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Department ofBotany

No. 195
March 2001

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In This Issue

Precise Source of Amazon River is Pinpointed


According to a publication in Science (19 January 2001, pp. 438-439) by William Laurance and colleagues at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, as much as 42% of the Amazon River basin of Brazil will be seriously damaged or lost altogether in the next two decades if that country's infrastructure development projects go forward as planned. Laurance's team developed comprehensive computer models that integrate current data on deforestation, logging, fires, mining, roads, parks and reserves with information about a host of existing and planned infrastructure projects. The planned $40 billion, seven-year project called "Avança Brasil" (Advance Brazil) includes the construction of railroads and hydroelectric dams; the conversion of unpaved roads into paved, all-weather highways; the installation of power lines and gas lines; and the channelization of rivers.

The models show the predicted spatial distribution of areas that are heavily degraded, moderately degraded, lightly degraded, and pristine. According to the authors, even under the more optimistic of the two scenarios modeled, "the Brazilian Amazon will be drastically altered by current development schemes and land-use trends over the next 20 years." The authors suggest viable alternatives to destructive development, including the payment of carbon-offset funds and using agricultural land intensively rather than extensively (where perennial crops are favored over fire-maintained cattle pastures). "At stake is the fate of the greatest tropical rain forest on Earth," they wrote.

Future Meetings

The Environmental Protection Agency's Biological Assessment of Wetlands Workgroup (BAWWG) national meeting will take place 14-16 May 2001, at the Sheraton World Resort in Orlando, Florida. The meeting is called Assessing the Health of Wetland Life: Policy, Science and Practice and is open to anyone interested in learning about the progress of state agencies from across the country in developing biological monitoring protocols to determine the health of wetlands. Presentations focus on the policy and science behind implementation of wetland monitoring strategies on the national, state, and county levels. Registration and lodging information is available at <>. A detailed agenda also is available at the same site. To register, call (800) 965-5004 or (415) 682-2154. Register by 15 April for the early bird rate of $75 for government agency staff, nonprofit staff, volunteers, and educators and $100 for businesses and consultants.

The Communities Working for Wetlands conference is a training opportunity for wetland enthusiasts interested in managing or participating in local wetland conservation and education projects. The conference will take place 16-18 May 2001, at the Sheraton World Resort in Orlando, Florida. All volunteers, nonprofit organization staff, educators, students, government agency staff, and business professionals who want to make a difference for wetlands should attend. Conference sessions will include panel presentations on how citizens made a difference in the Florida Everglades, wetland restoration for fish habitat, restoration challenges in the west, citizen wetland monitoring, and how citizens can use existing regulatory policy or work toward new policies to conserve local wetlands. Registration and lodging information is available at <>. To register, please call (800) 965-5004 or (415) 682-2154. Register by 15 April for the early bird rate of $85 for volunteers, non-profits, students, and teachers and $120 for government agency staff, businesses, and consultants.

Sponsored by the Marine Conservation Biology Institute <>, the Second Symposium on Marine Conservation Biology will be held 21-26 June 2001 at San Francisco State University, California. MCBI encourages participation from outside North America. Attendance will be limited to 700 registrants. Cosponsors for the Second Symposium include the Society for Conservation Biology, the President's Council on Environmental Quality, and the US Department of the Interior.


The Society for Conservation Biology will hold their 15th Annual Meeting on 29 July - 1 August 2001 at the University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii. The scientific program will consist of a plenary address by Sir Robert May, seven symposia, approximately 300 contributed oral presentations, two evening poster sessions, and a variety of workshops and discussions. The conference theme is "Ecological Lessons from Islands," and includes such figurative islands as isolated fragments of habitat within altered landscapes. The meeting is co-hosted by the Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) of USGS Biological Resources, the University of Hawaii, and Hawaii's Secretariat for Conservation Biology. For information, visit the conference website at <>.

Canopy Conference

The Queensland Government and the Smithsonian Institution are proud to support the 3rd International Canopy Conference to be held in Cairns, north Queensland, Australia, in June 2002. The conference theme is "Science, Policy and Utilisation" bringing together scientists, environment managers and policy-makers concerned with the discovery and sustainable use of forests around the world. Scientists, researchers, academics, students, users and policy-makers working in areas such as flora, fauna, plant ecology, environment management, ecotourism, climate conditions, biodiversity, forests evolution and other forestry areas will have the opportunity to present papers and network in an international forum which reviews present research and help set the agenda for the future. Academic papers will be refereed by an expert international panel. For more information, see the website at <>, or contact via email

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Rainforest Alliance announces the launch of a new, bilingual website that provides a fast, informative and user-friendly resource for information on conservation initiatives underway in Mexico and Central America. The Eco-Index <> is an electronic almanac of conservation projects in the region, serving conservationists, journalists, funders, and other interested parties worldwide. The site's principle feature is a search engine that makes the pertinent but succinct project information easy to retrieve. The compiled project information includes annual budget, funders, objectives, achievements, anticipated accomplishments, lessons learned, and summaries of available reports.

Environment Canada's Canadian Wildlife Service provides an informative site on Species at Risk in Canada <>. The searchable site offers basic information on each species, including conservation status as assigned by COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada) and proposed recovery. The site may be searched by species (using common or scientific names or risk status) or geographic distribution (interactive map). The mapping feature provides excellent information in an intuitive format - such as the option to map more than one species' distribution in one view. Each species account includes taxonomic information, a description of characteristics, photograph, distribution map, and brief accounts of biology, population and distribution, habitat, threats, protection, recovery efforts, and references.

- from The Scout Report for Science & Engineering,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2000.

Current Literature

Allen, A.P., and O'Connor, R.J. 2000. Interactive effects of land use and other factors on regional bird distributions. J. Biogeogr. 27(4):889-900.

Alvarez-Cardenas, S., Galina-Tessaro, P., Castellanos, A., and Ortega-Rubio, A. 2000. Conservation of Isla Socorro, Mexico: the impact of domestic sheep on the native plant communities. Tex. J. Sci. 52(4):293-302.

Alvo, R., and Oldham, M.J. 2000. A review of the status of Canada's amphibian and reptile species: a comparison of three ranking systems. Can. Field-Natural. 114(3):520-540.

Arthur, R. 2000. Coral bleaching and mortality in three Indian reef regions during an El Niño southern oscillation event. Curr. Sci. 79(12):1723-1729.

Baquero, R.A., and Tellería, J.L. 2001. Species richness, rarity and endemicity of European mammals: a biogeographical approach. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):29-44.

Barbaro, L., Dutoit, T., and Cozic, P. 2001. A six-year experimental restoration of biodiversity by shrub-clearing and grazing in calcareous grasslands of the French Prealps. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):119-135.

Barbault, R. 2000. Fundamental research and conservation practices: an indispensable dialogue. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:11-17.

Behera, M.D., Jeganathan, C., Srivastava, S., Kushwaha, S.P.S., and Roy, P.S. 2000. Utility of GPS in classification accuracy assessment. Curr. Sci. 79(12):1696-1700.

Blake, J.G., and Schuette, B. 2000. Restoration of an oak forest in east-central Missouri - early effects of prescribed burning on woody vegetation. Forest Ecol. Manag. 139(1-3):109-126.

Brewer, D.T., Blaber, S.J.M., Fry, G., Merta, G.S., and Efizon, D. 2001. Sawdust ingestion by the tropical shad (Tenualosa macrura, Teleostei: Clupeidae): implications for conservation and fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):239-249.

Brooks, R.T. 2000. Annual and seasonal variation and the effects of hydroperiod on benthic macroinvertebrates of seasonal forest ('vernal') ponds in central Massachusetts, USA. Wetlands 20(4):707-715.

Brown, G., and Porembski, S. 2000. Phytogenic hillocks and blow-outs as 'safe sites' for plants in an oil-contaminated area of northern Kuwait. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):242-249.

Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E., and da Fonseca, G.A.B. 2001. Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291(5501):125-128.

Clay, R.P., Lanus, B.L., Tobias, J.A., Lowen, J.C., and Barnett, J.M. 2000. The display of the white-winged nightjar. J. Field Ornithol. 71(4):619-626.

Coates, D.J., and Atkins, K.A. 2001. Priority setting and the conservation of Western Australia's diverse and highly endemic flora. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):251-263.

Colas, B., Riba, M., Freville, H., Mignot, A., Imbert, E., Petit, C., and Olivieri, I. 2000. Introduction as a way to manage endangered plant species: case of the Centaurea corymbosa. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:133-134.

Comizzoli, P., Mermillod, P., and Mauget, R. 2000. Reproductive biotechnologies for endangered mammalian species. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 40(5):493-504.

Cook, J.A., Bidlack, A.L., Conroy, C.J., Demboski, J.R., Fleming, M.A., Runck, A.M., Stone, K.D., and MacDonald, S.O. 2001. A phylogeographic perspective on endemism in the Alexander Archipelago of southeast Alaska. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):215-227.

Cook, J.A., and MacDonald, S.O. 2001. Should endemism be a focus of conservation efforts along the North Pacific Coast of North America? Biol. Conserv. 97(2):207-213.

Cooke, A.J., Polunin, N.V.C., and Moce, K. 2000. Comparative assessment of stakeholder management in traditional Fijian fishing-grounds. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):291-299.

Costil, K., Dussart, G.B.J., and Daguzan, J. 2001. Biodiversity of aquatic gastropods in the Mont St-Michel basin (France) in relation to salinity and drying of habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):1-18.

Couvet, D. 2000. Reintroduced or endangered populations: effects of inbreeding. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:129-131.

Craig, J., Anderson, S., Clout, M., Creese, B., Mitchell, N., Ogden, J., Roberts, M., and Ussher, G. 2000. Conservation issues in New Zealand. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:61-78.

Dávalos, L.M. 2001. The San Lucas mountain range in Colombia: how much conservation is owed to the violence? Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):69-78.

Desrochers, A., and Fortin, M.J. 2000. Understanding avian responses to forest boundaries: a case study with chickadee winter flocks. Oikos 91(2):376-384.

Drovetski, S.V., and Rohwer, S. 2000. Habitat use, chick survival and density of caucasian black grouse Tetrao mlokosiewiczi. Wildlife Biol. 6(4):233-240.

Dudgeon, D. 2000. The ecology of tropical Asian rivers and streams in relation to biodiversity conservation. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:239-263.

Eitniear, J.C., Aquilar, S., Gonzalez, V., Pedraza R., R., and Baccus, J.T. 2000. New records of bearded wood-partridge, Dendrortyx barbatus, (Aves: Phasianidae) in Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 45(2):238-241.

Eitniear, J.C., and Aragon Tapia, A. 2000. Notes on the diet of the crimson-collared grosbeak (Rhodothraupis celaeno) in northeastern Mexico. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 11:363-364.

Eitniear, J.C., and Aragon Tapia, A. 2000. Red-billed pigeon (Columba flavirostris) nest predated by groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Ornitolog. Neotrop. 11:231-232.

Ellis, L.M. 2001. Short-term response of woody plants to fire in a Rio Grande riparian forest, central New Mexico, USA. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):159-170.

Fajardo, I. 2001. Monitoring non-natural mortality in the barn owl (Tyto alba), as an indicator of land use and social awareness in Spain. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):143-149.

Fernandez, M., and Castilla, J.C. 2000. Recruitment of Homalaspis plana in intertidal habitats of central Chile and implications for the current use of management and Marine Protected Areas. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 208:157-170.

Ferriere, R. 2000. Spatial structure and viability of small populations. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:135.

Figueiredo, E., and Gascoigne, A. 2001. Conservation of pteridophytes in São Tomé e Príncipe (Gulf of Guinea). Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):45-68.

Fournier, J., and Arlettaz, R. 2001. Food provision to nestlings in the hoopoe Upupa epops: implications for the conservation of a small endangered population in the Swiss Alps. Ibis 143(1):2-10.

Fox, T.R. 2000. Sustained productivity in intensively managed forest plantations. Forest Ecol. Manag. 138(1-3):187-202.

Friar, E.A., Ladoux, T., Roalson, E.H., and Robichaux, R.H. 2000. Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction. Mol. Ecol. 9(12):2027-2034.

Gallet, S., and Roze, F. 2001. Resistance of Atlantic heathlands to trampling in Brittany (France): influence of vegetation type, season and weather conditions. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):189-198.

Gelwick, F.P., Healy, B.D., Dictson, N.J., and Cathey, J. 2000. Fishes of the Richland Creek wildlife management area of east Texas. Tex. J. Sci. 52(4):313-318.

Germaine, S.S., and Wakeling, B.F. 2001. Lizard species distributions and habitat occupation along an urban gradient in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):229-237.

Gill, J.A., Norris, K., and Sutherland, W.J. 2001. Why behavioural responses may not reflect the population consequences of human disturbance. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):265-268.

Godley, B.J., Broderick, A.C., and Hays, G.C. 2001. Nesting of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at Ascension Island, South Atlantic. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):151-158.

Gonçalves-Alvim, S.J., and Fernandes, G.W. 2001. Biodiversity of galling insects: historical, community and habitat effects in four neotropical savannas. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):79-98.

Gordon, J.E., Brazier, V., Thompson, D.B.A., and Horsfield, D. 2001. Geo-ecology and the conservation management of sensitive upland landscapes in Scotland. Catena 42(2-4):323-332.

Gossling, S. 2000. Tourism - sustainable development option? Environ. Conserv. 27(3):223-224.

Grau, A., and Brown, A.D. 2000. Development threats to biodiversity and opportunities for conservation in the mountain ranges of the Upper Bermejo River Basin, NW Argentina and SW Bolivia. Ambio 29(7):445-450.

Greimler, J., and Dobes, C. 2000. High genetic diversity and differentiation in relict lowland populations of Gentianella austriaca (A. & J. Kern.) Holub (Gentianaceae). Plant Biol. 2(6):628-637.

Guisan, A., and Zimmermann, N.E. 2000. Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecol. Model. 135(2-3):147-186.

Gunderson, L.H. 2000. Ecological resilience - in theory and application. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:425-439.

Guth, M.O. 2000. Closing words at the Colloquium of Niederbronn-les-Bains. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:139-140.

Haberstock, A.E., Nichols, H.G., Desmeules, M.P., Wright, J., Christensen, J.M., and Hudnut, D.H. 2000. Method to identify effective riparian buffer widths for Atlantic salmon habitat protection. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 36(6):1271-1286.

Hall-Spencer, J.M., and Moore, P.G. 2000. Scallop dredging has profound, long-term impacts on maerl habitats. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57(5):1407-1415.

Harada, K., and Glasby, G.P. 2000. Human impact on the environment in Japan and New Zealand: a comparison. Sci. Total Environ. 263(1-3):79-90.

Hedrick, P.W., and Kalinowski, S.T. 2000. Inbreeding depression in conservation biology. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:139-162.

Hedrick, P.W., Rashbrook, V.K., and Hedgecock, D. 2000. Effective population size of winter-run chinook salmon based on microsatellite analysis of returning spawners. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57(12):2368-2373.

Hegde, R., and Enters, T. 2000. Forest products and household economy: a case study from Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):250-259.

Hillebrand, H., Watermann, F., Karez, R., and Berninger, U.G. 2001. Differences in species richness patterns between unicellular and multicellular organisms. Oecologia 126(1):114-124.

Hodge, S., and Frampton, C. 2001. Using higher taxa to estimate species richness: birds on New Zealand islands. Ibis 143(1):146-148.

Hubalek, Z. 2000. Measures of species diversity in ecology: an evaluation. Folia Zoolog. 49(4):241-260.

Hutchings, J.A. 2001. Conservation biology of marine fishes: perceptions and caveats regarding assignment of extinction risk. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(1):108-121.

Jamieson, G.S., and Levings, C.O. 2001. Marine protected areas in Canada - implications for both conservation and fisheries management. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(1):138-156.

Jepson, P. 2001. Global biodiversity plan needs to convince local policy-makers. Nature 409(6816):12.

Joly, P. 2000. Biological invasions - state of the art and perspectives. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:21-35.

Kaya, Z., and Raynal, D.J. 2001. Biodiversity and conservation of Turkish forests. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):131-141.

Kinzig, A.P., and Harte, J. 2000. Implications of endemics-area relationships for estimates of species extinctions. Ecology 81(12):3305-3311.

Kitchell, J.F., Cox, S.P., Harvey, C.J., Johnson, T.B., Mason, D.M., Schoen, K.K., Aydin, K., Bronte, C., Ebener, M., Hansen, M., Hoff, M., Schram, S., Schreiner, D., and Walters, C.J. 2000. Sustainability of the Lake Superior fish community: interactions in a food web context. Ecosystems 3(6):545-560.

Kocher, S.D., and Williams, E.H. 2000. The diversity and abundance of North American butterflies vary with habitat disturbance and geography. J. Biogeogr. 27(4):785-794.

Koutsoubas, D., Dounas, C., Arvanitidis, C., Kornilios, S., Petihakis, G., Triantafyllou, G., and Eleftheriou, A. 2000. Macrobenthic community structure and disturbance assessment in Gialova Lagoon, Ionian Sea. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57(5):1472-1480.

Kress, W.J., Miller, S.E., Krupnick, G.A., and Lovejoy, T.E. 2001. Museum collections and conservation efforts. Science 291(5505):828-829.

Laurance, W.F., Cochrane, M.A., Bergen, S., Fearnside, P.M., Delamônica, P., Barber, C., D'Angelo, S., and Fernandes, T. 2001. The future of the Brazilian Amazon. Science 291(5503):438-439.

Lebreton, J.D. 2000. Extinction and viability of populations: concepts and examples. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:113-115.

Lecomte, J. 2000. Evolution of animal and plant populations after introduction or reintroduction: decline or proliferation - Colloquium of Niederbronn-les-Bains (Bas-Rhin) - May 6-8, 1999 - introduction. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:7-10.

Lee, S.W., Choi, W.Y., Kim, W.W., and Kim, Z.S. 2000. Genetic variation of Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. in Korea. Silvae Genet. 49(3):124-130.

Legendre, S. 2000. Use of software in conservation biology. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:123-125.

Levin, S.A. 2000. Multiple scales and the maintenance of biodiversity. Ecosystems 3(6):498-506.

Linder, E.T., Villard, M.A., Maurer, B.A., and Schmidt, E.V. 2000. Geographic range structure in North American landbrids: variation with migratory strategy, trophic level, and breeding habitat. Ecography 23(6):678-686.

Lusk, S., Luskova, V., and Halacka, K. 2000. On the occurrence of populations of the genera Cobitis and Sabanejewia (Pisces, Cobitidae) in the Czech Republic. Folia Zoolog. 49:97-106.

Maharana, I., Rai, S.C., and Sharma, E. 2000. Valuing ecotourism in a sacred lake of the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):269-277.

Malausa, J.C. 2000. Introduction of exotic insects for biological pest control in crops. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:71-84.

Marchandeau, S., Letty, J., Aubineau, J., and Clobert, J. 2000. Process of reintroduction: role of experimentation. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:119-122.

Marsden, S.J., and Bellamy, G.S. 2000. Microhabitat characteristics of feeding sites used by diving duck Aythya wintering on the grossly polluted Manchester Ship Canal, UK. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):278-283.

McCrea, A.R., Trueman, I.C., and Fullen, M.A. 2001. A comparison of the effects of four arable crops on the fertility depletion of a sandy silt loam destined for grassland habitat creation. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):181-187.

McCrea, A.R., Trueman, I.C., Fullen, M.A., Atkinson, M.D., and Besenyei, L. 2001. Relationships between soil characteristics and species richness in two botanically heterogeneous created meadows in the urban English West Midlands. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):171-180.

McCusker, M.R., Parkinson, E., and Taylor, E.B. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA variation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across its native range: testing biogeographical hypotheses and their relevance to conservation. Mol. Ecol. 9(12):2089-2108.

McLean, I.G., Schmitt, N.T., Jarman, P.J., Duncan, C., and Wynne, C.D.L. 2000. Learning for life: training marsupials to recognise introduced predators. Behaviour 137:1361-1376.

Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Di Maio, J., Staton, S.K., and Mackie, G.L. 2000. Effect of sampling effort on the efficiency of the timed search method for sampling freshwater mussel communities. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 19(4):725-732.

Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Mackie, G.L., Di Maio, J., and Staton, S.K. 2000. Changes over time in the diversity and distribution of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Grand River, southwestern Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 26(4):445-459.

Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Staton, S.K., and West, E.L. 2000. Status of the wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Ontario and Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 114(3):457-470.

Moritz, C., Patton, J.L., Schneider, C.J., and Smith, T.B. 2000. Diversification of rainforest faunas: an integrated molecular approach. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:533-563.

Mrakovcic, M., Schneider, D., Mustafic, P., and Kerovec, M. 2000. Status of genus Cobitis and related species in Croatia. Folia Zoolog. 49:113-116.

Mrosek, T. 2001. Developing and testing of a method for the analysis and assessment of multiple forest use from a forest conservation perspective. Forest Ecol. Manag. 140(1):65-74.

Muller, S. 2000. Invasive plant species in France - status of knowledge and proposals for action. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:53-69.

Murguia, M., and Villasenor, J.L. 2000. Estimating the quality of the records used in quantitative biogeography with presence-absence matrices. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 37(4):289-296.

Murray, B.G., and Young, A.G. 2001. Widespread chromosome variation in the endangered grassland forb Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides F. Muell. (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae). Ann. Botany 87(1):83-90.

Naugle, D.E., Johnson, R.R., Estey, M.E., and Higgins, K.F. 2000. A landscape approach to conserving wetland bird habitat in the prairie, pothole region of eastern South Dakota. Wetlands 20(4):588-604.

Newing, H. 2001. Bushmeat hunting and management: implications of Duiker ecology and interspecific competition. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):99-118.

Nijman, V. 2001. Autumn migration of raptors on Java, Indonesia: composition, direction and behaviour. Ibis 143(1):99-106.

Nolet, B.A., Andreev, V.A., Clausen, P., Poot, M.J.M., and Wessel, E.G.J. 2001. Significance of the White Sea as a stopover for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in spring. Ibis 143(1):63-71.

Odegaard, F. 2000. How many species of arthropods? Erwin's estimate revised. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 71(4):583-597.

Oliver, I., MacNally, R., and York, A. 2000. Identifying performance indicators of the effects of forest management on ground-active arthropod biodiversity using hierarchical partitioning and partial canonical correspondence analysis. Forest Ecol. Manag. 139(1-3):21-40.

Onguene, N.A., and Kuyper, T.W. 2001. Mycorrhizal associations in the rain forest of south Cameroon. Forest Ecol. Manag. 140(2-3):277-287.

Oredsson, A. 2000. The Ellenberg index of temporal change in vascular plants (Anderungstendenz) tested in southern Sweden. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):225-228.

Pascal, M., and Chapuis, J.L. 2000. Eradication of mammals introduced to islands - preliminary questions and application. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:85-104.

Patz, J.A., Graczyk, T.K., Geller, N., and Vittor, A.Y. 2000. Effects of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases. Int. J. Parasitol. 30(12-13):1395-1405.

Perdices, A., and Doadrio, I. 2000. Diversification patterns in Cobitis calderoni (Osteichthyes: Cobitidae) and relationships with some Cobitis lineages. Folia Zoolog. 49:45-54.

Pethick, J. 2001. Coastal management and sea-level rise. Catena 42(2-4):307-322.

Phillips, J.L., Ory, J., and Talbot, A. 2000. Anadromous salmonid recovery in the Umatilla River Basin, Oregon: a case study. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 36(6):1287-1308.

Pope, L.C., Estoup, A., and Moritz, C. 2000. Phylogeography and population structure of an ecotonal marsupial, Bettongia tropica, determined using mtDNA and microsatellites. Mol. Ecol. 9(12):2041-2053.

Porter, W.P., Budaraju, S., Stewart, W.E., and Ramankutty, N. 2000. Calculating climate effects on birds and mammals: impacts on biodiversity, conservation, population parameters, and global community structure. Am. Zoologist 40(4):597-630.

Povz, M., and Sumer, S. 2000. Present status and distribution of the species of the genera Misgurnus, Cobitis and Sabanejewia in Slovenia. Folia Zoolog. 49:107-112.

Pradel, R., and Henry, P.Y. 2000. Individual monitoring in small populations - case of the white swan Ciconia ciconia. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:109-111.

Prieur-Richard, A.H., and Lavorel, S. 2000. Do more diverse plant communities greater resistance to invasions? Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:37-51.

Quilichini, A., and Debussche, M. 2000. Seed dispersal and germination patterns in a rare Mediterranean island endemic (Anchusa crispa Viv., Boraginaceae). Acta Oecologica 21(6):303-313.

Quinby, P.A. 2000. First-year impacts of shelterwood logging on understory vegetation in an old-growth pine stand in central Ontario, Canada. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):229-241.

Ramos, M.A., Lobo, J.M., and Esteban, M. 2001. Ten years inventorying the Iberian fauna: results and perspectives. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(1):19-28.

Regan, H.M., Lupia, R., Drinnan, A.N., and Burgman, M.A. 2001. The currency and tempo of extinction. Am. Nat. 157(1):1-10.

Rekola, M., Pouta, E., Kuuluvainen, J., Tahvonen, O., and Li, C.Z. 2000. Incommensurable preferences in contingent valuation: the case of Natura 2000 Network in Finland. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):260-268.

Roulet, N.T. 2000. Peatlands, carbon storage, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocol: prospects and significance for Canada. Wetlands 20(4):605-615.

Runyeon-Lager, H., and Prentice, H.C. 2000. Morphometric variation in a hybrid zone between the weed, Silene vulgaris, and the endemic, Silene uniflora ssp. petraea (Caryophyllaceae), on the Baltic island of Oland. Can. J. Bot. 78(11):1384-1397.

Sarmiento, F.O. 2000. Breaking mountain paradigms: ecological effects on human impacts in man-aged Tropandean landscapes. Ambio 29(7):423-431.

Sarrazin, F. 2000. Demographics of reintroduction. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Suppl. 7:107-108.

Schindler, D.W. 2000. Aquatic problems caused by human activities in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Ambio 29(7):401-407.

Schnabel, K.E., Hogg, I.D., and Chapman, M.A. 2000. Population genetic structures of two New Zealand corophiid amphipods and the presence of morphologically cryptic species: implications for the conservation of diversity. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 34(4):637-644.

Seiter, A., Newberry, L., and Edens, P. 2000. Cooperative management of the dungeness watershed to protect salmon in Washington State. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 36(6):1211-1217.

Simon, J.C., Pratt, T.K., Berlin, K.E., and Kowalsky, J.R. 2000. Reproductive ecology of the Maui parrotbill. Wilson Bull. 112(4):482-490.

Simpson, I.A., Dugmore, A.J., Thomson, A., and Vesteinsson, O. 2001. Crossing the thresholds: human ecology and historical patterns of landscape degradation. Catena 42(2-4):175-192.

Simpson, S. 2001. Aquatic homebodies - new evidence that baby fish and shrimp stick close to home may be the key to saving coral reef biodiversity. Sci. Amer. 284(1):22-23.

Smith, J., Mulongoy, K., Persson, R., and Sayer, J. 2000. Harnessing carbon markets for tropical forest conservation: towards a more realistic assessment. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):300-311.

Stibrich, J.S., and Charles, T.J. 2000. Resolution of endangered species act issues in permitting the Plateau Creek pipeline. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 36(6):1263-1269.

Storch, I. 2000. Conservation status and threats to grouse worldwide: an overview. Wildlife Biol. 6(4):195-204.

Storch, I. 2000. Grouse science as a process: where do we stand? Wildlife Biol. 6(4):285-290.

Storch, I., and Segelbacher, G. 2000. Genetic correlates of spatial population structure in central European capercaillie Tetrao urogallus and black grouse T. tetrix: a project in progress. Wildlife Biol. 6(4):305-310.

Sun, Y.H. 2000. Distribution and status of the Chinese grouse Bonasa sewerzowi. Wildlife Biol. 6(4):271-275.

Sunderlin, W.D., Ndoye, O., Bikie, H., Laporte, N., Mertens, B., and Pokam, J. 2000. Economic crisis, small-scale agriculture, and forest cover change in southern Cameroon. Environ. Conserv. 27(3):284-290.

Svedarsky, W.D., Westemeier, R.L., Robel, R.J., Gough, S., and Toepher, J.E. 2000. Status and management of the greater prairie-chicken Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus in North America. Wildlife Biol. 6(4):277-284.

Tolun, A.A., Velioglu, E., Cengel, B., and Kaya, Z. 2000. Genetic structure of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subspecies pallasiana) populations sampled from the Bolkar Mountains. Silvae Genet. 49(3):113-119.

Tupper, M., and Able, K.W. 2000. Movements and food habits of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Delaware Bay (USA) salt marshes: comparison of a restored and a reference marsh. Mar. Biol. 137(5-6):1049-1058.

Uimaniemi, L., Orell, M., Monkkonen, M., Huhta, E., Jokimaki, J., and Lumme, J. 2000. Genetic diversity in the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus in fragmented old-growth forests of Fennoscandia. Ecography 23(6):669-677.

Uri, N.D. 2000. Global climate change and the effect of conservation practices in US agriculture. Environ. Geol. 40(1-2):41-52.

Vallan, D. 2000. A new species of the genus Stumpffia (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a small forest remnant of the central high plateau of Madagascar. Rev. Suisse Zool. 107(4):835-841.

Venkataraman, A. 2000. Incorporating traditional coexistence propensities into management of wildlife habitats in India. Curr. Sci. 79(11):1531-1535.

Vogel, G. 2001. Cloned gaur a short-lived success. Science 291(5503):409.

Vos, C.C., Verboom, J., Opdam, P.F.M., and Ter Braak, C.J.F. 2001. Toward ecologically scaled landscape indices. Am. Nat. 157(1):24-41.

Weibull, A.C., Bengtsson, J., and Nohlgren, E. 2000. Diversity of butterflies in the agricultural landscape: the role of farming system and landscape heterogeneity. Ecography 23(6):743-750.

Werner, S.M., and Raffa, K.F. 2000. Effects of forest management practices on the diversity of ground-occurring beetles in mixed northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Forest Ecol. Manag. 139(1-3):135-155.

Wilkins, R.N., and Peterson, N.P. 2000. Factors related to amphibian occurrence and abundance in headwater streams draining second-growth Douglas-fir forests in southwestern Washington. Forest Ecol. Manag. 139(1-3):79-91.

Williams, G.A., Adam, P., and Mound, L.A. 2001. Thrips (Thysanoptera) pollination in Australian subtropical rainforests, with particular reference to pollination of Wilkiea huegeliana (Monimiaceae). J. Nat. Hist. 35(1):1-21.

Wind-Mulder, H.L., and Vitt, D.H. 2000. Comparisons of water and peat chemistries of a post-harvested and undisturbed peatland with relevance to restoration. Wetlands 20(4):616-628.

Wood, B. 2001. Maintaining vegetation diversity on reserves: the relationship between persistence and species richness. Biol. Conserv. 97(2):199-205.

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