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Department ofBotany

No. 196
April 2001

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In This Issue

An Endangered Species Success Story

Highlighting a 35-year conservation effort involving state governments, conservation organizations, and private landowners, the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucoparia) has fully recovered from near extinction and will be removed from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) list of threatened and endangered species.

A subspecies of the Canada goose, the Aleutian Canada goose is found only on a few of Alaska's remote, windswept Aleutian Islands and in areas of California and Oregon. Aleutian Canada geese numbered only in the hundreds in the mid-1970s. Through unprecedented cooperation with state governments and in partnership with private landowners and organizations, biologists with USFWS were able to slowly bring the bird back. Today, the estimated population has grown to 37,000 and the threat of extinction has passed.

Canada Goose

Canada Goose
Credit: Robert Savannah, USFWS

The Aleutian Canada goose, identifiable by a distinctive white neck-band and its small size, nests on islands within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Biologists trace the origin of the subspecies' decline back as far as 1750 when fur-farmers and trappers began introducing non-native foxes on more than 190 islands within the goose's nesting range in Alaska. The fox introductions hit their peak from 1915 to 1936, when fur demand was high. The foxes preyed heavily upon the birds, which had no natural defenses against land predators on the previously mammal-free islands. Scientists recorded no sightings of Aleutian Canada geese from 1938 until 1962, when Service biologists discovered a remnant population on rugged, remote Buldir Island in the western Aleutians. Scientists believe Buldir was fox-free because its rocky, stormy coast was difficult to approach.

This small subspecies of Canada goose was first listed as endangered in 1967 under Federal laws that predated the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The goose was one of the first species or subspecies to be protected under this Act. The first accurate count of the birds in 1975 revealed only 790 individuals. In the early 1980s, biologists found small numbers of breeding geese on two other islands.

Since 1967, biologists have worked to eliminate introduced foxes from former nesting islands and to reintroduce geese. The removal of these predators has benefited many other bird species on the islands, including puffins, murres, and auklets. Besides removing foxes, the Service and state wildlife agencies closed Aleutian Canada goose hunting in wintering and migration areas, banded birds on the breeding grounds to identify important wintering and migrations areas, and released families of wild geese caught on Buldir Island on other fox-free islands in the Aleutians.

In California, the Service has worked extensively with local landowners in cooperative partnerships to protect and manage wintering habitat on private land through fee title acquisition, easements and voluntary programs. Important wintering and migration habitat in California and Oregon also has been acquired as national wildlife refuges.

As a direct result of these recovery activities, the population increased to 6,300 birds by 1990, enough to allow the Service to reclassify the subspecies from endangered to threatened. The recovery continued through the 1990s, with new populations firmly established on Agattu, Alaid and Nizki islands in the western Aleutians.

While the species continues to rebound in the western Aleutians, Russian scientists are conducting an ongoing program to reestablish Aleutian Canada geese in the Asian portion of the birds' range. So far, Russian biologists have released 86 geese on Ekarma Island in the northern Kuril Islands. Japanese scientists have observed several of these birds on the wintering grounds in Japan.

The Service is required under ESA to monitor Aleutian Canada goose populations for at least five years. The Service will pay particularly close attention to the small number of geese that nest in the Semidi Islands and winter on the north coast of Oregon. While the goose will no longer be protected under the provisions of ESA, the subspecies is still protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.

Other U.S. and U.S. territorial species that have, to date, recovered enough to be removed from listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the dates of their delistings, are as follows: American alligator (1987), American peregrine falcon (1999), Arctic peregrine falcon (1994), brown pelican (Atlantic coast population, 1985), Palau ground dove (1985), Palau fantail flycatcher (1985), Palau owl (1985), and gray whale (1994). In addition, the eastern gray kangaroo (1995), western gray kangaroo (1995), and red kangaroo (1995) have been delisted.

- adapted from USFWS

World to Share Biodiversity Data

After 5 years of discussions and planning, representatives from 32 countries and intergovernmental organizations completed the planning efforts for a new project to bring data about biological diversity to the desktop of anyone with access to the Internet. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) will be an interconnected set of databases that will contain information about all 1.8 million species of organisms - from bacteria to whales - that have received scientific names, including access to data on the approximately 3 billion specimens located in the worlds natural history collections. GBIF will be an unparalleled resource for scientists, natural resource managers, policymakers and the general public, who will be able to use GBIF to find genetic, taxonomic, geographical and ecological information on the worlds species.

Biodiversity is distributed all over the Earth, with the highest concentrations in the tropical regions, especially in developing countries, and in the oceans. In contrast, scientific information about biodiversity is largely concentrated in major centers in developed countries, especially in the scientific collections of the worlds natural history museums, herbaria and microorganismal repositories. GBIF will provide access to this treasure-trove of data from anywhere in the world.

The GBIF project will be funded by participating countries and organizations. A small staff will work actively with database developers around the world, and will develop innovative tools for accessing, linking and searching biodiversity databases.

GBIF will be an important tool for protection, management and sustainable use of biological resources worldwide. It will also aid in advancing education and scientific research in a host of areas, including conservation biology, agriculture, and biomedicine; in serving the economic and quality-of-life interests of society; and in providing a basis from which our knowledge of the natural world can grow rapidly and in a manner that avoids duplication of effort and expenditure.

Further information about GBIF can be found at the GBIF web site at

- adapted from GBIF

Future Meetings

The 6th Annual Meeting of the Texas Society for Ecological Restoration will be held 17-19 August 2001 at Heart of the Hills Conference Center in Hunt, Texas. Topics will cover all areas of restoration with a special focus on the following: (1) invasive specieseradicating, controlling, or living with them; (2) the Hill Country/Central Texas region; (3) restoration education; and 4) community initiatives. "Invasive Species and Ecological Restoration" is the theme for this year's conference. Examples of invasive species are juniper and mesquite (native) and Johnsongrass and KR bluestem (non-native). For more information or to find the most up to date information about the conference, please see the Texas SER website at or contact Shirlene Sitton (Program Chair) at or Jan Dickson (Chapter Coordinator) at, or telephone (940) 565-4332.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Created by a host of organizations (Environmental Defense Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Union of Concerned Scientists, US Public Interest Research Group, World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund), Global Warming: Early Warning Signs <> seeks to provide evidence of the "fingerprints" and "harbingers" of global warming. A clickable map of the world enables users to take a closer look at geographic regions, at specific examples of "fingerprints" (e.g., heat waves, sea level rise, melting glaciers, and Arctic and Antarctic warming) and "harbingers" (spreading disease, earlier arrival of spring, range shifts and population declines in plants and animals, bleaching of coral reefs, extreme weather events, and fires). While it is unclear that any specific event may be explained by global warming, the combination of events highlighted at this page provides powerful fodder for further thought.

- from The Scout Report for Science & Engineering,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

The Natural History Museum (London) provides Coffee and Biodiversity Conservation in El Salvador <>, highlighting a three-year project funded by the UK Government's Darwin Initiative. The aim of this particular project is "to promote the conservation of biodiversity by providing the tools, training and information necessary to empower local people to monitor and assess the biodiversity of the forests associated with Shade Coffee farms in El Salvador." The site's main sections describe the Coffee and Biodiversity Conservation in El Salvador project, including economics of the project and a training course that offers basic biodiversity assessment skills to Salvadorans. Of interest to ecologists, the site also provides species lists for the trees and Pimplinae wasps of the Shade Forest (giving family, scientific name, and local name). A selection of interesting links (featuring Central American sites) fills out this concise and well-illustrated site.

- from The Scout Report

In addition to its tremendous value as a spectacular haven for wildlife, the 1.5 million-acre coastal plain known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is now the focus of major debate about oil and gas exploration and development. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) maintains the official homepage of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) <>. The ANWR web page supplies background information on the refuge (description, location, maps), wildlife (birds, mammals, fish), habitats, and people. For a brief introduction to the development issue, USFWS provides the document "Potential Impacts of Proposed Oil and Gas Development on the Arctic Refuge's Coastal Plain: Historical Overview and Issues of Concern" (found under "Oil and Gas Development" in the Refuge Information section).

- from The Scout Report

Current Literature

Acosta, C.A., and Perry, S.A. 2001. Impact of hydropattern disturbance on crayfish population dynamics in the seasonal wetlands of Everglades National Park, USA. Aquat. Conserv. 11(1):45-57.

Adams, G.A., and Wall, D.H. 2000. Biodiversity above and below the surface of sails and sediments: linkages and implications for global change. BioScience 50(12):1043-1048.

Ali, R., and Pai, A. 2001. Human use areas in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. Curr. Sci. 80(3):448-452.

Almasi, K.M. 2000. A non-native perennial invades a native forest. Biol. Invasions 2(3):219-230.

Anciães, M., and Marini, M.A. 2000. The effects of fragmentation on fluctuating asymmetry in passerine birds of Brazilian tropical forests. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(6):1013-1028.

Antolin, M.F., Van Horne, B., Berger, M.D., Holloway, A.K., Roach, J.L., and Weeks, R.D. 2001. Effective population size and genetic structure of a Piute ground squirrel (Spermophilus mollis) population. Can. J. Zool. 79(1):26-34.

Apsit, V.J., and Dixon, P.M. 2001. Genetic diversity and population structure in Echinacea laevigata (Boynton and Beadle) Blake, an endangered plant species. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):71-77.

Auld, T.D., and Denham, A.J. 2001. The impact of seed predation by mammals on post-fire seed accumulation in the endangered shrub Grevillea caleyi (Proteaceae). Biol. Conserv. 97(3):377-385.

Azeroual, A., Crivelli, A.J., Yahyaoui, A., and Dakki, M. 2000. The ichthyofauna of the inland waters of Morocco. Cybium 24(3):17-22.

Barbaresi, S., and Gherardi, F. 2000. The invasion of the alien crayfish Procambarus clarkii in Europe, with particular reference to Italy. Biol. Invasions 2(3):259-264.

Barros, F. 2001. Ghost crabs as a tool for rapid assessment of human impacts on exposed sandy beaches. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):399-404.

Berger, J., Swenson, J.E., and Persson, I.L. 2001. Recolonizing carnivores and naive prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions. Science 291(5506):1036-1039.

Berthold, P., van den Bossche, W., Fiedler, W., Gorney, E., Kaatz, M., Leshem, Y., Nowak, E., and Querner, U. 2001. The migration of the white stork (Ciconia ciconia): a special case according to new data. J. Ornithol. 142(1):73-92.

Bhuju, D.R., and Ohsawa, M. 2001. Patch implications in the maintenance of species richness in an isolated forest site. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):117-125.

Blanche, K.R., Andersen, A.N., and Ludwig, J.A. 2001. Rainfall-contingent detection of fire impacts: responses of beetles to experimental fire regimes. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):86-96.

Blondel, J. 2000. Evolution and ecology of birds on islands: trends and prospects. Vie Milieu 50(4):205-220.

Blumstein, D.T., Daniel, J.C., and Bryant, A.A. 2001. Anti-predator behavior of Vancouver Island marmots: using congeners to evaluate abilities of a critically endangered mammal. Ethology 107(1):1-14.

Bogaert, J., Salvador-Van Eysenrode, D., Impens, I., and Van Hecke, P. 2001. The interior-to-edge breakpoint distance as a guideline for nature conservation policy. Environ. Manage. 27(4):493-500.

Borad, C.K., Mukherjee, A., and Parasharya, B.M. 2001. Nest site selection by the Indian sarus crane in the paddy crop agroecosystem. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):89-96.

Bosch, J., Martínez-Solano, I., and García-París, M. 2001. Evidence of a chytrid fungus infection involved in the decline of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in protected areas of central Spain. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):331-337.

Brannstrom, C., and Oliveira, A.M.S. 2000. Human modification of stream valleys in the Western Plateau of São Paulo, Brazil: implications for environmental narratives and management. Land Degrad. Dev. 11(6):535-548.

Brown, J.H., Ernest, S.K.M., Parody, J.M., and Haskell, J.P. 2001. Regulation of diversity: maintenance of species richness in changing environments. Oecologia 126(3):321-332.

Bruinjnzeel, L.A., and Hamilton, L.S. 2000. Decision Time for Cloud Forests. IHP Humid Tropics Programme Series No.13. UNESCO/IHP, WWF, IUCN. Paris and Gland. 41 pp.

Budelsky, R.A., and Galatowitsch, S.M. 2000. Effects of water regime and competition on the establishment of a native sedge in restored wetlands. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(6):971-985.

Collins, B., White, P.S., and Imm, D.W. 2001. Introduction to ecology and management of rare plants of the southeast. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):4-11.

Coppedge, B.R., Engle, D.M., Masters, R.E., and Gregory, M.S. 2001. Avian response to landscape change in fragmented southern great plains grasslands. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):47-59.

Courchamp, F., and Cornell, S.J. 2000. Virus-vectored immunocontraception to control feral cats on islands: a mathematical model. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(6):903-913.

Crooks, K.R., Scott, C.A., and Van Vuren, D.H. 2001. Exotic disease and an insular endemic carnivore, the island fox. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):55-60.

Culver, C.S., and Kuris, A.M. 2000. The apparent eradication of a locally established introduced marine pest. Biol. Invasions 2(3):245-253.

Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R., and Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A. 2001. Countryside biogeography: use of human-dominated habitats by the avifauna of southern Costa Rica. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):1-13.

Dees, C.S., Clark, J.D., and Van Manen, F.T. 2001. Florida panther habitat use in response to prescribed fire. J. Wildlife Manag. 65(1):141-147.

Degn, H.J. 2001. Succession from farmland to heathland: a case for conservation of nature and historic farming methods. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):319-330.

Demeke, Y., and Bekele, A. 2000. Population estimates and threats to elephants Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach 1797) in the Mago National Park, Ethiopia. Trop. Zool. 13(2):227-237.

Devy, M.S., and Davidar, P. 2001. Response of wet forest butterflies to selective logging in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve: implications for conservation. Curr. Sci. 80(3):400-405.

Djalal, H. 2000. South China Sea island disputes. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:9-21.

Dutt, S. 2001. Beyond 2000: a management vision for the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. Curr. Sci. 80(3):442-447.

Edwards, A.L., and Weakley, A.S. 2001. Population biology and management of rare plants in depression wetlands of the southeastern coastal plain, USA. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):12-35.

Eizirik, E., Kim, J.H., Menotti-Raymond, M., Crawshaw, P.G., O'Brien, S.J., and Johnson, W.E. 2001. Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca , Mammalia, Felidae). Mol. Ecol. 10(1):65-79.

Embaye, K. 2000. The indigenous bamboo forests of Ethiopia: an overview. Ambio 29(8):518-521.

Engelmark, O., Sjoberg, K., Andersson, B., Rosvall, O., Agren, G.I., Baker, W.L., Barklund, P., Bjorkman, C., Despain, D.G., Elfving, B., Ennos, R.A., Karlman, M., Knecht, M.F., Knight, D.H., Ledgard, N.J., Lindelow, A., Nilsson, C., Peterken, G.F., Sorlin, S., and Sykes, M.T. 2001. Ecological effects and management aspects of an exotic tree species: the case of lodgepole pine in Sweden. Forest Ecol. Manag. 141(1-2):3-13.

Fabiszewski, J., and Brej, T. 2000. Contemporary habitat and floristic changes in the Sudeten Mts. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 69(3):215-222.

Fernandez, M., Jaramillo, E., Marquet, P.A., Moreno, C.A., Navarrete, S.A., Ojeda, F.P., Valdovinos, C.R., and Vasquez, J.A. 2000. Diversity, dynamics and biogeography of Chilean benthic nearshore ecosystems: an overview and guidelines for conservation. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 73(4):797-830.

Findley, J.S., and Findley, M.T. 2001. Global, regional, and local patterns in species richness and abundance of butterflyfishes. Ecol. Monogr. 71(1):69-91.

Fleishman, E., Launer, A.E., Switky, K.R., Yandell, U., Heywood, J., and Murphy, D.D. 2001. Rules and exceptions in conservation genetics: genetic assessment of the endangered plant Cordylanthus palmatus and its implications for management planning. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):45-53.

Fraser, K.W., Cone, J.M., and Whitford, E.J. 2000. A revision of the established ranges and new populations of 11 introduced ungulate species in New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 30(4):419-437.

Freeman, M.C., Bowen, Z.H., Bovee, K.D., and Irwin, E.R. 2001. Flow and habitat effects on juvenile fish abundance in natural and altered flow regimes. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):179-190.

Gerrard, R., Stine, P., Church, R., and Gilpin, M. 2001. Habitat evaluation using GIS - a case study applied to the San Joaquin kit fox. Landscape Urban Plan. 52(4):239-255.

Gibbs, J.P., and Stanton, E.J. 2001. Habitat fragmentation and arthropod community change: carrion beetles, phoretic mites, and flies. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):79-85.

Gioia, P., and Pigott, J.P. 2000. Biodiversity assessment: a case study in predicting richness from the potential distributions of plant species in the forests of south-western Australia. J. Biogeogr. 27(5):1065-1078.

Glitzenstein, J.S., Streng, D.R., Wade, D.D., and Brubaker, J. 2001. Starting new populations of longleaf pine ground-layer plants in the outer coastal plain of South Carolina, USA. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):89-110.

Godefroid, S. 2001. Temporal analysis of the Brussels flora as indicator for changing environmental quality. Landscape Urban Plan. 52(4):203-224.

Godinho, F.N., and Ferreira, M.T. 2000. Composition of endemic fish assemblages in relation to exotic species and river regulation in a temperate stream. Biol. Invasions 2(3):231-244.

Godt, M.J.W., and Hamrick, J.L. 2001. Genetic diversity in rare southeastern plants. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):61-70.

Gortazar, C., Herrero, J., Villafuerte, R., and Marco, J. 2000. Historical examination of the status of large mammals in Aragon, Spain. Mammalia 64(4):411-422.

Gratwicke, B., and Marshall, B.E. 2001. The relationship between the exotic predators Micropterus salmoides and Serranochromis robustus and native stream fishes in Zimbabwe. J. Fish Biol. 58(1):68-75.

Grice, A.C., Radford, I.J., and Abbott, B.N. 2000. Regional and landscape-scale patterns of shrub invasion in tropical savannas. Biol. Invasions 2(3):187-205.

Handa, I.T., and Jefferies, R.L. 2000. Assisted revegetation trials in degraded salt-marshes. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(6):944-958.

Hansen, M.M., Ruzzante, D.E., Nielsen, E.E., and Mensberg, K.L.D. 2001. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) stocking impact assessment using microsatellite DNA markers. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):148-160.

Hanski, I. 2000. Extinction debt and species credit in boreal forests: modelling the consequences of different approaches to biodiversity conservation. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 37(4):271-280.

Harcourt, A.H. 2000. Latitude and latitudinal extent: a global analysis of the Rapoport effect in a tropical mammalian taxon: primates. J. Biogeogr. 27(5):1169-1182.

Hastie, L.C., Boon, P.J., Young, M.R., and Way, S. 2001. The effects of a major flood on an endangered freshwater mussel population. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):107-115.

Heath, J.P., McKay, D.W., Pitcher, M.O., and Storey, A.E. 2001. Changes in the reproductive behaviour of the endangered Newfoundland marten (Martes americana atrata): implications for captive breeding programs. Can. J. Zool. 79(1):149-153.

Hedrick, P.W., Parker, K.M., Gutierrez-Espeleta, G.A., Rattink, A., and Lievers, K. 2000. Major histocompatibility complex variation in the Arabian oryx. Evolution 54(6):2145-2151.

Henríquez, C.A., and Simonetti, J.A. 2001. The effect of introduced herbivores upon an endangered tree (Beilschmiedia miersii, Lauraceae). Biol. Conserv. 98(1):69-76.

Hooper, D.U., Bignell, D.E., Brown, V.K., Brussaard, L., Dangerfield, J.M., Wall, D.H., Wardle, D.A., Coleman, D.C., Giller, K.E., Lavelle, P., Van der Putten, W.H., De Ruiter, P.C., Rusek, J., Silver, W.L., Tiedje, J.M., and Wolters, V. 2000. Interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: patterns, mechanisms, and feedbacks. BioScience 50(12):1049-1061.

Hooper, J.N.A., Kennedy, J.A., and van Soest, R.W.M. 2000. Annotated checklist of sponges (Porifera) of the South China Sea region. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:125-207.

Hoyle, S.D., Pople, A.R., and Toop, G.J. 2001. Mark-recapture may reveal more about ecology than about population trends: demography of a threatened ghost bat (Macroderma gigas) population. Austral Ecol. 26(1):80-92.

Humphrey, J.W., and Patterson, G.S. 2000. Effects of late summer cattle grazing on the diversity of riparian pasture vegetation in an upland conifer forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(6):986-996.

Illera, J.C. 2001. Habitat selection by the Canary Islands stonechat (Saxicola dacotiae) (Meade-Waldo, 1889) in Fuerteventura Island: a two-tier habitat approach with implications for its conservation. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):339-345.

Imm, D.W., Shealy, H.E., McLeod, K.W., and Collins, B. 2001. Rare plants of southeastern hardwood forests and the role of predictive modeling. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):36-49.

Incoll, R.D., Loyn, R.H., Ward, S.J., Cunningham, R.B., and Donnelly, C.F. 2001. The occurrence of gliding possums in old-growth forest patches of mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) in the Central Highlands of Victoria. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):77-88.

Ivanov, V.P., Kamakin, A.M., Ushivtzev, V.B., Shiganova, T., Zhukova, O., Aladin, N., Wilson, S.I., Harbison, G.R., and Dumont, H.J. 2000. Invasion of the Caspian Sea by the comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). Biol. Invasions 2(3):255-258.

Jain, S.K. 2000. Human aspects of plant diversity. Econ. Bot. 54(4):459-470.

Jha, S. 2000. Conservation and preservation through community participation in two Indian projects: a policy perspective. Ambio 29(8):527-528.

Johnsingh, A.J.T. 2001. The Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve: a global heritage of biological diversity. Curr. Sci. 80(3):378-388.

Johst, K., Brandl, R., and Pfeifer, R. 2001. Foraging in a patchy and dynamic landscape: human land use and the white stork. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):60-69.

Jones, D.S., Hewitt, M.A., and Sampey, A. 2000. A checklist of the Cirripedia of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:233-307.

Kaiser, J. 2001. Ecological restoration - NRC panel pokes holes in Everglades scheme. Science 291(5506):959-961.

Kammenga, J.E., Van Gestel, C.A.M., and Hornung, E. 2001. Switching life-history sensitivities to stress in soil invertebrates. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):226-238.

Kirby, K.J., and Thomas, R.C. 2000. Changes in the ground flora in Wytham Woods, southern England from 1974 to 1991 - implications for nature conservation. J. Veg. Sci. 11(6):871-880.

Komai, T. 2000. A check list of Thalassinidea and Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda) from the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:343-376.

Koshy, K.C., and Harikumar, D. 2000. Flowering incidences and breeding system in Bambusa vulgaris. Curr. Sci. 79(12):1650-1652.

Lagana, A., Salerni, E., Barluzzi, C., Perini, C., and De Dominicis, V. 2000. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy). Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 69(4):293-298.

Lake, P.S., Palmer, M.A., Biro, P., Cole, J., Covich, A.P., Dahm, C., Gibert, J., Goedkoop, W., Martens, K., and Verhoeven, J. 2000. Global change and the biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems: impacts on linkages between above-sediment and sediment biota. BioScience 50(12):1099-1107.

Lane, D.J.W., Marsh, L.M., VandenSpiegel, D., and Rowe, F.W.E. 2000. Echinoderm fauna of the South China Sea: an inventory and analysis of distribution patterns. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:459-493.

Loison, A., Strand, O., and Linnell, J.D.C. 2001. Effect of temporal variation in reproduction on models of population viability: a case study for remnant arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) populations in Scandinavia. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):347-359.

Lowry, J.K. 2000. Taxonomic status of amphipod crustaceans in the South China Sea with a checklist of known species. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:309-342.

Loyn, R.H., McNabb, E.G., Volodina, L., and Willig, R. 2001. Modelling landscape distributions of large forest owls as applied to managing forests in north-east Victoria, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):361-376.

Maikhuri, R.K., Rana, U., Rao, K.S., Nautiyal, S., and Saxena, K.G. 2000. Promoting ecotourism in the buffer zone areas of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve: an option to resolve people-policy conflict. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 7(4):333-342.

Martinez, R.V., and Phillips, O.L. 2000. Allpahuayo: floristics, structure, and dynamics of a high-diversity forest in Amazonian Peru. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 87(4):499-527.

Marusik, Y.M., and Koponen, S. 2000. Circumpolar diversity of spiders: implications for research, conservation and management. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 37(4):265-269.

Matocq, M.D., and Villablanca, F.X. 2001. Low genetic diversity in an endangered species: recent or historic pattern? Biol. Conserv. 98(1):61-68.

McClure, N.D., and Connell, N.L. 2001. Environmental restoration measures on the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway - an update. Environ. Geol. 40(4-5):566-570.

McCoy, T.D., Ryan, M.R., Burger, L.W., and Kurzejeski, E.W. 2001. Grassland bird conservation: CP1 vs. CP2 plantings in Conservation Reserve Program fields in Missouri. Am. Midl. Nat. 145(1):1-17.

McGraw, J.B. 2001. Evidence for decline in stature of American ginseng plants from herbarium specimens. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):25-32.

Melkani, V.K. 2001. Involving local people in biodiversity conservation in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve - an overview. Curr. Sci. 80(3):437-441.

Meyer, D.L., Johnson, J.M., and Gill, J.W. 2001. Comparison of nekton use of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 209:71-84.

Moosa, M.K. 2000. Marine biodiversity of the South China Sea: a checklist of stomatopod Crustacea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:405-457.

Moreno, C.A. 2001. Community patterns generated by human harvesting on Chilean shores: a review. Aquat. Conserv. 11(1):19-30.

Mudappa, D., Kumar, A., and Chellam, R. 2001. Abundance and habitat selection of the Malabar spiny dormouse in the rainforests of the southern Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 80(3):424-427.

Negro, J.J., Torres, M.J., and Godoy, J.A. 2001. RAPD analysis for detection and eradication of hybrid partridges (Alectoris rufa x A. graeca) in Spain. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):19-24.

Ng, P.K.L., and Tan, K.S. 2000. The state of marine biodiversity in the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:3-7.

Niemelä, J. 2000. Biodiversity monitoring for decision-making. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 37(4):307-317.

Nieminen, M., Singer, M.C., Fortelius, W., Schops, K., and Hanski, I. 2001. Experimental confirmation that inbreeding depression increases extinction risk in butterfly populations. Am. Nat. 157(2):237-244.

Norman, M.D., and Lu, C.C. 2000. Preliminary checklist of the cephalopods of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:539-567.

Ochoa-Gaona, S. 2001. Traditional land-use systems and patterns of forest fragmentation in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ. Manage. 27(4):571-586.

On, T.V., Quyen, D., Bich, L.D., Jones, B., Wunder, J., and Russell-Smith, J. 2001. A survey of medicinal plants in BaVi National Park, Vietnam: methodology and implications for conservation and sustainable use. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):295-304.

Ottichilo, W.K., de Leeuw, J., and Prins, H.H.T. 2001. Population trends of resident wildebeest [Connochaetes taurinus hecki (Neumann)] and factors influencing them in the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):271-282.

Palmer, M.A., Covich, A.P., Lake, S., Biro, P., Brooks, J.J., Cole, J., Dahm, C., Gibert, J., Goedkoop, W., Martens, K., and Verhoeven, J. 2000. Linkages between aquatic sediment biota and life above sediments as potential drivers of biodiversity and ecological processes. BioScience 50(12):1062-1075.

Parthasarathy, N. 2001. Changes in forest composition and structure in three sites of tropical evergreen forest around Sengaltheri, Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 80(3):389-393.

Paxton, H., and Chou, L.M. 2000. Polychaetous annelids from the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:209-232.

Pearce, J., and Ferrier, S. 2001. The practical value of modelling relative abundance of species for regional conservation planning: a case study. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):33-43.

Peterken, G.F. 2001. Ecological effects of introduced tree species in Britain. Forest Ecol. Manag. 141(1-2):31-42.

Pettit, N.E., and Froend, R.H. 2001. Long-term changes in the vegetation after the cessation of livestock grazing in Eucalyptus marginata (Jarrah) woodland remnants. Austral Ecol. 26(1):22-31.

Philippi, T., Collins, B., Guisti, S., and Dixon, P.M. 2001. A multistage approach to population monitoring for rare plant populations. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):111-116.

Pirnat, J. 2000. Conservation and management of forest patches and corridors in suburban landscapes. Landscape Urban Plan. 52(2-3):135-143.

Pradhan, S., Saha, G.K., and Khan, J.A. 2001. Ecology of the red panda Ailurus fulgens in the Singhalila National Park, Darjeeling, India. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):11-18.

Rahayu, D.L. 2000. Hermit crabs from the South China Sea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae, Paguridae, Parapaguridae). Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:377-404.

Randall, J.E., and Lim, K.K.P. 2000. A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:569-667.

Rao, P.B., Subrahmanyam, K., and Dhar, R.L. 2001. Geoenvironmental effects of groundwater regime in Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ. Geol. 40(4-5):632-642.

Renjifo, L.M. 2001. Effect of natural and anthropogenic landscape matrices on the abundance of subandean bird species. Ecol. Appl. 11(1):14-31.

Requena, N., Perez-Solis, E., Azcon-Aguilar, C., Jeffries, P., and Barea, J.M. 2001. Management of indigenous plant-microbe symbioses aids restoration of desertified ecosystems. Appl. Environ. Microb. 67(2):495-498.

Robertson, H.A., and Colbourne, R.M. 2001. Survival of little spotted kiwi exposed to the rodenticide brodifacoum. J. Wildlife Manag. 65(1):29-34.

Roig-Junent, S., Flores, G., Claver, S., Debandi, G., and Marvaldi, A. 2001. Monte Desert (Argentina): insect biodiversity and natural areas. J. Arid Environ. 47(1):77-94.

Rushton, S.P., Lurz, P.W.W., Gurnell, J., and Fuller, R. 2000. Modelling the spatial dynamics of parapoxvirus disease in red and grey squirrels: a possible cause of the decline in the red squirrel in the UK? J. Appl. Ecol. 37(6):997-1012.

Sachidhanandam, U., Willan, R.C., and Chou, L.M. 2000. Checklist of the nudibranchs (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:513-537.

Sand-Jensen, K., Riis, T., Vestergaard, O., and Larsen, S.E. 2000. Macrophyte decline in Danish lakes and streams over the past 100 years. J. Ecology 88(6):1030-1040.

Sankaran, R. 2001. The status and conservation of the edible-nest swiftlet (Collocalia fuciphaga) in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):283-294.

Santiapillai, C., and de Silva, M. 2001. Status, distribution and conservation of crocodiles in Sri Lanka. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):305-318.

Scasso, F., Mazzeo, N., Gorga, J., Kruk, C., Lacerot, G., Clemente, J., Fabian, D., and Bonilla, S. 2001. Limnological changes in a sub-tropical shallow hypertrophic lake during its restoration: two years of a whole-lake experiment. Aquat. Conserv. 11(1):31-44.

Selikhovkin, A. 2000. Conservation and management of animal populations in the Russian forest management system. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 37(4):299-306.

Service, R.F. 2001. West's energy woes threaten salmon runs. Science 291(5508):1470-1471.

Shea, K., and Mangel, M. 2001. Detection of population trends in threatened coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(2):375-385.

Siboe, G.M., Kirk, P.M., David, J.C., and Cannon, P.F. 2000. Necrotrophic fungi from Kenyan endemic and rare plants. Sydowia 52(2):286-304.

Sierra, R. 2001. The role of domestic timber markets in tropical deforestation and forest degradation in Ecuador: implications for conservation planning and policy. Ecol. Econ. 36(2):327-340.

Simberloff, D. 2000. What do we really know about habitat fragmentation? Tex. J. Sci. 52(4):5-22.

Smith, C.R., Austen, M.C., Boucher, G., Heip, C., Hutchings, P.A., King, G.M., Koike, I., Lambshead, P.J.D., and Snelgrove, P. 2000. Global change and biodiversity linkages across the sediment-water interface. BioScience 50(12):1108-1120.

Smith, M.D., and Knapp, A.K. 2001. Size of the local species pool determines invasibility of a C4-dominated grassland. Oikos 92(1):55-61.

Smith, R.S., Shiel, R.S., Millward, D., and Corkhill, P. 2000. The interactive effects of management on the productivity and plant community structure of an upland meadow: an 8-year field trial. J. Appl. Ecol. 37(6):1029-1043.

Snelgrove, P.V.R., Austen, M.C., Boucher, G., Heip, C., Hutchings, P.A., King, G.M., Koike, I., Lambshead, P.J.D., and Smith, C.R. 2000. Linking biodiversity above and below the marine sediment-water interface. BioScience 50(12):1076-1088.

Spencer, D.R., Perry, J.E., and Silberhorn, G.M. 2001. Early secondary succession in bottomland hardwood forests of southeastern Virginia. Environ. Manage. 27(4):559-570.

Spira, T.P. 2001. Plant-pollinator interactions: a threatened mutualism with implications for the ecology and management of rare plants. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):78-88.

Stout, I.J. 2001. Rare plants of the Florida scrub, USA. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):50-60.

Sun, L.X., Shine, R., Debi, Z., and Zhengren, T. 2001. Biotic and abiotic influences on activity patterns of insular pit-vipers (Gloydius shedaoensis, Viperidae) from north-eastern China. Biol. Conserv. 97(3):387-398.

Sun, Y.H., Jia, C.X., and Fang, Y. 2001. The distribution and status of Sichuan grey jay (Perisoreus internigrans). J. Ornithol. 142(1):93-98.

Sunderraj, S.F.W., and Johnsingh, A.J.T. 2001. Impact of biotic disturbances on Nilgiri langur habitat, demography and group dynamics. Curr. Sci. 80(3):428-436.

Supriatna, J. 2001. All sectors of society must work together to save biodiversity. Nature 410(6824):14.

Tan, K.S. 2000. Species checklist of Muricidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:495-512.

Taylor, E.B., Redenbach, Z., Costello, A.B., Pollard, S.M., and Pacas, C.J. 2001. Nested analysis of genetic diversity in northwestern North American char, Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma ) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(2):406-420.

Turner, I.M. 2000. A bibliography of materials pertaining to the marine and littoral vascular-plant floras and vegetation of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:117-124.

Turner, I.M., Xing, F.W., and Corlett, R.T. 2000. An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 8:23-116.

Vilà, M., Weber, E., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2000. Conservation implications of invasion by plant hybridization. Biol. Invasions 2(3):207-217.

Vuorisalo, T., and Laihonen, P. 2000. Biodiversity conservation in the north: history of habitat and species protection in Finland. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 37(4):281-297.

Walker, C.W., Vilà, C., Landa, A., Lindén, M., and Ellegren, H. 2001. Genetic variation and population structure in Scandinavian wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations. Mol. Ecol. 10(1):53-64.

Weider, L.J., and Hobæk, A. 2000. Phylogeography and arctic biodiversity: a review. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 37(4):217-231.

Whitlock, M.C. 2000. Fixation of new alleles and the extinction of small populations: drift load, beneficial alleles, and sexual selection. Evolution 54(6):1855-1861.

Williams, C. 2001. William Bartram's legacy. Nat. Areas J. 21(1):3.

Williams, S.E., and Hero, J.M. 2001. Multiple determinants of Australian tropical frog biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):1-10.

Wolters, V., Silver, W.L., Bignell, D.E., Coleman, D.C., Lavelle, P., Van der Putten, W.H., De Ruiter, P., Rusek, J., Wall, D.H., Wardle, D.A., Brussaard, L., Dangerfield, J.M., Brown, V.K., Giller, K.E., Hooper, D.U., Sala, O., Tiedje, J., and Van Veen, J.A. 2000. Effects of global changes on above- and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: implications for ecosystem functioning. BioScience 50(12):1089-1098.

Wright, R.G., Scott, J.M., Mann, S., and Murray, M. 2001. Identifying unprotected and potentially at risk plant communities in the western USA. Biol. Conserv. 98(1):97-106.

Zacharias, M.A., and Roff, J.C. 2001. Use of focal species in marine conservation and management: a review and critique. Aquat. Conserv. 11(1):59-76.

Zavaleta, E. 2000. The economic value of controlling an invasive shrub. Ambio 29(8):462-467.

Zettler, L.W., Stewart, S.L., Bowles, M.L., and Jacobs, K.A. 2001. Mycorrhizal fungi and cold-assisted symbiotic germination of the federally threatened eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nuttall) Lindley. Am. Midl. Nat. 145(1):168-175.

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