussche, R.A. 2000. Genetic attributes of a declining population of reintroduced eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Southwest. Nat. 45(3):258-266.

Harpet, C., Jeannoda, V., and Hladik, C.M. 2000. Sacred lemur sites in the Sakalava region of north-west Madagascar: updated data and implications for sustained development and conservation programs. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 55(3):291-295.

Hayes, J., and Masonis, R. 2000. Many plans, one bottom line: save endangered salmon. Science 289(5488):2282.

Heenan, P.B. 2000. Clianthus (Fabaceae) in New Zealand: a reappraisal of Colenso's taxonomy. New Zeal. J. Bot. 38(3):361-371.

Hesse, A.J., and Duffield, G.E. 2000. The status and conservation of the blue-throated macaw Ara glaucogularis. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(3):255-275.

Hodge, I., and McNally, S. 2000. Wetland restoration, collective action and the role of water management institutions. Ecol. Econ. 35(1):107-118.

Holl, K.D., and Howarth, R.B. 2000. Paying for restoration. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):260-267.

Horwitz, P., and Adams, M. 2000. The systematics, biogeography and conservation status of species in the freshwater crayfish genus Engaewa Riek (Decapoda: Parastacidae) from south-western Australia. Invertebr. Taxon. 14(5):655-680.

Howell, J., and Benson, D. 2000. Predicting potential impacts of environmental flows on weedy riparian vegetation of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, south-eastern Australia. Austral Ecol. 25(5):463-475.

Imbert, D., Rousteau, A., and Scherrer, P. 2000. Ecology of mangrove growth and recovery in the Lesser Antilles: state of knowledge and basis for restoration projects. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):230-236.

Intachat, J., and Holloway, J.D. 2000. Is there stratification in diversity or preferred flight height of geometroid moths in Malaysian lowland tropical forest? Biodivers. Conserv. 9(10):1417-1439.

Ittekkot, V., Humborg, C., and Schafer, P. 2000. Hydrological alterations and marine biogeochemistry: a silicate issue? BioScience 50(9):776-782.

Ives, A.R., Klug, J.L., and Gross, K. 2000. Stability and species richness in complex communities. Ecol. Lett. 3(5):399-411.

Johnson, K.H. 2000. Trophic-dynamic considerations in relating species diversity to ecosystem resilience. Biol. Rev. 75(3):347-376.

Junker, E.A., Ratschker, U.M., and Roth, M. 2000. Impacts of silvicultural practice on the ground living-spider community (Arachnida: Araneae) of mixed mountain forests in the Chiemgau Alps (Germany). Ekol. Bratislava 19:107-117.

Kaiser, J. 2000. Fossil databases move to the web. Science 289(5488):2307.

Kaiser, J. 2000. Group urges southwest migration corridors. Science 289(5488):2259.

Kaiser, M.J., Spence, F.E., and Hart, P.J.B. 2000. Fishing-gear restrictions and conservation of benthic habitat complexity. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1512-1525.

Kalinowski, S.T., Hedrick, P.W., and Miller, P.S. 2000. Inbreeding depression in the Speke's gazelle captive breeding program. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1375-1384.

Kangas, A., and Kurki, S. 2000. Predicting the future of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in Finland. Ecol. Model. 134(1):73-87.

Kareiva, P., Levin, P.S., and McClure, M.M. 2000. Many plans, one bottom line: save endangered salmon. Science 289(5488):2281.

Kettle, W.D., Rich, P.M., Kindscher, K., Pittman, G.L., and Fu, P. 2000. Land-use history in ecosystem restoration: a 40-year study in the prairie-forest ecotone. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):307-317.

King, S.A., and Buckney, R.T.G. 2000. Urbanization and exotic plants in northern Sydney streams. Austral Ecol. 25(5):455-461.

Komposch, C. 2000. Harvestmen and spiders in the Austrian wetland "Horfeld-Moor" (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae). Ekol. Bratislava 19:65-77.

Kremen, C., and Ricketts, T. 2000. Global perspectives on pollination disruptions. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1226-1228.

Lemauviel, S., and Roze, F. 2000. Ecological study of pine forest clearings along the French Atlantic sand dunes: perspectives of restoration. Acta. Oecol. 21(3):179-192.

Lesica, P., and Atthowe, H.E. 2000. Should we use pesticides to conserve rare plants? Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1549-1550.

Linden, H., Danilov, P.I., Gromtsev, A.N., Helle, P., Ivanter, E.V., and Kurhinen, J. 2000. Large-scale forest corridors to connect the Taiga fauna to Fennoscandia. Wildlife Biol. 6(3):179-188.

Lizaso, J.L.S., Goni, R., Renones, O., Charton, G., Galzin, R., Bayle, J.T., Jerez, P.S., Ruzafa, A.P., and Ramos, A.A. 2000. Density dependence in marine protected populations: a review. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):144-158.

Lloyd, H. 2000. Population densities of the black-faced cotinga Conioptilon mcilhennyi in south-east Peru. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(3):277-285.

Louda, S.M., and Bevill, R.L. 2000. Exclusion of natural enemies as a tool in managing rare plant species. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1551-1552.

Loumou, A., Giourga, C., Dimitrakopoulos, P., and Koukoulas, S. 2000. Tourism contribution to agro-ecosystems conservation: the case of Lesbos Island, Greece. Environ. Manage. 26(4):363-370.

Luken, J.O., and Bezold, T.N. 2000. Plant communities associated with different shoreline elements at Cave Run Lake, Kentucky. Wetlands 20(3):479-486.

Maina, G.G., and Howe, H.F. 2000. Inherent rarity in community restoration. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1335-1340.

Mankin, K.R. 2000. An integrated approach for modelling and managing golf course water quality and ecosystem diversity. Ecol. Model. 133(3):259-267.

Mann, C.C., and Plummer, M.L. 2000. Many plans, one bottom line: save endangered salmon - response. Science 289(5488):2282-2283.

Marco, D.E., and Paez, S.A. 2000. Invasion of Gleditsia triacanthos in Lithraea ternifolia montane forests of central Argentina. Environ. Manage. 26(4):409-419.

Martin, J.L., Thibault, J.C., and Bretagnolle, V. 2000. Black rats, island characteristics, and colonial nesting birds in the Mediterranean: consequences of an ancient introduction. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1452-1466.

Matsumura, C., and Washitani, I. 2000. Effects of population size and pollinator limitation on seed-set of Primula sieboldii populations in a fragmented landscape. Ecol. Res. 15(3):307-322.

Maudsley, M.J. 2000. A review of the ecology and conservation of hedgerow invertebrates in Britain. J. Environ. Manage. 60(1):65-76.

Maunder, M., Culham, A., Alden, B., Zizka, G., Orliac, C., Lobin, W., Bordeu, A., Ramirez, J.M., and Glissmann-Gough, S. 2000. Conservation of the Toromiro tree: case study in the management of a plant extinct in the wild. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1341-1350.

McCollin, D. 2000. Editorial: hedgerow policy and protection - changing paradigms and the conservation ethic. J. Environ. Manage. 60(1):3-6.

McCollin, D., Jackson, J.I., Bunce, R.G.H., Barr, C.J., and Stuart, R. 2000. Hedgerows as habitat for woodland plants. J. Environ. Manage. 60(1):77-90.

McKee, K.L., and Faulkner, P.L. 2000. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):247-259.

Mead, C. 2000. Ducks and drakes. Nature 407(6803):461.

Mehrhoff, L.J. 2000. Immigration and expansion of the New England flora. Rhodora 102(911):280-298.

Mello Filho, L.E.d., Carauta, J.P.P., Diaz, B.E., and Araujo, B.E. 2000. The seedling cultivation of native species of the Ficus genus (Moraceae) in a conservation area in Rio de Janeiro. Albertoa 1:1-6.

Miao, Z., and Marrs, R. 2000. Ecological restoration and land reclamation in open-cast mines in Shanxi Province, China. J. Environ. Manage. 59(3):205-215.

Monterrubio, T., Demastes, J.W., Leon-Paniagua, L., and Hafner, M.S. 2000. Systematic relationships of the endangered Queretaro pocket gopher (Cratogeomys neglectus). Southwest. Nat. 45(3):249-252.

Moore, P.D. 2000. Seeds of doubt. Nature 407(6805):683-685.

Morgan, M., Knisley, C.B., and Vogler, A.P. 2000. New taxonomic status of the endangered tiger beetle Cicindela limbata albissima (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae): evidence from mtDNA. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 93(5):1108-1115.

Mougin, J.L., Jouanin, C., and Roux, F. 2000. Demography of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea on Selvagem Grande (30 degrees 09 ' N, 15 degrees 52 ' W). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 55(3):275-290.

Munoz, M.D., and Thorbjarnarson, J. 2000. Movement of captive-released Orinoco crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius) in the Capanaparo River, Venezuela. J. Herpetol. 34(3):397-403.

Nijman, V. 2000. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae). Contrib. Zool. 69(3):157-177.

Nijman, V., van Balen, S., and Sozer, R. 2000. Breeding biology of Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi in West Java, Indonesia. Emu 100:125-132.

Nilsson, C., and Berggren, K. 2000. Alterations of riparian ecosystems caused by river regulation. BioScience 50(9):783-792.

Norten, D.A. 2000. Conservation biology and private land: shifting the focus. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1221-1223.

Noss, R.F., and Beier, P. 2000. Arguing over little things: response to Haddad, et al. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1546-1548.

Oates, J.F., Abedi-Lartey, M., McGraw, W.S., Struhsaker, T.T., and Whitesides, G.H. 2000. Extinction of a west African red colobus monkey. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1526-1532.

Ogle, C.C., Cock, G.D.L., Arnold, G., and Mickleson, N. 2000. Impact of an exotic vine Clematis vitalba (F. Ranunculaceae) and of control measures on plant biodiversity in indigenous forest, Taihape, New Zealand. Austral Ecol. 25(5):539-551.

Ormerod, S.J., and Watkinson, A.R. 2000. Large-scale ecology and hydrology: an introductory perspective from the editors of the Journal of Applied Ecology. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:1-5.

Padgett, P.E., Kee, S.N., and Allen, E.A. 2000. The effects of irrigation on revegetation of semi-arid coastal sage scrub in southern California. Environ. Manage. 26(4):427-435.

Pailler, T., Picot, F., Lavergne, C., and Strasberg, D. 2000. Status and reproduction of Lomatophyllum macrum (Haw.) Salm-Dyck (Liliacees), a threatened endemic species of La Reunion Island. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 55(3):201-214.

Pappert, R.A., Hamrick, J.L., and Donovan, L.A. 2000. Genetic variation in Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae), an introduced, clonal, invasive plant of the southeastern United States. Am. J. Bot. 87(9):1240-1245.

Paradis, E., Baillie, S.R., Sutherland, W.J., Dudley, C., Crick, H.Q.P., and Gregory, R.D. 2000. Large-scale spatial variation in the breeding performance of song thrushes Turdus philomelos and blackbirds T. merula in Britain. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:73-87.

Park, C.R., and Lee, W.S. 2000. Relationship between species composition and area in breeding birds of urban woods in Seoul, Korea. Landscape Urban Plan. 51(1):29-36.

Paton, D.C. 2000. Disruption of bird-plant pollination systems in southern Australia. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1232-1234.

Pearce, J., and Ferrier, S. 2000. Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecol. Model. 133(3):225-245.

Pennisi, E. 2000. Taxonomic revival. Science 289(5488):2306-2308.

Pestano, J., Brown, R.P., Rodriguez, F., and Moreno, A. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in the endangered blue chaffinch, Fringilla teydea. Mol. Ecol. 9(9):1421-1425.

Pettifor, R.A., Caldow, R.W.G., Rowcliffe, J.M., Goss-Custard, J.D., Black, J.M., Hodder, K.H., Houston, A.I., Lang, A., and Webb, J. 2000. Spatially explicit, individual-based, behavioural models of the annual cycle of two migratory goose populations. J. Appl. Ecol. 37:103-135.

Pinnegar, J.K., Polunin, N.V.C., Francour, P., Badalamenti, F., Chemello, R., Harmelin-Vivien, M.L., Hereu, B., Milazzo, M., Zabala, M., D'Anna, G., and Pipitone, C. 2000. Trophic cascades in benthic marine ecosystems: lessons for fisheries and protected-area management. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):179-200.

Planes, S., Galzin, R., Rubies, A.G., Goni, R., Harmelin, J.G., Le Direach, L., Lenfant, P., and Quetglas, A. 2000. Effects of marine protected areas on recruitment processes with special reference to Mediterranean littoral ecosystems. Environ. Conserv. 27(2):126-143.

Polak, M. 2000. The botanical diversity in the Ayawasi area, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(10):1345-1375.

Prieur-Richard, A.H., Lavorel, S., Grigulis, K., and Dos Santos, A. 2000. Plant community diversity and invasibility by exotics: invasion of Mediterranean old fields by Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis. Ecol. Lett. 3(5):412-422.

Primack, R., Kobori, H., and Mori, S. 2000. Dragonfly pond restoration promotes conservation awareness in Japan. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1553-1554.

Primavera, J.H. 2000. Development and conservation of Philippine mangroves: institutional issues. Ecol. Econ. 35(1):91-106.

Pringle, C.M., Freeman, M.C., and Freeman, B.J. 2000. Regional effects of hydrologic alterations on riverine macrobiota in the New World: tropical-temperate comparisons. BioScience 50(9):807-823.

Raghu, S., Clarke, A.R., Drew, R.A.I., and Hulsman, K. 2000. Impact of habitat modification on the distribution and abundance of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southeast Queensland. Pop. Ecol. 42(2):153-160.

Ralls, K., and Taylor, B.L. 2000. Better policy and management decisions through explicit analysis of uncertainty: new approaches from marine conservation - introduction. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1240-1242.

Ratschker, U.M., and Roth, M. 2000. Studies on ground dwelling spiders (Araneae) of agrarian habitat types in northeast Germany: ecological and nature conservation aspects. Ekol. Bratislava 19:213-225.

Raven, P.H. 2000. Opening remarks - plant conservation globally and locally. Rhodora 102(911):243-245.

Reaser, J.K., Pomerance, R., and Thomas, P.O. 2000. Coral bleaching and global climate change: scientitic findings and policy recommendations. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1500-1511.

Recatalá, L., Ive, J.R., Baird, I.A., Hamilton, N., and Sánchez, J. 2000. Land-use planning in the Valencian Mediterranean Region: using LUPIS to generate issue relevant plans. J. Environ. Manage. 59(3):169-184.

Redford, K.H., and Sanderson, S.E. 2000. Extracting humans from nature. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1362-1364.

Rejmánek, M. 2000. Invasive plants: approaches and predictions. Austral Ecol. 25(5):497-506.

Reyers, B., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2000. Assessment techniques for biodiversity surrogates. S. Afr. J. Sci. 96(7):406-408.

Richter, B.D., and Richter, H.E. 2000. Prescribing flood regimes to sustain riparian ecosystems along meandering rivers. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1467-1478.

Robbins, C.S. 2000. Comparative analysis of management regimes and medicinal plant trade monitoring mechanisms for American ginseng and goldenseal. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1422-1434.

Rosenberg, D.M., Mccully, P., and Pringle, C.M. 2000. Global-scale environmental effects of hydrological alterations: introduction. BioScience 50(9):746-751.

Roubik, D.W. 2000. Pollination system stability in tropical America. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1235-1236.

Ruane, J. 2000. A framework for prioritizing domestic animal breeds for conservation purposes at the national level: a Norwegian case study. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1385-1393.

Ruiz, M.E.R. 2000. A cactus database for the state of Baja California, Mexico. Haseltonia 7:97-99.

Rundel, P.W., and Palma, B. 2000. Preserving the unique puna ecosystems of the Andean Altiplano: a descriptive account of Lauca National Park, Chile. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(3):262-271.

Sartorius, S.S., and Rosen, P.C. 2000. Breeding phenology of the lowland leopard frog (Rana yavapaiensis): implications for conservation and ecology. Southwest. Nat. 45(3):267-273.

Sax, D.F., and Brown, J.H. 2000. The paradox of invasion. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 9(5):363-371.

Schwartzman, S., Moreira, A., and Nepstad, D. 2000. Rethinking tropical forest conservation: perils in parks. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1351-1357.

Schwartzman, S., Nepstad, D., and Moreira, A. 2000. Arguing tropical forest conservation: people versus parks. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1370-1374.

Shutler, D., Mullie, A., and Clark, R.G. 2000. Bird communities of prairie uplands and wetlands in relation to farming practices in Saskatchewan. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1441-1451.

Sikes, D.S., and Peck, S.B. 2000. Description of Nicrophorus hispaniola, new species, from Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and a key to the species of Nicrophorus of the New World. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 93(3):391-397.

Silori, C.S., and Badola, R. 2000. Medicinal plant cultivation and sustainable development - a case study in the buffer zone of the Nanda Devi Bioshere Reserve, Western Himalaya, India. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(3):272-279.

Sinclair, A.R.E., Ludwig, D., and Clark, C.W. 2000. Conservation in the real world. Science 289(5486):1875.

Sloane, M.A., Sunnucks, P., Alpers, D., Beheregaray, L.B., and Taylor, A.C. 2000. Highly reliable genetic identification of individual northern hairy-nosed wombats from single remotely collected hairs: a feasible censusing method. Mol. Ecol. 9(9):1233-1240.

Slooten, E., Fletcher, D., and Taylor, B.L. 2000. Accounting for uncertainty in risk assessment: case study of Hector's dolphin mortality due to gillnet entanglement. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1264-1270.

Soberon, J.M., Llorente, J.B., and Onate, L. 2000. The use of specimen-label databases for conservation purposes: an example using Mexican Papilionid and Pierid butterflies. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(10):1441-1466.

St Louis, V.L., Kelly, C.A., Duchemin, E., Rudd, J.W.M., and Rosenberg, D.M. 2000. Reservoir surfaces as sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere: a global estimate. BioScience 50(9):766-775.

Staton, S.K., Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., and West, E.L. 2000. Status of the northern riffleshell, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Ontario and Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 114(2):224-235.

Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2000. Butterfly community structure in fragmented habitats. Ecol. Lett. 3(5):449-456.

Stepp, J.R. 2000. Mountain ethnobiology and development in Highland Chiapas, Mexico: lessons in biodiversity and health. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(3):218-219.

Stevenson, M.I. 2000. Problems with natural capital: a response to Clewell. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):211-213.

Stoner, A.W., and Ray-Culp, M. 2000. Evidence for Allee effects in an over-harvested marine gastropod: density-dependent mating and egg production. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 202:297-302.

Sugden, A., and Pennisi, E. 2000. Diversity digitized. Science 289(5488):2305.

Szalanski, A.L., Sikes, D.S., Bischof, R., and Fritz, M. 2000. Population genetics and phylogenetics of the endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 93(3):589-594.

Tapia, M.E. 2000. Mountain agrobiodiversity in Peru: seed fairs, seed banks, and mountain-to-mountain exchange. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(3):220-225.

Tatin, L., Dutoit, T., and Feh, C. 2000. Impact of pasture grazing by Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii) on orthoptera populations on the Causse Mejean (Lozere, France). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 55(3):241-261.

Taylor, B.L., Chivers, S.J., Sexton, S., and Dizon, A.E. 2000. Evaluating dispersal estimates using mtDNA data: comparing analytical and simulation approaches. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1287-1297.

Taylor, B.L., Wade, P.R., De Master, D.P., and Barlow, J. 2000. Incorporating uncertainty into management models for marine mammals. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1243-1252.

Taylor, P.J. 2000. Assessing biodiversity and ecological stability. Science 290(5489):51.

Terborgh, J. 2000. The fate of tropical forests: a matter of stewardship. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1358-1361.

Thompson, P.M., Wilson, B., Grellier, K., and Hammond, P.S. 2000. Combining power analysis and population viability analysis to compare traditional and precautionary approaches to conservation of coastal cetaceans. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1253-1263.

Timmins, S.M., and Reid, V. 2000. Climbing asparagus, Asparagus scandens Thunb.: a South African in your forest patch. Austral Ecol. 25(5):533-538.

Turner, R.K., van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., Soderqvist, T., Barendregt, A., van der Straaten, J., Maltby, E., and van Ierland, E.C. 2000. Ecological-economic analysis of wetlands: scientific integration for management and policy. Ecol. Econ. 35(1):7-23.

van Helsdingen, P., and Gajdos, P. 2000. Proceedings of the 18th European Colloquium of Arachnology - workshop - "Biodiversity and Conservation of Arachnids of Wetland Habitats" - Stara Lesna, 14-15 July 1999 - preface. Ekol. Bratislava 19:1-3.

van Helsdingen, P.J. 2000. Spider (Araneae) protection measures and the required level of knowledge. Ekol. Bratislava 19:43-50.

Vorosmarty, C.J., and Sahagian, D. 2000. Anthropogenic disturbance of the terrestrial water cycle. BioScience 50(9):753-765.

Vranjic, J.A., Woods, M.J., and Barnard, J. 2000. Soil-mediated effects on germination and seedling growth of coastal wattle (Acacia sophorae) by the environmental weed, bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp rotundata). Austral Ecol. 25(5):445-453.

Vulinec, K. 2000. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), monkeys, and conservation in Amazonia. Fl. Entomol. 83(3):229-241.

Wade, P.R. 2000. Bayesian methods in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1308-1316.

Walsh, C.J. 2000. Urban impacts on the ecology of receiving waters: a framework for assessment, conservation and restoration. Hydrobiologia 431(2-3):107-114.

Walsh, P.D. 2000. Sample size for the diagnosis of conservation units. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1533-1537.

Walters, B.B. 2000. Local mangrove planting in the Philippines: are fisherfolk and fishpond owners effective restorationists? Restoration Ecol. 8(3):237-246.

Warren, J.M. 2000. The role of white clover in the loss of diversity in grassland habitat restoration. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):318-323.

Webb, E.L., and Khurshid, M. 2000. Divergent destinies among pine forests in northern Pakistan: linking ecosystem characteristics with community self-governance and local institutions. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 7(3):189-200.

Webb, S.L., Dwyer, M., Kaunzinger, C.K., and Wyckoff, P.H. 2000. The myth of the resilient forest: case study of the invasive Norway maple (Acer platanoides). Rhodora 102(911):332-354.

Weller, M.W., and Weller, D.L. 2000. Influence of water dynamics and land use on the avifauna of basin wetlands near Riviera in south Texas. Tex. J. Sci. 52(3):235-254.

West, E.L., and Metcalfe-Smith, J.L. 2000. Status of the rayed bean, Villosa fabalis (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Ontario and Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 114(2):248-258.

Williams, J.A., and West, C.J. 2000. The ecology and management of environmental weeds: foreword. Austral Ecol. 25(5):423.

Williams, J.A., and West, C.J. 2000. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to management. Austral Ecol. 25(5):425-444.

Williams, P.A., Karl, B.J., Bannister, P., and Lee, W.G. 2000. Small mammals as potential seed dispersers in New Zealand. Austral Ecol. 25(5):523-532.

Williamson, G.B., Laurance, W.F., Oliveira, A.A., Delamonica, P., Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T.E., and Pohl, L. 2000. Amazonian tree mortality during the 1997 El Niño drought. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1538-1542.

Wilson, E.O. 2000. A global biodiversity map. Science 289(5488):2279.

Young, K.R., and Leon, B. 2000. Biodiversity conservation in Peru's eastern montane forests. Mtn. Res. Dev. 20(3):208-211.

Zacharias, M.A., and Roff, J.C. 2000. A hierarchical ecological approach to conserving marine biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1327-1334.

Zancola, B.J., Wild, C., and Hero, J.M. 2000. Inhibition of Ageratina riparia (Asteraceae) by native Australian flora and fauna. Austral Ecol. 25(5):563-569.

Zink, R.M., Barrowclough, G.F., Atwood, J.L., and Blackwell-Rago, R.C. 2000. Genetics, taxonomy, and conservation of the threatened California gnatcatcher. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1394-1405.

Zumeta, D.C., and Ellefson, P.V. 2000. Conserving the biological diversity of forests: program and organizational experiences of state governments in the United States. Environ. Manage. 26(4):393-402.


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