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Department ofBotany

No. 194
February 2001

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In This Issue

Precise Source of Amazon River is Pinpointed

South America

A five-nation team on a National Geographic Society expedition in Peru has determined the source of the Amazon River using advanced navigation technology. The source of the river lies on an 18,363-foot high peak called Nevado Mismi in the Peruvian Andes. Mismi was identified as the source of the Amazon in a 1971 National Geographic expedition, but in recent years at least one other stream, flowing from a separate peak, has been in contention as the Amazons ultimate source.

Geographer Andrew Johnston of the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum directed the Global Positioning System (GPS) work. The GPS equipment used by the expedition is considered accurate to within 1 to 5 meters. This is the first time such high-precision equipment is known to have been used in this remote area.

The team of 22 people representing the United States, Poland, Peru, Canada and Spain, made the expedition in July 2000. They traveled by foot, Jeep, bicycle and horseback to explore the five remote Andean rivers that combine to form the Amazonthe Apurimac, Huallaga, Mantaro, Maranion and Urubamba-Vilcanota. The expedition was the culmination of four reconnaissance trips in 1998 and 1999 that gathered preliminary data. Ned Strong, Andrew Pietowski and Johnston led the trips. Team member Piotr Chmielinski, had led a 1991 expedition through Perus Colca Canyon and was the first person to navigate the entire length of the Amazon.

The Amazon may be the worlds longest river, though some believe the Nile exceeds its length. Without question the Amazon, with its sprawling web of tributaries, carries more water than the Nileits volume is 60 times greater.

An online display of material presented by Johnston at the 1998 meeting of the American Association of Geographers is available at It contains color Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of the area and a summary of the search for the source.

- adapted from National Geographic

Forest Restoration in Thailand


The Forest Restoration Research Unit of Chiang Mai University of Thailand announces the publication of the book "Tree Seeds and Seedlings for Restoring Forests in Northern Thailand". The forests of northern Thailand are fast disappearing along with their wildlife and the many products and ecological services they provide for local communities and the national economy. In recent years, public awareness of the problem has greatly increased and impressive efforts are now underway to restore degraded forestland by planting a wide range of native forest trees. An essential part of any tree-planting project is recognition of the tree species being planted. However, identifying tree seedlings is difficult, because they have different characteristics to those of adult trees. This book provides essential information about 45 native forest tree species known to be useful in forest restoration projects. Detailed descriptions of fruits, seeds and seedlings, a key to aid seedling identification and tips on propagation and planting are presented in this handy book for use in tree nurseries or in the filed. Line drawings, full color illustrations and an extensive glossary of technical terms complement the text. Copies of the publication are obtainable from the Forest Restoration Research Unit, Biology Department, Chiang Mai University, Thailand 50200; Email:

New Publications

The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, a nonprofit, public interest organization in Minneapolis has developed a new booklet "Incentives for Wildlife Enhancement on Midwestern Farms" by Marcos Robles. This booklet is a resource for Midwestern farmers, ranchers, and other rural landowners with an interest in promoting wildlife on their land. It provides ideas, strategies, and examples of incentives that support the enhancement of wildlifethe traditional fish and game species as well as all native species on farmland, including plants, aquatic organisms, and invertebrates. Instead of relying exclusively on agriculture production for on-farm income, some farmers are looking at other ways of using their land. Farmland has the potential to offer many, nontraditional goods and services, having many functions. This concept of 'multifunctional agriculture' recognizes that farms can and should produce more than food and fiber. They can also, for example, 'produce' wildlife habitat or biodiversity and clean water, provide recreational opportunities and attractive landscapes, and help preserve rural communities. The 45-page booklet provides ideas, examples, and resource listings. Private-sector and community-based incentives are emphasized. To order, contact Andy Fuller: 612-870-3411, Price: $5, plus $2 for postage and handling. For more information, contact John Vickery: 612-870-3430, For an on-line version of the document, see Click on the Resources button on the left. Then click on the "library" tab near the top and select by "IATP staff" on the pull-down menu.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Marine Conservation Biology Institute proudly announces a valuable new website feature, a comprehensive directory containing federal funding opportunities for marine conservation biology research to help guide researchers in their funding search. Given the lack of a dedicated funding source for marine conservation biology research, and the plethora of potential federal funding opportunities sprinkled throughout government agencies, it can be quite a challenge to identify an appropriate funding program for a given research project. MCBIs funding sources directory provides a thorough and frequently updated survey of all federal agencies and related institutions for such research funding opportunities, including information on acceptable research topics, past and current funding, award levels, deadlines, samples of previously funded projects, and links to more information on the web. The directory is intended to be a compendium of current research funding opportunities for all scientists seeking support for research projects in marine conservation biology, from undergraduate students to professional marine and conservation biologists. At the present time, the Department of Commerce, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Science Foundation pages are available for viewing. These three contain the majority of relevant federal funding opportunities; new pages on other agencies will be added as they are completed. Please visit MCBIs website at and click on "Sources of federal funding for marine conservation biology research."

The Global Invasive Species Database <> was developed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), an international group of 100+ scientific and policy experts with the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The entry page of the website offers background information on invasive species and instructions on how to use the database. A section entitled "100 of the Worst" (ranging from Rat to Purple Loosestrife) gives viewers an idea of the type of information that will be included in the database, both in terms of expected detail and organizational structure of the database. Types of information provided for each species include ecology, distribution, habitat matches, references, and contacts. In addition, a predictive feature allows viewers to predict the expansion of invasive species, and the early warning system matches habitats that the species has already invaded with "other similar habitats around the world." Although still under construction, this database should be a powerful tool for researchers and educators, once completed.

-from The Scout Report for Science & Engineering,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2000.

The Tussock Grasslands website <> provides information on conservation and production for the tussock grasslands. Users can either go directly to a desired topic (such as soils, vegetation succession, grassland type, or altitude zone) or follow set pathways. A suggested set of management guidelines has been developed for each grassland, based on scientific information and practical observations. Guidelines for managing conservation goals are given for both pastoral management systems and those that are more purely conservation-orientated. The scientific information and observations underlying the guidelines are accessible by clicking on "Background Information" or "Management Information" links provided on each page. There are also links to annotated bibliographies, models of succession, and other decision support systems such as the Hieracium Management Module, and the High Country Forestry Information System.

-from The Scout Report


Wildlife Australia: Endangered Species Program <> contains a wealth of information on current efforts to protect endangered species in Australia. Resources included at this government site cover legislation, educational materials, action guides, state and territory information, conservation networks, and information on current events and planned activities. Also featured are lists of endangered species, and species accounts providing distributional and natural history information. A substantial collection of links to important relevant resources rounds out the site.

-from The Scout Report

Current Literature

Aide, T.M. 2000. Clues for tropical forest restoration. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):327.

Aide, T.M., Zimmerman, J.K., Pascarella, J.B., Rivera, L., and Marcano-Vega, H. 2000. Forest regeneration in a chronosequence of tropical abandoned pastures: implications for restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):328-338.

Airi, S., Rawal, R.S., Dhar, U., and Purohit, A.N. 2000. Assessment of availability and habitat: preference of Jatamansi - a critically endangered medicinal plant of west Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 79(10):1467-1471.

Alvarez-Cobelas, M., Cirujano, S., and Sánchez-Carrillo, S. 2001. Hydrological and botanical man-made changes in the Spanish wetland of Las Tablas de Daimiel. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):89-98.

Anderson, E.C., Williamson, E.G., and Thompson, E.A. 2000. Monte Carlo evaluation of the likelihood for Ne from temporally spaced samples. Genetics 156(4):2109-2118.

Andreone, F., Randrianirina, J.E., Jenkins, P.D., and Aprea, G. 2000. Species diversity of Amphibia, Reptilia and Lipotyphla (Mammalia) at Ambolokopatrika, a rainforest between the Anjanaharibe-Sud and Marojejy massifs, NE Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(12):1587-1622.

Arscott, D.B., Tockner, K., and Ward, J.V. 2000. Aquatic habitat diversity along the corridor of an alpine floodplain river (Fiume Tagliamento, Italy). Arch. Hydrobiol. 149(4):679-704.

Berg, D.J., and Berg, P.H. 2000. Conservation genetics of freshwater mussels: comments on Mulvey et at. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1920-1923.

Bisby, F.A. 2000. Databases tailored for biodiversity conservation - response. Science 290(5499):2074.

Blumenthal, D., and Jannink, J.L. 2000. A classification of collaborative management methods. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(2):13. <>

Boettner, G.H., Elkinton, J.S., and Boettner, C.J. 2000. Effects of a biological control introduction on three nontarget native species of Saturniid moths. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1798-1806.

Brown, A.C. 2000. Is the sandy-beach isopod Tylos granulatus an endangered species? S. Afr. J. Sci. 96(9-10):466.

Bull, L.S. 2000. Factors influencing little penguin Eudyptula minor egg success on Matiu-Somes Island, New Zealand. Emu 100:199-204.

Burgoyne, P.M., Bredenkamp, G.J., and Van Rooyen, N. 2000. Wetland vegetation in the north-eastern Sandy Highveld, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Bothalia 30(2):187-200.

Cambray, J.A. 2000. 'Threatened Fishes of the World' series, an update. Environ. Biol. Fish. 59(4):353-357.

Carbone, F., and Accordi, G. 2000. The Indian Ocean coast of Somalia. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 41(1-6):141-159.

Caro, T. 2000. Focal species. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1569-1570.

Carrillo, E., Wong, G., and Cuarón, A.D. 2000. Monitoring mammal populations in Costa Rican protected areas under different hunting restrictions. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1580-1591.

Carroll, S.S., and Pearson, D.L. 2000. Detecting and modeling spatial and temporal dependence in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1893-1897.

Cassidy, K.M., Grue, C.E., Smith, M.R., Johnson, R.E., Dvornich, K.M., McAllister, K.R., Mattocks, P.W., Cassady, J.E., and Aubry, K.B. 2001. Using current protection status to assess conservation priorities. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):1-20.

Castelletta, M., Sodhi, N.S., and Subaraj, R. 2000. Heavy extinctions of forest avifauna in Singapore: lessons for biodiversity conservation in Southeast Asia. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1870-1880.

Catling, P.C., Burt, R.J., and Forrester, R.I. 2000. Models of the distribution and abundance of ground-dwelling mammals in the eucalypt forests of north-eastern New South Wales in relation to habitat variables. Wildlife Res. 27(6):639-654.

Chapman, A.P., Brook, B.W., Clutton-Brock, T.H., Grenfell, B.T., and Frankham, R. 2001. Population viability analyses on a cycling population: a cautionary tale. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):61-69.

Chiarello, A.G. 2000. Density and population size of mammals in remnants of Brazilian Atlantic forest. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1649-1657.

Chung, A.Y.C., Eggleton, P., Speight, M.R., Hammond, P.M., and Chey, V.K. 2000. The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia. Bull. Entomol. Res. 90(6):475-496.

Coomes, O.T., and Burt, G.J. 2001. Peasant charcoal production in the Peruvian Amazon: rainforest use and economic reliance. Forest Ecol. Manag. 140:39-50.

Cordell, G.A. 2000. Biodiversity and drug discovery - a symbiotic relationship. Phytochemistry 55(6):463-480.

Corser, J.D. 2001. Decline of disjunct green salamander (Aneides aeneus) populations in the southern Appalachians. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):119-126.

Corti, C., Luiselli, L., Filippi, E., and Capula, M. 2000. Distribution, natural history and morphometrics of the critically endangered Coluber hippocrepis populations of Sardinia: a review, with additional data and conservation implications. Amphibia-Reptilia 21(3):279-287.

Cuarón, A.D. 2000. Effects of land-cover changes on mammals in a neotropical region: a modeling approach. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1676-1692.

Cuarón, A.D. 2000. A global perspective on habitat disturbance and tropical rainforest mammals. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1574-1579.

Curnutt, J.L., Comiskey, J., Nott, M.P., and Gross, L.J. 2000. Landscape-based spatially explicit species index models for Everglades restoration. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1849-1860.

Danielsen, F., Balete, D.S., Poulsen, M.K., Enghoff, M., Nozawa, C.M., and Jensen, A.E. 2000. A simple system for monitoring biodiversity in protected areas of a developing country. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(12):1671-1705.

Dawe, N.K., Bradfield, G.E., Boyd, W.S., Trethewey, D.E.C., and Zolbrod, A.N. 2000. Marsh creation in a northern Pacific estuary: Is thirteen years of monitoring vegetation dynamics enough? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 4(2):12. <>

DeYoung, R.W., Hellgren, E.C., Fulbright, T.E., Robbins, W.F., and Humphreys, I.D. 2000. Modeling nutritional carrying capacity for translocated desert bighorn sheep in western Texas. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):57-65.

Drake, D.C., and Naiman, R.J. 2000. An evaluation of restoration efforts in fishless lakes stocked with exotic trout. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1807-1820.

Drechsler, M., and Wätzold, F. 2001. The importance of economic costs in the development of guidelines for spatial conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):51-59.

Edwards, J.L., Lane, M.A., and Nielsen, E.S. 2000. Databases tailored for biodiversity conservation - response. Science 290(5499):2073-2074.

Escamilla, A., Sanvicente, M., Sosa, M., and Galindo-Leal, C. 2000. Habitat mosaic, wildlife availability, and hunting in the tropical forest of Calakmul, Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1592-1601.

Fa, J.E., Yuste, J.E.G., and Castelo, R. 2000. Bushmeat markets on Bioko Island as a measure of hunting pressure. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1602-1613.

Farrera, M.A.P., Quintana-Ascencio, P.F., Izaba, B.S., and Vovides, A.P. 2000. Population dynamics of Ceratozamia matudai Lundell (Zamiaceae) in El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(4):291-299.

Ferber, D. 2000. Galapagos station survives latest attack by fishers. Science 290(5499):2059.

Finegan, B., and Delgado, D. 2000. Structural and floristic heterogeneity in a 30-year-old Costa Rican rain forest restored, on pasture through natural secondary succession. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):380-393.

Fischer, M., van Kleunen, M., and Schmid, B. 2000. Genetic Allee effects on performance, plasticity and developmental stability in a clonal plant. Ecol. Lett. 3(6):530-539.

Flaspohler, D.J., Bub, B.R., and Kaplin, B.A. 2000. Application of conservation biology research to management. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1898-1902.

Foppen, R.P.B., Chardon, J.P., and Liefveld, W. 2000. Understanding the role of sink patches in source-sink metapopulations: Reed Warbler in an agricultural landscape. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1881-1892.

Ford, H.A., Barrett, G.W., Saunders, D.A., and Recher, H.F. 2001. Why have birds in the woodlands of southern Australia declined? Biol. Conserv. 97(1):71-88.

Franklin, A.B., Anderson, D.R., Gutiérrez, R.J., and Burnham, K.P. 2000. Climate, habitat quality, and fitness in northern spotted owl populations in northwestern California. Ecol. Monogr. 70(4):539-590.

Galindo-González, J., Guevara, S., and Sosa, V.J. 2000. Bat- and bird-generated seed rains at isolated trees in pastures in a tropical rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1693-1703.

Goguen, C.B., and Mathews, N.E. 2000. Local gradients of cowbird abundance and parasitism relative to livestock grazing in a western landscape. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1862-1869.

Goldingay, R.L., and Newell, D.A. 2000. Experimental rock outcrops reveal continuing habitat disturbance for an endangered Australian snake. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1908-1912.

Gordon, D.M. 2000. Plants as indicators of leafcutter bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nest habitat in coastal dunes. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 76(4):219-233.

Gottlieb, O.R., and Borin, M.R.D.B. 2000. Biodiversity: modelling angiosperms as networks. Phytochemistry 55(6):559-565.

Gould, W. 2000. Remote sensing of vegetation, plant species richness, and regional biodiversity hotspots. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1861-1870.

Grayson, D.K., and Madsen, D.B. 2000. Biogeographic implications of recent low-elevation recolonization by Neotoma cinerea in the Great Basin. J. Mammal. 81(4):1100-1105.

Gross, J.E., Singer, F.J., and Moses, M.E. 2000. Effects of disease, dispersal, and area on bighorn sheep restoration. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):25-37.

Guo, Q.F. 2000. Climate change and biodiversity conservation in Great Plains agroecosystems. Global Environ. Change 10(4):289-298.

Hall, M.A., Alverson, D.L., and Metuzals, K.I. 2000. By-catch: problems and solutions. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 41(1-6):204-219.

Hambright, K.D., Parparov, A., and Berman, T. 2000. Indices of water quality for sustainable management and conservation of an arid region lake, Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel. Aquat. Conserv. 10(6):393-406.

Hamilton, A., Cunningham, A., Byarugaba, D., and Kayanja, F. 2000. Conservation in a region of political instability: Bwindi Impenetrable forest, Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1722-1725.

Helton, R.C., Kirkman, L.K., and Musselman, L.J. 2000. Host preference of the federally endangered hemiparasite Schwalbea americana L. (Scrophulariaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(4):300-306.

Higgins, S.I., Pickett, S.T.A., and Bond, W.J. 2000. Predicting extinction risks for plants: environmental stochasticity can save declining populations. TREE 15(12):516-520.

Higgins, S.I., Richardson, D.M., and Cowling, R.M. 2000. Using a dynamic landscape model for planning the management of alien plant invasions. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1833-1848.

Hijmans, R.J., Garrett, K.A., Huamán, Z., Zhang, D.P., Schreuder, M., and Bonierbale, M. 2000. Assessing the geographic representativeness of genebank collections: the case of Bolivian wild potatoes. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1755-1765.

Holl, K.D., Loik, M.E., Lin, E.H.V., and Samuels, I.A. 2000. Tropical montane forest restoration in Costa Rica: overcoming barriers to dispersal and establishment. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):339-349.

Hughes, J.B., Daily, G.C., and Ehrlich, P.R. 2000. Conservation of insect diversity: a habitat approach. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1788-1797.

Hyrenbach, K.D., Forney, K.A., and Dayton, P.K. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquat. Conserv. 10(6):437-458.

Jass, J., and Klausmeier, B. 2000. Endemics and immigrants: North American terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) north of Mexico. Crustaceana 73:771-799.

Jenneckens, I., Meyer, J.N., Debus, L., Pitra, C., and Ludwig, A. 2000. Evidence of mitochondrial DNA clones of Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, within Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, caught in the River Volga. Ecol. Lett. 3(6):503-508.

Johnson, T.L., and Swift, D.M. 2000. A test of a habitat evaluation procedure for Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):47-56.

Karl, J.W., Heglund, P.J., Garton, E.O., Scott, J.M., Wright, N.M., and Hutto, R.L. 2000. Sensitivity of species habitat-relationship model performance to factors of scale. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1690-1705.

Kashian, D.M., and Barnes, B.V. 2000. Landscape influence on the spatial and temporal distribution of the Kirtland's warbler at the Bald Hill burn, northern Lower Michigan, USA. Can. J. Forest Res. 30(12):1895-1904.

Kerr, J.T., Sugar, A., and Packer, L. 2000. Indicator taxa, rapid biodiversity assessment, and nestedness in an endangered ecosystem. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1726-1734.

Kitada, S., Hayashi, T., and Kishino, H. 2000. Empirical bayes procedure for estimating genetic distance between populations and effective population size. Genetics 156(4):2063-2079.

Kitching, R. 2000. Biodiversity, hotspots and defiance. TREE 15(12):484-485.

Kleiman, D.G., Reading, R.P., Wallace, R.L., Robinson, J., Cabin, R.J., and Felleman, F. 2000. Improving the value of conservation programs. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1569.

Klooster, D., and Masera, O. 2000. Community forest management in Mexico: carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation through rural development. Global Environ. Change 10(4):259-272.

Kotliar, N.B. 2000. Application of the new keystone-species concept to prairie dogs: how well does it work? Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1715-1721.

Krausman, P.R. 2000. An introduction to the restoration of bighorn sheep. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):3-5.

Labbe, T.R., and Fausch, K.D. 2000. Dynamics of intermittent stream habitat regulate persistence of a threatened fish at multiple scales. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1774-1791.

Laidlaw, R.K. 2000. Effects of habitat disturbance and protected areas on mammals of Peninsular Malaysia. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1639-1648.

Langholz, J., Lassoie, J., and Schelhas, J. 2000. Incentives for biological conservation: Costa Rica's private wildlife refuge program. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1735-1743.

Lens, L., Van Dongen, S., Galbusera, P., Schenck, T., Matthysen, E., and Van de Casteele, T. 2000. Developmental instability and inbreeding in natural bird populations exposed to different levels of habitat disturbance. J. Evol. Biol. 13(6):889-896.

Lindley, S.T., Mohr, M.S., and Prager, M.H. 2000. Monitoring protocol for Sacramento River winter chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha: application of statistical power analysis to recovery of an endangered species. Fishery Bull. 98(4):759-766.

Lobo, J.M. 2001. Decline of roller dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) populations in the Iberian peninsula during the 20th century. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):43-50.

Lopes, M.A., and Ferrari, S.F. 2000. Effects of human colonization on the abundance and diversity of mammals in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1658-1665.

Luijten, S.H., Dierick, A., Gerard, J., Oostermeijer, B., Raijmann, L.E.L., and den Nijs, H.C.M. 2000. Population size, genetic variation, and reproductive success in a rapidly declining, self-incompatible perennial (Arnica montana) in the Netherlands. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1776-1787.

Maccherini, S., Chiarucci, A., and De Dominicis, V. 2000. Structure and species diversity of Bromus erectus grasslands of biancana badlands. Belgian J. Bot. 133(1-2):3-14.

Malcolm, J.R., and Ray, J.C. 2000. Influence of timber extraction routes on Central African small-mammal communities, forest structure, and tree diversity. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1623-1638.

Martin, R.D. 2000. Origins, diversity and relationships of lemurs. Int. J. Primatol. 21(6):1021-1049.

McCarthy, M.A., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Possingham, H.P. 2000. Testing spatial PVA models of Australian treecreepers (Aves: Climacteridae) in fragmented forest. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1722-1731.

McGrath, D.A., Duryea, M.L., Comerford, N.B., and Cropper, W.P. 2000. Nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in an Amazonian agroforest eight years following forest conversion. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1633-1647.

McKee, M., and Berrens, R.P. 2001. Balancing army and endangered species concerns: green vs. green. Environ. Manage. 27(1):123-133.

Medail, F., Loisel, R., Rolando, C., and Verlaque, R. 2000. Biology and ecology of Galium minutulum Jordan (Rubiaceae) on the Hyeres islands (Var, France): implications for the species conservation. Acta Bot. Gallica 147(3):267-285.

Medellín, R.A., Equihua, M., and Amin, M.A. 2000. Bat diversity and abundance as indicators of disturbance in neotropical rainforests. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1666-1675.

Milan, D.J., Petts, G.E., and Sambrook, H. 2000. Regional variations in the sediment structure of trout streams in southern England: benchmark data for siltation assessment and restoration. Aquat. Conserv. 10(6):407-420.

Miller, J.R., and Cale, P. 2000. Behavioral mechanisms and habitat use by birds in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1732-1748.

Mulvey, M., and Lydeard, C. 2000. Let's not abandon science for advocacy: reply to Berg and Berg. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1924-1925.

Murphy, J. 2000. Improving the value of conservation programs. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1569.

Naughton, G.P., Henderson, C.B., Foresman, K.R., and McGraw, R.L. 2000. Long-toed salamanders in harvested and intact Douglas-fir forests of western Montana. Ecol. Appl. 10(6):1681-1689.

Neckel-Oliveira, S., Magnusson, W.E., Lima, A.P., and Albernaz, A.L.K. 2000. Diversity and distribution of frogs in an Amazonian savanna in Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 21(3):317-326.

Negi, H.R. 2000. On the patterns of abundance and diversity of macrolichens of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. J. Bioscience 25(4):367-378.

Nicholls, D.G., Murray, M.D., Butcher, E.C., and Moors, P.J. 2000. Time spent in exclusive economic zones of southern oceans by non-breeding wandering albatrosses (Diomedea spp.): implications for national responsibilities for conservation. Emu 100:318-323.

Novotny, V., and Missa, O. 2000. Local versus regional species richness in tropical insects: one lowland site compared with the island of New Guinea. Ecol. Entomol. 25(4):445-451.

Oli, M.K., Holler, N.R., and Wooten, M.C. 2001. Viability analysis of endangered Gulf Coast beach mice (Peromyscus polionotus) populations. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):107-118.

Orr, D. 2000. Idealsclerosis: part two. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1571-1573.

Pacheco, L.F., and Simonetti, J.A. 2000. Genetic structure of a mimosoid tree deprived of its seed disperser, the spider monkey. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1766-1775.

Pajak, P. 2000. Sustainability, ecosystem management, and indicators: thinking globally and acting locally in the 21st century. Fisheries 25(12):16-30.

Peterson, C.J., and Haines, B.L. 2000. Early successional patterns and potential facilitation of woody plant colonization by rotting logs in premontane Costa Rican pastures. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):361-369.

Plathong, S., Inglis, G.J., and Huber, M.E. 2000. Effects of self-guided snorkeling trails on corals in a tropical marine park. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1821-1830.

Pletscher, D.H., and Schwartz, M.K. 2000. The tyranny of population growth. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1918-1919.

Polasky, S., Csuti, B., Vossler, C.A., and Meyers, S.M. 2001. A comparison of taxonomic distinctness versus richness as criteria for setting conservation priorities for North American birds. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):99-105.

Pomeroy, D. 2000. Birds, hotspots and congruence: a question of scale? Ostrich 71(3-4):438-441.

Posada, J.M., Aide, T.M., and Cavelier, J. 2000. Cattle and weedy shrubs as restoration tools of tropical montane rainforest. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):370-379.

Ramey, R.R., Luikart, G., and Singer, F.J. 2000. Genetic bottlenecks resulting from restoration efforts: the case of bighorn sheep in Badlands National Park. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):85-90.

Redford, K.H., and Taber, S. 2000. Writing the wrongs: developing a safe-fail culture in conservation. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1567-1568.

Ribeiro, F., Cowx, I.G., and Collares-Pereira, M.J. 2000. Life history traits of the endangered Iberian cyprinid Anaecypris hispanica and their implications for conservation. Arch. Hydrobiol. 149(4):569-586.

Robertson, B.C., Millar, C.D., Minot, E.O., Merton, D.V., and Lambert, D.M. 2000. Sexing the critically endangered kakapo Strigops habroptilus. Emu 100:336-339.

Rosenbaum, H.C., Egan, M.G., Clapham, P.J., Brownell, R.L., Malik, S., Brown, M.W., White, B.N., Walsh, P., and Desalle, R. 2000. Utility of North Atlantic right whale museum specimens for assessing changes in genetic diversity. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1837-1842.

Russon, A.E., Erman, A., and Dennis, R. 2001. The population and distribution of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in and around the Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):21-28.

Sabo, M.J. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Notropis bifrenatus (Cope, 1867) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 59(4):384.

Saltz, D., Rowen, M., and Rubenstein, D.I. 2000. The effect of space-use patterns of reintroduced Asiatic wild ass on effective population size. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1852-1861.

Sanchez-Rojas, G., and Gallina, S. 2000. Factors affecting habitat use by mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the central part of the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico: an assessment with univariate and multivariate methods. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 12(4):405-417.

Santiago, E., and Caballero, A. 2000. Application of reproduction technologies to the conservation of genetic resources. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1831-1836.

Secor, D.H., Niklitschek, E.J., Stevenson, J.T., Gunderson, T.E., Minkkinen, S.P., Richardson, B., Florence, B., Mangold, M., Skjeveland, J., and Henderson-Arzapalo, A. 2000. Dispersal and growth of yearling Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus released into Chesapeake Bay. Fishery Bull. 98(4):800-810.

Shahabuddin, G., Herzner, G.A., Aponte, C., and Gomez, M.D. 2000. Persistence of a frugivorous butterfly species in Venezuelan forest fragments: the role of movement and habitat quality. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(12):1623-1641.

Sher, A.A., Marshall, D.L., and Gilbert, S.A. 2000. Competition between native Populus deltoids and invasive Tamarix ramosissima and the implications for reestablishing flooding disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1744-1754.

Sherman, B.H. 2000. Marine ecosystem health as an expression of morbidity, mortality and disease events. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 41(1-6):232-254.

Silver, W.L., Ostertag, R., and Lugo, A.E. 2000. The potential for carbon sequestration through reforestation of abandoned tropical agricultural and pasture lands. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):394-407.

Simurda, M.C., and Knox, J.S. 2000. ITS sequence evidence for the disjunct distribution between Virginia and Missouri of the narrow endemic Helenium virginicum (Asteraceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(4):316-323.

Singer, F.J., Bleich, V.C., and Gudorf, M.A. 2000. Restoration of bighorn sheep metapopulations in and near western national parks. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):14-24.

Singer, F.J., Moses, M.E., Bellew, S., and Sloan, W. 2000. Correlates to colonizations of new patches by translocated populations of bighorn sheep. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):66-74.

Singer, F.J., Papouchis, C.M., and Symonds, K.K. 2000. Translocations as a tool for restoring populations of bighorn sheep. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):6-13.

Singer, F.J., Williams, E., Miller, M.W., and Zeigenfuss, L.C. 2000. Population growth, fecundity, and survivorship in recovering populations of bighorn sheep. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):75-84.

Slocum, M.G. 2000. Logs and fern patches as recruitment sites in a tropical pasture. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):408-413.

Smith, A.T., Boitani, L., Bibby, C., Brackett, D., Corsi, F., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gascon, C., Dixon, M.G., Hilton-Taylor, C., Mace, G., Mittermeier, R.A., Rabinovich, J., Richardson, B.J., Rylands, A., Stein, B., Stuart, S., Thomsen, J., and Wilson, C. 2000. Databases tailored for biodiversity conservation. Science 290(5499):2073.

Smith, D.W., Mech, L.D., Meagher, M., Clark, W.E., Jaffe, R., Phillips, M.K., and Mack, J.A. 2000. Wolf-bison interactions in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 81(4):1128-1135.

Smith, G.F., Steyn, E.M.A., Victor, J.E., Crouch, N.R., Golding, J., and Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. Aloaceae - the conservation status of Aloe in South Africa: an updated synopsis. Bothalia 30(2):206-211.

Smith, G.R., Waters, M.A., and Rettig, J.E. 2000. Consequences of embryonic UV-B exposure for embryos and tadpoles of the plains leopard frog. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1903-1907.

Soehartono, T., and Newton, A.C. 2001. Conservation and sustainable use of tropical trees in the genus Aquilaria II. The impact of gaharu harvesting in Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 97(1):29-41.

Spear, J.R. 2000. Conservation medicine: the changing view of biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1913-1917.

Stalter, R., and Lamont, E.E. 2000. Vascular flora of Fisherman Island, Virginia. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127(4):324-332.

Swamy, P.S., Sundarapandian, S.M., Chandrasekar, P., and Chandrasekaran, S. 2000. Plant species diversity and tree population structure of a humid tropical forest in Tamil Nadu, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(12):1643-1669.

Toro, M.A., Rodrigañez, J., Silio, L., and Rodriguez, C. 2000. Genealogical analysis of a closed herd of black hairless Iberian pigs. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1843-1851.

Tracy, B.F., and Sanderson, M.A. 2000. Patterns of plant species richness in pasture lands of the northeast United States. Plant Ecol. 149(2):169-180.

Trinkaus, U., and Mayrhofer, H. 2000. Revision of the Buellia epigaea group (Lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae). 1. Species of the Northern Hemisphere. Nova Hedwigia 71(3-4):271-314.

Ujvari, B., Korsos, Z., and Pechy, T. 2000. Life history, population characteristics and conservation of the Hungarian meadow viper (Vipera ursinii rakosiensis). Amphibia-Reptilia 21(3):267-278.

Verdú, J.R., Crespo, M.B., and Galante, E. 2000. Conservation strategy of a nature reserve in Mediterranean ecosystems: the effects of protection from grazing on biodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(12):1707-1721.

Vucetich, J.A., Waite, T.A., Qvarnemark, L., and Ibargüen, S. 2000. Population variability and extinction risk. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1704-1714.

Weis, T. 2000. Beyond peasant deforestation: environment and development in rural Jamaica. Global Environ. Change 10(4):299-305.

Wijdeven, S.M.J., and Kuzee, M.E. 2000. Seed availability as a limiting factor in forest recovery processes in Costa Rica. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):414-424.

Wilkie, D., Shaw, E., Rotberg, F., Morelli, G., and Auzel, P. 2000. Roads, development, and conservation in the Congo Basin. Conserv. Biol. 14(6):1614-1622.

Zann, L.P. 2000. The Eastern Australian region: a dynamic tropical/temperate biotone. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 41(1-6):188-203.

Zeigenfuss, L.C., Singer, F.J., and Gudorf, M.A. 2000. Test of a modified habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep. Restor. Ecol. 8(4s):38-46.

Zimmerman, J.K., Pascarella, J.B., and Aide, T.M. 2000. Barriers to forest regeneration in an abandoned pasture in Puerto Rico. Restor. Ecol. 8(4):350-360.

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