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Department ofBotany

No. 193
January 2001

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In This Issue

Conservation of Brazilian Medicinal Plants

By R. DeFilipps

Medicinal Plants of Brazil1 is a synthesis of information on the medicinal and pharmacological utilization of approximately 1,500 species and varieties of plants in 148 families ranging from lichens, ferns and fern allies to gymnosperms and flowering plants. They represent the diverse botanical heritage of an immense nation where, for economic reasons, many of the people cannot fully afford the benefits of healing systems based on Western medicine and expensive pharmaceuticals. Locally available medicinal plants are the answer to immediate health problems in many cases.

A cooperative effort by three Brazilians, Walter Mors (a natural products chemist), Carlos Rizzini (a plant taxonomist) and Nuno Pereira (a pharmacologist), this book distills their decades of experience and research, evidence of which is especially manifested by the inclusion of abundant references to the active chemical constituents and pharmacology of the plants. This "hard core" data is particularly welcomed in books of this nature, and in many instances is derived from literature sources not generally accessible outside of Brazil. Evidence of the many uses of plant-derived medicines may be ascertained by the huge swatches of species listed in the comprehensive Medicinal Index, which was computer-generated as a useful cross-reference for various related illnesses.

Smithsonian Botany staff who participated in the preparation of the book include volume editor R. DeFilipps who also contributed the Foreword; Chairman W.J. Kress who supplied the dust jacket photo of Heliconia angusta; and staff authorities on various plant groups who checked the taxonomy and nomenclature of plants in their areas of specialization: P. Acevedo (Sapindaceae), L. Dorr (Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae), C. Feuillet (Aristolochiaceae), W.J. Kress (Costaceae, Heliconiaceae), D. Lellinger (Ferns, Fern Allies), D. Nicolson (Araceae), J. Pruski (Asteraceae), H. Robinson (Asteraceae), L. Skog (Gesneriaceae) and D. Wasshausen (Acanthaceae).

Two illustrators from the Smithsonian Behind-the-Scenes Volunteer Program made significant contributions. For the Foreword, Anna DiCarlo provided drawings of Amerindians of the Bororo, Botocudos, Coeruna, Juri, Jurupixuna, Karaja, Maua, Mauhe, Mayoruna, Mongoyo and Mura tribes. Of the 88 botanical plates, 19 are originals by volunteer Rufus Toomey, and are interspersed among those from other sources including Cecilia Rizzini.

Several aspects of medicinal plants which impinge upon the subject of biological conservation sensu lato are covered in the Foreword: the early (since year 1501) intensive exploitation of the brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata) forests for red dyewood; the spread of insect vectors of the dreaded skin disease "leishmaniasis" from forests to urban areas due to deforestation of their habitats; a bibliography pertaining to the impact of human activities on the natural environment so as to cause the spread of infectious diseases; and, the knowledge of medicinal plants possessed by Amerindian tribes.

This volume, which is part of a series on Medicinal Plants of the World that now includes treatments for West Africa, West Indies, North Africa, China and India, will be of value to ethnobotanists and ethnopharmacologists; to persons searching for botanical information and likely candidate species prior to gene prospecting; to pharmacologists desiring data on known or potential medicinal species for further investigation; and, to students and teachers interested in the breadth and utilization of plant diversity.

1 Mors, W.B., Rizzini, C.T. and N.A. Pereira. 2000. Medicinal Plants of Brazil. 501 pp. Algonac, Michigan: Reference Publications, Inc.

Weeds Gone Wild

Legions of alien invaders are silently creeping into the United States and quickly taking over by engulfing our native plants and animals at an alarming rate. Does this plot sound like an episode of the X-Files or Star Trek? Surprisingly enough, the story is not science fiction. Exotic weeds are taking over public lands at the rate of 4,300 acres a day! With facts like those, it's not surprising that invasive alien species are one of the greatest threats to the biological diversity and natural ecosystems of the United States, second only to direct habitat destruction. A war is being waged against invasive alien plant and animal species across the U.S.

Four hundred alien plant species have been identified as a threat to our native flora and fauna as a result of their aggressive, invasive characteristics. Invasive plants reproduce rapidly and their phenomenal growth allows them to overwhelm and displace existing native plants by reducing the availability of light, water, nutrients and space available. These plant intruders can also alter the hydrology, soil chemistry, composition and erodibility, and fire regime of an area.

Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas <> is a website dedicated to educating the general public, natural resource managers, and other people through general overview information and a growing number of non-technical fact sheets on individual invasive species. Fact sheets include photos, plant descriptions, habitat and background information, methods of reproduction and spread, ecological threats posed by the species, current management practices, alternative native species, and references. The site also offers a compiled list of exotic invasive plants for the entire U.S. and a section on exotic invasives in the news.

Future Meetings

Seeds for the Future, a national native wildflower and grass seed production conference will be held in Orlando, Florida on April 19-20, 2001. The demand for regionally adapted native wildflower and native grass seed exceeds the supply, a gap that will widen given the growing interest in restoration of natural habitat, use of native plants, conservation, ecotourism, and recent policy directives at the federal, state and local levels. This conference will highlight the status and needs of the native seed industry as well as those of consumers in the private and public sectors. Issues to be addressed will be of interest to: those involved or interested in producing native seed, farmers seeking alternative crops; agencies at all levels affected by native plant policies; those involved with restoration or mitigation; and commercial and residential developers seeking natural aesthetic solutions. Topics will include: technical information; seed certification and standards; market research; western, midwest, southern, and eastern producers' how-tos shared, and more. This practical conference will also serve to network potential producers/consumers in this emerging market. For registration information, please call Nancy at (850) 922-7206.

New Publications

Common Names of Mammals of the World, by Don E. Wilson and F. Russell Cole, provides a complete, authoritative list of standardized and unique vernacular English names for all 4,629 of the currently recognized mammal species of the world. It establishes common names for hundreds of mammals that have previously been known only by their Latin binomials. Covering both well-known mammals and many small- to medium-sized species that live in areas where few studies have been conducted, the authors draw extensively on existing literature and on their own expertise to formulate English names that describe a distinctive aspect of each animal's appearance, ecological habits, or geographical distribution. Presented in phylogenetic order, this book's list includes order and family names as well as those of genera and species. Published by Smithsonian Institution Press, Tel: 1-800-782-4612. Available in paperback: ISBN 1-56098-383-3; $19.95. 224 pp.

Current Literature

Abildsnes, J., and Tømmerås, B.Å. 2000. Impacts of experimental habitat fragmentation on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in a boreal spruce forest. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 37(3):201-212.

Alexander, R.R. 2000. Modelling species extinction: the case for non-consumptive values. Ecol. Econ. 35(2):259-269.

Aquilani, S.M., Leblanc, D.C., and Morrell, T.E. 2000. Effects of prescribed surface fires on ground- and shrub-nesting neotropical migratory birds in a mature Indiana oak forest, USA. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):317-324.

Araújo, M.B., and Williams, P.H. 2000. Selecting areas for species persistence using occurrence data. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):331-345.

Ayres, M.P., and Lombardero, M.J. 2000. Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. Sci. Total Environ. 262(3):263-286.

Bader, M. 2000. Distribution of grizzly bears in the US Northern Rockies. Northwest Sci. 74(4):325-334.

Baker, G.C., and Butchart, S.H.M. 2000. Threats to the maleo Macrocephalon maleo and recommendations for its conservation. Oryx 34(4):255-261.

Barton, C., Nelson, E.A., Kolka, R.K., McLeod, K.W., Conner, W.H., Lakly, M., Martin, D., Wigginton, J., Trettin, C.C., and Wisniewski, J. 2000. Restoration of a severely impacted riparian wetland system - the Pen Branch Project. Ecol. Eng. 15:S3-S15.

Basset, Y., Novotny, V., Miller, S.E., and Pyle, R. 2000. Quantifying biodiversity: experience with parataxonomists and digital photography in Papua New Guinea and Guyana. BioScience 50(10):899-908.

Bates, J.M. 2000. Allozymic genetic structure and natural habitat fragmentation: data for five species of Amazonian forest birds. The Condor 102(4):770-783.

Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Folke, C. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol. Appl. 10(5):1251-1262.

Bissonette, J.A., Loftin, C.S., Leslie, D.M., Nordstrom, L.A., and Fleming, W.J. 2000. The Cooperative Research Unit Program and wildlife education: historic development, future challenges. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):534-541.

Biswas, S.P., and Boruah, S. 2000. Fisheries ecology of the northeastern Himalayas with special reference to the Brahmaputra River. Ecol. Eng. 16(1):39-50.

Bleich, V.C., and Oehler, M.W. 2000. Wildlife education in the United States: thoughts from agency biologists. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):542-545.

Bodini, A. 2000. Reconstructing trophic interactions as a tool for understanding and managing ecosystems: application to a shallow eutrophic lake. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57(10):1999-2009.

Bowers, C.F., Hanlin, H.G., Guynn, D.C., McLendon, J.P., and Davis, J.R. 2000. Herpetofaunal and vegetational characterization of a thermally-impacted stream at the beginning of restoration. Ecol. Eng. 15:S101-S114.

Bradbury, R.B., Kyrkos, A., Morris, A.J., Clark, S.C., Perkins, A.J., and Wilson, J.D. 2000. Habitat associations and breeding success of yellowhammers on lowland farmland. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):789-805.

Bradshaw, A. 2000. The use of natural processes in reclamation - advantages and difficulties. Landscape Urban Plan. 51(2-4):89-100.

Britton, A.J., Carey, P.D., Pakeman, R.J., and Marrs, R.H. 2000. A comparison of regeneration dynamics following gap creation at two geographically contrasting heathland sites. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):832-844.

Brown, R.D., and Nielsen, L.A. 2000. Leading wildlife academic programs into the new millennium. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):495-502.

Bryden, C.A., and Heath, D.D. 2000. Heritability of fluctuating asymmetry for multiple traits in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57(11):2186-2192.

Buffington, J.M., Kilgo, J.C., Sargent, R.A., Miller, K.V., and Chapman, B.R. 2000. Effects of restoration techniques on breeding birds in a thermally-impacted bottomland hardwood forest. Ecol. Eng. 15:S115-S120.

Burger, A.E., Bahn, V., and Tillmanns, A.R.M. 2000. Comparison of coastal fringe and interior forests as reserves for marbled murrelets on Vancouver Island. The Condor 102(4):915-920.

Burger, J. 2000. Integrating environmental restoration and ecological restoration: long-term stewardship at the Department of Energy. Environ. Manage. 26(5):469-478.

Cardinale, B.J., Nelson, K., and Palmer, M.A. 2000. Linking species diversity to the functioning of ecosystems: on the importance of environmental context. Oikos 91(1):175-183.

Cardoso, S.R.S., Eloy, N.B., Provan, J., Cardoso, M.A., and Ferreira, P.C.G. 2000. Genetic differentiation of Euterpe edulis Mart. populations estimated by AFLP analysis. Mol. Ecol. 9(11):1753-1760.

Carpaneto, G.M., and Fusari, A. 2000. Subsistence hunting and bushmeat exploitation in central-western Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(11):1571-1585.

Chamberlain, D.E., Fuller, R.J., Bunce, R.G.H., Duckworth, J.C., and Shrubb, M. 2000. Changes in the abundance of farmland birds in relation to the timing of agricultural intensification in England and Wales. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):771-788.

Chambers, J.C. 2000. Seed movements and seedling fates in disturbed sagebrush steppe ecosystems: implications for restoration. Ecol. Appl. 10(5):1400-1413.

Chittibabu, C.V., and Parthasarathy, N. 2000. Attenuated tree species diversity in human-impacted tropical evergreen forest sites at Kolli hills, Eastern Ghats, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(11):1493-1519.

Clausen, J.C., Guillard, K., Sigmund, C.M., and Dors, K.M. 2000. Ecosystem restoration - water quality changes from riparian buffer restoration in Connecticut. J. Environ. Qual. 29(6):1751-1761.

Coad, B.W. 2000. Criteria for assessing the conservation status of taxa (as applied to Iranian freshwater fishes). Biologia 55(5):537-555.

Conner, W.H., Inabinette, L.W., and Brantley, E.F. 2000. The use of tree shelters in restoring forest species to a floodplain delta: 5-year results. Ecol. Eng. 15:S47-S56.

Courchamp, F., Clutton-Brock, T., and Grenfell, B. 2000. Multipack dynamics and the Allee effect in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus. Anim. Conserv. 3:277-285.

Cox, R.R., Johnson, D.H., Johnson, M.A., Kirby, R.E., Nelson, J.W., and Reynolds, R.E. 2000. Waterfowl research priorities in the northern Great Plains. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):558-564.

Crivelli, A., Poizat, G., Berrebi, P., Jesensek, D., and Rubin, J.F. 2000. Conservation biology applied to fish: the example of a project for rehabilitating the marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) in Slovenia. Cybium 24(3):211-230.

Cyranoski, D. 2000. Row over fate of endangered monkeys. Nature 408(6810):280.

Davison, A., Griffiths, H.I., Brookes, R.C., Maran, T., Macdonald, D.W., Sidorovich, V.E., Kitchener, A.C., Irizar, I., Villate, I., Gonzalez-Esteban, J., Cena, J.C., Cena, A., Moya, I., and Minano, S.P. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA and palaeontological evidence for the origins of endangered European mink, Mustela lutreola. Anim. Conserv. 3:345-355.

Decocq, G. 2000. The "masking effect" of silviculture on substrate-induced plant diversity in oak-hornbeam forests from northern France. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(11):1467-1491.

Duchesne, M., Côté, S.D., and Barrette, C. 2000. Responses of woodland caribou to winter ecotourism in the Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):311-317.

Dulohery, C.J., Kolka, R.K., and McKevlin, M.R. 2000. Effects of a willow overstory on planted seedlings in a bottomland restoration. Ecol. Eng. 15:S57-S66.

Duncan, B.W., Larson, V.L., and Schmalzer, P.A. 2000. Modeling historic landcover: an evaluation of two methodologies for producing baseline reference data. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):308-316.

Duncan, R.P., and Young, J.R. 2000. Determinants of plant extinction and rarity 145 years after European settlement of Auckland, New Zealand. Ecology 81(11):3048-3061.

Earn, D.J.D., Levin, S.A., and Rohani, P. 2000. Coherence and conservation. Science 290(5495):1360-1364.

Emmerson, M.C., and Raffaelli, D.G. 2000. Detecting the effects of diversity on measures of ecosystem function: experimental design, null models and empirical observations. Oikos 91(1):195-203.

Flaherty, E.A., Dubay, S.A., Bradley, J., Marzluff, J., and Hayward, G.D. 2000. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) as a potential predator of marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) eggs. Northwest Sci. 74(4):335-339.

Fleishman, E. 2000. Monitoring the response of butterfly communities to prescribed fire. Environ. Manage. 26(6):685-695.

Fletcher, D.E., Wilkins, S.D., McArthur, J.V., and Meffe, G.K. 2000. Influence of riparian alteration on canopy coverage and macrophyte abundance in Southeastern USA blackwater streams. Ecol. Eng. 15:S67-S78.

Frankham, R., Manning, H., Margan, S.H., and Briscoe, D.A. 2000. Does equalization of family sizes reduce genetic adaptation to captivity? Anim. Conserv. 3:357-363.

Gadgil, M., Rao, P.R.S., Utkarsh, G., Pramod, P., and Chhatre, A. 2000. New meanings for old knowledge: the People's Biodiversity Registers Program. Ecol. Appl. 10(5):1307-1317.

Gaines, W.L., Singleton, P., and Gold, A.L. 2000. Conservation of rare carnivores in the North Cascades Ecosystem, western North America. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):366-375.

Galindo-Leal, C., Fay, J.P., and Sandler, B. 2000. Conservation priorities in the greater Calakmul region, Mexico: correcting the consequences of a congenital illness. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):376-380.

Garrison, B.A., Erickson, R.A., Patten, M.A., and Timossi, I.C. 2000. Accuracy of wildlife model predictions for bird species occurrences in California counties. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):667-674.

Gates, S., and Donald, P.F. 2000. Local extinction of British farmland birds and the prediction of further loss. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):806-820.

Gaudeul, M., Taberlet, P., and Till-Bottraud, I. 2000. Genetic diversity in an endangered alpine plant, Eryngium alpinum L. (Apiaceae), inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Mol. Ecol. 9(10):1625-1637.

Giese, L.A., Aust, W.M., Trettin, C.C., and Kolka, R.K. 2000. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage and species richness in three South Carolina coastal plain riparian forests. Ecol. Eng. 15:S157-S170.

Gray, A.N. 2000. Adaptive ecosystem management in the Pacific Northwest: a case study from coastal Oregon. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(2):6. <>

Green, E.P., and Bruckner, A.W. 2000. The significance of coral disease epizootiology for coral reef conservation. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):347-361.

Griebeler, E.M., and Gottschalk, E. 2000. The influence of temperature model assumptions on the prognosis accuracy of extinction risk. Ecol. Model. 134(2-3):343-356.

Gross, J.E. 2000. A dynamic simulation model for evaluating effects of removal and contraception on genetic variation and demography of Pryer Mountain wild horses. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):319-330.

Gunn, J., Hardwick, P., and Wood, P.J. 2000. The invertebrate community of the Peak-Speedwell cave system, Derbyshire, England - pressures and considerations for conservation management. Aquat. Conserv. 10(5):353-369.

Gustafsson, S. 2000. Patterns of genetic variation in Gymnadenia conopsea, the fragrant orchid. Mol. Ecol. 9(11):1863-1872.

Harper, M.G., Dietrich, C.H., Larimore, R.L., and Tessene, P.A. 2000. Effects of prescribed fire on prairie arthropods: an enclosure study. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):325-335.

Harrington, T.B., Xu, M.G., and Edwards, M.B. 2000. Structural characteristics of late-successional pine-hardwood forest following recent infestation by southern pine beetle in the Georgia Piedmont, USA. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):360-365.

Haveri, B.A., and Carey, A.B. 2000. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):643-652.

Hiers, J.K., Wyatt, R., and Mitchell, R.J. 2000. The effects of fire regime on legume reproduction in longleaf pine savannas: is a season selective? Oecologia 125(4):521-530.

Hirst, R.A., Pywell, R.F., and Putwain, P.D. 2000. Assessing habitat disturbance using an historical perspective: the case of Salisbury Plain military training area. J. Environ. Manage. 60(2):181-193.

Hopkinson, P., Travis, J.M.J., Prendergast, J.R., Evans, J., Gregory, R.D., Telfer, M.G., and Williams, P.H. 2000. A preliminary assessment of the contribution of nature reserves to biodiversity conservation in Great Britain. Anim. Conserv. 3:311-320.

Horn, D.J., and Koford, R.R. 2000. Relation of grassland bird abundance to mowing of conservation reserve program field in North Dakota. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):653-659.

Huebschman, J.J., and Bragg, T.B. 2000. Response of regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia Drury) to spring burning in an eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairie, USA. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):386-388.

Irwin, L.L., Rock, D.F., and Miller, G.P. 2000. Stand structures used by northern spotted owls in managed forests. J. Raptor Res. 34(3):175-186.

Isenmann, P., and Debout, G. 2000. Vineyards harbour a relict population of lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor) in Mediterranean France. J. Ornithol. 141(4):435-440.

Itô, Y., Miyagi, K., and Ota, H. 2000. Imminent extinction crisis among the endemic species of the forests of Yanbaru, Okinawa, Japan. Oryx 34(4):305-316.

Jassby, A.D., and Cloern, J.E. 2000. Organic matter sources and rehabilitation of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (California, USA). Aquat. Conserv. 10(5):323-352.

Jefferson, T.A. 2000. Population biology of the Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters. Wildlife Monogr. (144):1-65.

Jiang, Z.G., Yu, C.Q., Feng, Z.J., Zhang, L.Y., Xia, J.S., Ding, Y.H., and Lindsay, N. 2000. Pere David's deer in China. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):681-687.

Kaji, K., Miyaki, M., Saitoh, T., Ono, S., and Kaneko, M. 2000. Spatial distribution of an expanding sika deer population on Hokkaido Island, Japan. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):699-707.

Kalisz, P.J., and Powell, J.E. 2000. Effects of prescribed fire on soil invertebrates in upland forests on the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky USA. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):336-341.

Keymer, J.E., Marquet, P.A., Velasco-Hernandez, J.X., and Levin, S.A. 2000. Extinction thresholds and metapopulation persistence in dynamic landscapes. Am. Nat. 156(5):478-494.

Khasanova, G.R., and Abramova, L.M. 2000. Prospects for restoring the biodiversity of steppe vegetation: sowing of perennial grasses. Russian J. Ecol. 31(6):439-441.

Klubnikin, K., Annett, C., Cherkasova, M., Shishin, M., and Fotieva, I. 2000. The sacred and the scientific: traditional ecological knowledge in Siberian river conservation. Ecol. Appl. 10(5):1296-1306.

Koehler, H.H. 2000. Natural regeneration and succession - results from a 13 years study with reference to mesofauna and vegetation, and implications for management. Landscape Urban Plan. 51(2-4):123-130.

Kolka, R.K., Nelson, E.A., and Trettin, C.C. 2000. Conceptual assessment framework for forested wetland restoration: the Pen Branch experience. Ecol. Eng. 15:S17-S21.

Kolka, R.K., Singer, J.H., Coppock, C.R., Casey, W.P., and Trettin, C.C. 2000. Influence of restoration and succession on bottomland hardwood hydrology. Ecol. Eng. 15:S131-S140.

Kramer, P.A., Zabowski, D., Scherer, G., and Everett, R.L. 2000. Native plant restoration of copper mine tailings: I. Substrate effect on growth and nutritional status in a greenhouse study. J. Environ. Qual. 29(6):1762-1769.

Kramer, P.A., Zabowski, D., Scherer, G., and Everett, R.L. 2000. Native plant restoration of copper mine tailings: II. Field survival, growth, and nutrient uptake. J. Environ. Qual. 29(6):1770-1777.

Krausman, P.R., and Czech, B. 2000. Wildlife management activities in wilderness areas in the southwestern United States. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):550-557.

Kuehler, C., Lieberman, A., Oesterle, P., Powers, T., Kuhn, M., Kuhn, J., Nelson, J., Snetsinger, T., Herrmann, C., Harrity, P., Tweed, E., Fancy, S., Woodworth, B., and Telfer, T. 2000. Development of restoration techniques for Hawaiian thrushes: collection of wild eggs, artificial incubation, hand-rearing, captive-breeding, and re-introduction to the wild. Zoo Biol. 19(4):263-277.

Kunin, W.E., Hartley, S., and Lennon, J.J. 2000. Scaling down: on the challenge of estimating abundance from occurrence patterns. Am. Nat. 156(5):560-566.

La Peyre, M.K.G., Reams, M.A., and Mendelssohn, I.A. 2000. State wetland protection: a matter of context? Coast. Manage. 28(4):287-302.

Lacy, R.C. 2000. Should we select genetic alleles in our conservation breeding programs? Zoo Biol. 19(4):279-282.

Laffaille, P., Lefeuvre, J.C., and Feunteun, E. 2000. Impact of sheep grazing on juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., in tidal salt marshes. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):271-277.

Lakly, M.B., and Mcarthur, J.V. 2000. Macroinvertebrate recovery of a post-thermal stream: habitat structure and biotic function. Ecol. Eng. 15:S87-S100.

Lan, D.Y., and Dunbar, R. 2000. Bird and mammal conservation in Gaoligongshan Region and Jingdong County, Yunnan, China: patterns of species richness and nature reserves. Oryx 34(4):275-286.

Larter, N.C., Sinclair, A.R.E., Ellsworth, T., Nishi, J., and Gates, C.C. 2000. Dynamics of reintroduction in an indigenous large ungulate: the wood bison of northern Canada. Anim. Conserv. 3:299-309.

Leseberg, A., Hockey, P.A.R., and Loewenthal, D. 2000. Human disturbance and the chick-rearing ability of African black oystercatchers (Haematopus moquini): a geographical perspective. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):379-385.

Lintermans, M. 2000. Recolonization by the mountain galaxias Galaxias olidus of a montane stream after the eradication of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Mar. Freshwater Res. 51(8):799-804.

Litvinenko, N.M., and Shibaev, Y.V. 2000. Importance of Furugelm Island in the Sea of Japan for wetland birds: the first record of a breeding colony of the Chinese egret Egretta eulophotes. Oryx 34(4):335-337.

Loeb, S.C., Tainter, F.H., and Cazares, E. 2000. Habitat associations of hypogeous fungi in the southern Appalachians: implications for the endangered northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus). Am. Midl. Nat. 144(2):286-296.

Loreau, M. 2000. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: recent theoretical advances. Oikos 91(1):3-17.

Luoga, E.J., Witkowski, E.T.F., and Balkwill, K. 2000. Differential utilization and ethnobotany of trees in Kitulanghalo Forest Reserve and surrounding communal lands, Eastern Tanzania. Econom. Bot. 54(3):328-343.

Malone, C.L., Wheeler, T., Taylor, J.F., and Davis, S.K. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean rock iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 17(2):269-279.

Manchester, S.J., and Bullock, J.M. 2000. The impacts of non-native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):845-864.

Manel, S., Buckton, S.T., and Ormerod, S.J. 2000. Testing large-scale hypotheses using surveys: the effects of land use on the habitats, invertebrates and birds of Himalayan rivers. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):756-770.

Mauro, F., and Hardison, P.D. 2000. Traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities: international debate and policy initiatives. Ecol. Appl. 10(5):1263-1269.

Mayer, J.J., Nelson, E.A., and Wike, L.D. 2000. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area. Ecol. Eng. 15:S79-S85.

McIwrick, K., Wetzel, S., Beardmore, T., and Forbes, K. 2000. Ex situ conservation of American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) and butternut (Juglans cinerea L.), a review. Forest Chron. 76(5):765-774.

McLeod, K.W. 2000. Species selection trials and silvicultural techniques for the restoration of bottomland hardwood forests. Ecol. Eng. 15:S35-S46.

Miller, M.P., Stevens, L.E., Busch, J.D., Sorensen, J.A., and Keim, P. 2000. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and mitochondrial sequence data detect genetic differentiation and relationships in endangered southwestern USA ambersnails (Oxyloma spp.). Can. J. Zool. 78(10):1845-1854.

Milsom, T.P., Langton, S.D., Parkin, W.K., Peel, S., Bishop, J.D., Hart, J.D., and Moore, N.P. 2000. Habitat models of bird species' distribution: an aid to the management of coastal grazing marshes. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):706-727.

Morris, D.W. 2000. Science and the conservation of biodiversity. Can. J. Zool. 78(12):2059-2060.

Mosquera, I., Cote, I.M., Jennings, S., and Reynolds, J.D. 2000. Conservation benefits of marine reserves for fish populations. Anim. Conserv. 3:321-332.

Mueller-Dombois, D. 2000. Rain forest establishment and succession in the Hawaiian Islands. Landscape Urban Plan. 51(2-4):147-157.

Murphy, R.W., Fu, J.Z., Upton, D.E., De Lema, T., and Zhao, E.M. 2000. Genetic variability among endangered Chinese giant salamanders, Andrias davidianus. Mol. Ecol. 9(10):1539-1547.

Nabhan, G.P. 2000. Interspecific relationships affecting endangered species recognized by O'odham and Comcáac cultures. Ecol. Appl. 10(5):1288-1295.

Naeem, S., Knops, J.M.H., Tilman, D., Howe, K.M., Kennedy, T., and Gale, S. 2000. Plant diversity increases resistance to invasion in the absence of covarying extrinsic factors. Oikos 91(1):97-108.

Naiman, R.J., Bilby, R.E., and Bisson, P.A. 2000. Riparian ecology and management in the Pacific coastal rain forest. BioScience 50(11):996-1011.

Nelson, E. 2000. Restoration of a severely impacted riparian wetland system - preface. Ecol. Eng. 15:S1-S2.

Nelson, E.A., Dulohery, N.C., Kolka, R.K., and McKee, W.H. 2000. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting. Ecol. Eng. 15:S23-S33.

Nijs, I., and Impens, I. 2000. Underlying effects of resource use efficiency in diversity-productivity relationships. Oikos 91(1):204-208.

Nyhus, P.J., Tilson, R., and Sumianto. 2000. Crop-raiding elephants and conservation implications at Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 34(4):262-274.

O'Donnell, C.F.J. 2000. Cryptic local populations in a temperate rainforest bat Chalinolobus tuberculatus in New Zealand. Anim. Conserv. 3:287-297.

Ormerod, S.J., and Watkinson, A.R. 2000. Birds and agriculture - editor's introduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(5):699-705.

Paller, M.H., Reichert, M.J.M., Dean, J.M., and Seigle, J.C. 2000. Use of fish community data to evaluate restoration success of a riparian stream. Ecol. Eng. 15:S171-S187.

Panzer, R., and Schwartz, M. 2000. Effects of management burning on prairie insect species richness within a system of small, highly fragmented reserves. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):363-369.

Paschke, M.W., DeLeo, C., and Redente, E.F. 2000. Revegetation of roadcut slopes in Mesa Verde National Park, USA. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):276-282.

Pfab, M.F., and Witkowski, E.T.F. 2000. A simple population viability analysis of the critically endangered Euphorbia clivicola R.A. Dyer under four management scenarios. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):263-270.

Pharo, E.J., Beattie, A.J., and Pressey, R.L. 2000. Effectiveness of using vascular plants to select reserves for bryophytes and lichens. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):371-378.

Pierotti, R., and Wildcat, D. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge: the third alternative (commentary). Ecol. Appl. 10(5):1333-1340.

Porter, W.F., and Baldassarre, G.A. 2000. Future directions for the graduate curriculum in wildlife biology: building on our strengths. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):508-513.

Posillico, M., and Lorenzini, R. 2000. DNA fingerprinting and brown bear conservation in Abruzzo - Central Italy. Italian J. Zool. 67(3):326-327.

Poulsen, M.K., and Lambert, F.R. 2000. Altitudinal distribution and habitat preferences of forest birds on Halmahera and Buru, Indonesia: implications for conservation of Moluccan avifaunas. Ibis 142(4):566-586.

Preisser, E.L., Kefer, J.Y., and Lawrence, J.D. 2000. Vernal pool conservation in Connecticut: an assessment and recommendations. Environ. Manage. 26(5):503-513.

Pusch, M., and Hoffmann, A. 2000. Conservation concept for a river ecosystem (River Spree, Germany) impacted by flow abstraction in a large post-mining area. Landscape Urban Plan. 51(2-4):165-176.

Ramos-Neto, M.B., and Pivello, V.R. 2000. Lightning fires in a Brazilian savanna national park: rethinking management strategies. Environ. Manage. 26(6):675-684.

Rodrigues, A.S., Cerdeira, J.O., and Gaston, K.J. 2000. Flexibility, efficiency, and accountability: adapting reserve selection algorithms to more complex conservation problems. Ecography 23(5):565-574.

Rodriguez, L.O., and Young, K.R. 2000. Biological diversity of Peru: determining priority areas for conservation. Ambio 29(6):329-337.

Rolfe, J., Bennett, J., and Louviere, J. 2000. Choice modelling and its potential application to tropical rainforest preservation. Ecol. Econ. 35(2):289-302.

Rosenbaum, H.C., Brownell, R.L., Brown, M.W., Schaeff, C., Portway, V., White, B.N., Malik, S., Pastene, L.A., Patenaude, N.J., Baker, C.S., Goto, M., Best, P.B., Clapham, P.J., Hamilton, P., Moore, M., Payne, R., Rowntree, V., Tynan, C.T., Bannister, J.L., and DeSalle, R. 2000. World-wide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena: questioning the number of right whale species. Mol. Ecol. 9(11):1793-1802.

Ruyooka, D.B.A., Mugisa, M., and Obua, J. 2000. Forest conservation through forest ecotourism in Uganda. Discov. Innovat. 12(1-2):51-59.

Sayer, J., Ishwaran, N., Thorsell, J., and Sigaty, T. 2000. Tropical forest biodiversity and the World Heritage Convention. Ambio 29(6):302-309.

Scheffrahn, W., Fausser, L., and Rabarivola, C. 2000. Genetic variation in prosimian species. Int. J. Primatol. 21(5):883-887.

Schofield, P.J., and Chapman, L.J. 2000. Hypoxia tolerance of introduced Nile perch: implications for survival of indigenous fishes in the Lake Victoria basin. Afr. Zool. 35(1):35-42.

Schuller, D., Brunken-Winkler, H., Busch, P., Förster, M., Janiesch, P., von Lemm, R., Niedringhaus, R., and Strasser, H. 2000. Sustainable land use in an agriculturally misused landscape in northwest Germany through ecotechnical restoration by a 'patch-network-concept'. Ecol. Eng. 16(1):99-117.

Seddon, N., Tobias, J., Yount, J.W., Ramanampamonjy, J.R.M., Butchart, S., and Randrianizahana, H. 2000. Conservation issues and priorities in the Mikea Forest of south-west Madagascar. Oryx 34(4):287-304.

Shafer, C.L. 2000. The northern Yellowstone elk debate: policy, hypothesis, and implications. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):342-359.

Sheridan, P.M., and Karowe, D.N. 2000. Inbreeding, outbreeding, and heterosis in the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia flava (Sarraceniaceae), in Virginia. Am. J. Bot. 87(11):1628-1633.

Shmaefsky, B.R. 2000. Biodiversity in a nutshell - conserving Earth's biodiversity. BioScience 50(10):920-921.

Short, P.S. 2000. Two new species of Asteridea Lindl. (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae). Aust. Syst. Bot. 13(5):739-744.

Shurin, J.B. 2000. Dispersal limitation, invasion resistance, and the structure of pond zooplankton communities. Ecology 81(11):3074-3086.

Simon, M.F., and Proença, C. 2000. Phytogeographic patterns of Mimosa (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae) in the Cerrado biome of Brazil: an indicator genus of high-altitude centers of endemism? Biol. Conserv. 96(3):279-296.

Smith, S.D., Huxman, T.E., Zitzer, S.F., Charlet, T.N., Housman, D.C., Coleman, J.S., Fenstermaker, L.K., Seemann, J.R., and Nowak, R.S. 2000. Elevated CO2 increases productivity and invasive species success in an arid ecosystem. Nature 408(6808):79-82.

Smith, T.B., Holder, K., Girman, D., O'Keefe, K., Larison, B., and Chan, Y. 2000. Comparative avian phylogeography of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea mountains: implications for conservation. Mol. Ecol. 9(10):1505-1516.

Sodhi, N.S., and Er, K.B.H. 2000. Conservation meets consumption. TREE 15(10):431.

Sommer, S., and Hommen, U. 2000. Modelling the effects of life-history traits and changing ecological conditions on the population dynamics and persistence of the endangered Malagasy giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). Anim. Conserv. 3:333-343.

Souza, A.F., Martins, F.R., and Matos, D.M.S. 2000. Detecting ontogenetic stages of the palm Attalea humilis in fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Can. J. Bot. 78(9):1227-1237.

Spencer, C.C., Neigel, J.E., and Leberg, P.L. 2000. Experimental evaluation of the usefulness of microsatellite DNA for detecting demographic bottlenecks. Mol. Ecol. 9(10):1517-1528.

Spong, G., Johansson, M., and Björklund, M. 2000. High genetic variation in leopards indicates large and long-term stable effective population size. Mol. Ecol. 9(11):1773-1782.

Stotz, W. 2000. When aquaculture restores and replaces an overfished stock: is the conservation of the species assured? The case of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus in Northern Chile. Aquacult. Int. 8(2-3):237-247.

Svarstad, H., Bugge, H.C., and Dhillion, S.S. 2000. From Norway to Novartis: cyclosporin from Tolypocladium inflatum in an open access bioprospecting regime. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(11):1521-1541.

Swenson, J.J., and Franklin, J. 2000. The effects of future urban development on habitat fragmentation in the Santa Monica Mountains. Landscape Ecol. 15(8):713-730.

Thomas, J.W., and Pletscher, D.H. 2000. The convergence of ecology, conservation biology, and wildlife biology: necessary or redundant? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):546-549.

Thorbjarnarson, J., Platt, S.G., and Khaing, U.S.T. 2000. A population survey of the estuarine crocodile in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar. Oryx 34(4):317-324.

Tischendorf, L., and Fahrig, L. 2000. How should we measure landscape connectivity? Landscape Ecol. 15(7):633-641.

Troumbis, A.Y., and Memtsas, D. 2000. Observational evidence that diversity may increase productivity in Mediterranean shrublands. Oecologia 125(1):101-108.

van Balen, S., Nijman, V., and Prins, H.H.T. 2000. The Javan hawk-eagle: misconceptions about rareness and threat. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):297-304.

van Ek, R., Witte, J.P.M., Runhaar, H., and Klijn, F. 2000. Ecological effects of water management in the Netherlands: the model DEMNAT. Ecol. Eng. 16(1):127-141.

van Langevelde, F. 2000. Scale of habitat connectivity and colonization in fragmented nuthatch populations. Ecography 23(5):614-622.

Vecsei, P., and Peterson, D. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur, 1818 (Acipenseridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 59(3):270.

Vernes, K. 2000. Immediate effects of fire on survivorship of the northern bettong (Bettongia tropica): an endangered Australian marsupial. Biol. Conserv. 96(3):305-309.

Voelz, N.J., and McArthur, J.V. 2000. An exploration of factors influencing lotic insect species richness. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(11):1543-1570.

Wagner, I., and Zalewski, M. 2000. Effect of hydrological patterns of tributaries on biotic processes in a lowland reservoir - consequences for restoration. Ecol. Eng. 16(1):79-90.

Walters, J.R., Beissinger, S.R., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Greenberg, R., Nichols, J.D., Pulliam, H.R., and Winkler, D.W. 2000. The AOU Conservation Committee review of the biology, status, and management of cape sable seaside sparrows: final report. Auk 117(4):1093-1115.

Wang, J.Y., Chou, L.S., and White, B.N. 2000. Osteological differences between two sympatric forms of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) in Chinese waters. J. Zool. 252:147-162.

Ward, J.P., and Salas, D. 2000. Adequacy of roost locations for defining buffers around Mexican spotted owl nests. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 28(3):688-698.

Warren, M.L., Burr, B.M., Walsh, S.J., Bart, H.L., Cashner, R.C., Etnier, D.A., Freeman, B.J., Kuhajda, B.R., Mayden, R.L., Robison, H.W., Ross, S.T., and Starnes, W.C. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-31.

Webb, C.E., Oliver, I., and Pik, A.J. 2000. Does coastal foredune stabilization with Ammophila arenaria restore plant and arthropod communities in southeastern Australia? Restoration Ecol. 8(3):283-288.

Whitney, B.M., Pacheco, J.F., Buzzetti, D.R.C., and Parrini, R. 2000. Systematic revision and biogeography of the Herpsilochmus pileatus complex, with description of a new species from northeastern Brazil. Auk 117(4):869-891.

Wigginton, J.D., Lockaby, B.G., and Trettin, C.C. 2000. Soil organic matter formation and sequestration across a forested floodplain chronosequence. Ecol. Eng. 15:S141-S155.

Wike, L.D., Martin, F.D., Hanlin, H.G., and Paddock, L.S. 2000. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor. Ecol. Eng. 15:S121-S129.

Williams, C. 2000. Risk and uncertainty, science and management. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):307.

Wilson, B.L., Doede, D.L., and Hipkins, V.D. 2000. Isozyme variation in Sisyrinchium sarmentosum (Iridaceae). Northwest Sci. 74(4):346-354.

Wilson, M.V., and Lantz, L.E. 2000. Issues and framework for building successful science management teams for natural areas management. Nat. Areas J. 20(4):381-385.

Wisheu, I.C., Rosenzweig, M.L., Olsvig-Whittaker, L., and Shmida, A. 2000. What makes nutrient-poor Mediterranean heathlands so rich in plant diversity? Evol. Ecol. Res. 2(7):935-955.

Wright, J.F., Gunn, R.J.M., Blackburn, J.H., Grieve, N.J., Winder, J.M., and Davy-Bowker, J. 2000. Macroinvertebrate frequency data for the RIVAPCS III sites in Northern Ireland and some comparisons with equivalent data for Great Britain. Aquat. Conserv. 10(5):371-389.

Ye, Z.H., Wong, J.W.C., and Wong, M.H. 2000. Vegetation response to lime and manure compost amendments on acid lead/zinc mine tailings: a greenhouse study. Restoration Ecol. 8(3):289-295.

Zedler, J.B. 2000. Progress in wetland restoration ecology. TREE 15(10):402-407.

Zschokke, S., Dolt, C., Rusterholz, H.P., Oggier, P., Braschler, B., Thommen, G.H., Ludin, E., Erhardt, A., and Baur, B. 2000. Short-term responses of plants and invertebrates to experimental small-scale grassland fragmentation. Oecologia 125(4):559-572.

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