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Department ofBotany

No. 197
May 2001

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In This Issue

"Centres of Plant Diversity" on the Web

Centres of Plant Diversity: A Guide and Strategy for Their ConservationVolume 3: The Americas, published in 1997 by the World Wildlife Fund and The World Conservation Union (IUCN), has been recreated into a user-friendly website, available at The book and website were prepared under the coordination of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Systematic Biology - Botany. The website is part of a three-volume work that contains accounts of nearly 250 major sites for conservation of plant diversity worldwide. Volume 3 deals with the Americas, and contains six sites in North America, 20 in Middle America, 46 in South America, and three in the Caribbean. The web version of the printed volume contains all the same material, including tables, figures and additional pictures.

Centres of Plant Diversity: The Americas

The rationale for the project is the international concern about the rapid global loss and degradation of natural ecosystems and the urgent need to highlight areas of pristine botanical importance, with the hope that these will receive adequate levels of resources to ensure their protection. The 75 sites have been selected partly on the basis of floristic studies, but especially with reference to the detailed knowledge of over 100 botanists familiar with this region. Each site is set within a regional context, outlining wider patterns of plant distributions, threats and conservation efforts. Regional overviews include very useful tables giving information on species richness and endemism, floristic diversity and endemism by region, degree of threat, and an analysis of the conservation status of the sites.

This work is essential reading for all those concerned with planning land use strategies for conservation and appropriate development. It is hoped that this global assessment will be followed by further assessments at the local level, so that the vital tasks of conservation of plant diversity can be well integrated in detail into national and regional conservation and development strategies.

Coral Reef Ecosystems in Danger

In a recent paper published in Ecosystem Health (2000, 6:227-236) by Walter Adey of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, the global status of coral reef ecosystems was reviewed. Based on widespread consensus in the coral reef research community, and a now completed, five-year research project by Adey and his students and colleagues, it was shown that coral reef ecosystems are in danger of large, irretrievable biodiversity losses. Coral reefs have an extraordinary physiology and structure that gives rise to both high biodiversity (over three million species globally) and the development of unique defensive secondary chemical compounds by many reef organisms. Coral reef organisms have the potential for providing antiviral, antibiotic, and anticancer compounds along with other pharmaceutical possibilities. Yet, as Adey points out, "less than 10% of reef biodiversity is currently known and only a small fraction of that percent has been tested for active compounds." It is predicted that 70% of coral reefs worldwide will be destroyed over the next 40 years unless countermeasures are taken. Adey advocates that an "international effort is required on a proportionally short time frame to bring together a mutually supportive effort to preserve and enhance the health of both human society and coral reef ecosystems." An intensive and immediate, expanded research program by natural history museums and other systematic research organizations is necessary to provide the understanding of the biota required to support this effort.

Swinging Back From the Brink of Extinction

The Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), one of the world's most endangered primates 30 years ago, now has a chance of survival. A recent birth brought their population in the wild to 1,000. In the 1970s, the Tamarin was on the brink of extinction, with less than 200 left in the wild. After years of conservation work, the 1000th, a baby male, was born in March 2001. The Golden Lion Tamarin is found only in the lowland coastal Atlantic forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Project, supported by the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), aims to protect the Tamarin's highly diverse and threatened habitat, the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. The world's second most endangered vegetation type after the forests of Madagascar, it once covered more than 100 million hectares, but has been reduced to 7% of its original area by urban and resort developments along the coast and agricultural developments inland. The biggest threat of the Tamarin is habitat destruction for urban development, rice fields and cattle pasture. The Golden Lion Tamarin is found in the Poço das Antas and União Reserves and in privately owned forests. The area of forest now under protection measures 16,600 hectares, including the original 6,300 hectares of Poço das Antas.

- adapted from WWF

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Earth Science Photographs <> is a database of photographs from the US Geological Survey (USGS). Photographs are searchable by geologic category, national park or monument name, photographer, or search term. The photographs, from the USGS library, are both color and black-and-white, recent and historic, and many are accompanied by explanatory captions. The geologic categories include erosion, glaciation, ground water, volcanism, and sedimentary processes, among others. Some of the spectacular National Parks and Monuments represented include Hawaii Volcanoes, Death Valley, Arches, and Mammoth Cave. A few photos taken by USGS geologists in foreign countries are also included. The thumbnails expand to full-sized jpeg images. This is a good source of stock photos of geological features.

- from The Scout Report for Science & Engineering,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

The nonprofit organization Discover Life <> has combined forces with the National Park Service to conduct an "All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory"a comprehensive inventory of all life forms in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The 800-square-mile national park lies within the states of North Carolina and Tennessee and encompasses some of the richest biodiversity in the Temperate Zone. The Discover Life homepage provides background information on this ambitious initiative, including an internal search engine (for accessing additional resources on the Park's taxa and experts involved with the project), links to educational resources, status of the inventory, and much more.

- from The Scout Report

Current Literature

Adey, W.H. 2000. Coral reef ecosystems and human health: biodiversity counts! Ecosyst. Health 6(4):227-236.

Agoramoorthy, G., and Hsu, M.J. 2001. Conservation should be a high priority in Singapore. Nature 410(6825):144.

Ailstock, M.S., Norman, C.M., and Bushmann, P.J. 2001. Common reed Phragmites australis: control and effects upon biodiversity in freshwater nontidal wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):49-59.

Anderson, P.N. 2001. Community-based conservation and social change amongst south Indian honey-hunters: an anthropological perspective. Oryx 35(1):81-83.

Bahloul, K., Pereladova, O.B., Soldatova, N., Fisenko, G., Sidorenko, E., and Sempéré, A.J. 2001. Social organization and dispersion of introduced kulans (Equus hemionus kulan) and Przewalski horses (Equus przewalski) in the Bukhara Reserve, Uzbekistan. J. Arid Environ. 47(3):309-323.

Bai, Y.G., Abouguendia, Z., and Redmann, R.E. 2001. Relationship between plant species diversity and grassland condition. J. Range Manag. 54(2):177-183.

Balaji, V. 2001. Towards a biodiversity information network for India. Curr. Sci. 80(5):604-605.

Balvanera, P., Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R., Ricketts, T.H., Bailey, S.A., Kark, S., Kremen, C., and Pereira, H. 2001. Conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Science 291(5511):2047.

Barber, D.R., Martin, T.E., Melchiors, M.A., Thill, R.E., and Wigley, T.B. 2001. Nesting success of birds in different silvicultural treatments in southeastern US pine forests. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):196-207.

Barnett, J.M., Kirwan, G.M., Pearman, M., Naka, L.N., and Tobias, J.A. 2000. Rediscovery and subsequent observations of Kaempfer's Tody-tyrant Hemitriccus kaempferi in Santa Catarina, Brazil, with notes on conservation, life history and plumage. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(4):371-379.

Bates, P.J.J., Nwe, T., Pearch, M.J., Swe, K.M., Bu, S.S.H., and Tun, T. 2000. A review of bat research in Myanmar (Burma) and results of a recent survey. Acta Chiropterologica 2(1):53-82.

Beebee, T., and Rowe, G. 2001. Application of genetic bottleneck testing to the investigation of amphibian declines: a case study with natterjack toads. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):266-270.

Belda, E.J., and Sánchez, A. 2001. Seabird mortality on longline fisheries in the western Mediterranean: factors affecting bycatch and proposed mitigating measures. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):357-363.

Bisang, I., and Hedenäs, L. 2000. How do we select bryophyte species for conservation, and how should we conserve them? Lindbergia 25(2-3):62-78.

Boikov, T.G., Kharitonov, Y.D., Buinova, M.G., and Badmaeva, N.K. 2001. Ecological and biological features of melic (Melica virgata Turch. ex Trin.) in Transbaikalia. Russian J. Ecol. 32(1):17-21.

Boone, M.D., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2001. Interactions of an insecticide with larval density and predation in experimental amphibian communities. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):228-238.

Bourque, J., and Villard, M.A. 2001. Effects of selection cutting and landscape-scale harvesting on the reproductive success of two neotropical migrant bird species. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):184-195.

Boyd, R.S. 2001. Ecological benefits of myrmecochory for the endangered chaparral shrub Fremontodendron decumbens (Sterculiaceae). Am. J. Bot. 88(2):234-241.

Bridges, C.M., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2001. Genetic variation in insecticide tolerance in a population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala): implications for amphibian conservation. Copeia 101(1):7-13.

Brooks, C.N., and Merenlender, A.M. 2001. Determining the pattern of oak woodland regeneration for a cleared watershed in northwest California: a necessary first step for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):1-12.

Brown, C.S., and Bugg, R.L. 2001. Effects of established perennial grasses on introduction of native forbs in California. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):38-48.

Bulger, A.G., and Edds, D.R. 2001. Population structure and habitat use in Neosho madtom (Noturus placidus ). Southwest. Nat. 46(1):8-15.

Bundy, J.M., and Bestgen, K.R. 2001. Confirmation of daily increment deposition in otoliths of young razorback suckers. Southwest. Nat. 46(1):34-40.

Burger, J.C., Patten, M.A., Prentice, T.R., and Redak, R.A. 2001. Evidence for spider community resilience to invasion by non-native spiders. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):241-249.

Cadenasso, M.L., and Pickett, S.T.A. 2001. Effect of edge structure on the flux of species into forest interiors. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):91-97.

Caiola, N.A., Vargas, M.J., and de Sostoa, A. 2001. Life history pattern of the endangered Valencia toothcarp, Valencia hispanica (Actinopterygii: Valenciidae) and its implications for conservation. Arch. Hydrobiol. 150(3):473-489.

Cane, J.H. 2001. Habitat fragmentation and native bees: a premature verdict? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):3. <>

Cane, J.H., and Tepedino, V.J. 2001. Causes and extent of declines among native North American invertebrate pollinators: detection, evidence, and consequences. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):1. <>

Caro, T.M. 2001. Species richness and abundance of small mammals inside and outside an African national park. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):251-257.

Chung, M.G., Chung, M.Y., and Epperson, B.K. 2001. Conservation genetics of an endangered herb, Hanabusaya asiatica (Campanulaceae). Plant Biol. 3(1):42-49.

Ciani, A.C., Martinoli, L., Capiluppi, C., Arahou, M., and Mouna, M. 2001. Effects of water availability and habitat quality on bark-stripping behavior in Barbary macaques. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):259-265.

Clark, T.W. 2001. Developing policy-oriented curricula for conservation biology: professional and leadership education in the public interest. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):31-39.

Clausen, H.D., Holbeck, H.B., and Reddersen, J. 2001. Factors influencing abundance of butterflies and burnet moths in the uncultivated habitats of an organic farm in Denmark. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):167-178.

Clausnitzer, V. 2001. Notes on the species diversity of East African odonata, with a checklist of species. Odonatologica 30(1):49-66.

Cloern, J.E. 2001. Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 210:223-253.

Cole, C.T., and Kuchenreuther, M.A. 2001. Molecular markers reveal little genetic differentiation among Aconitum noveboracense and A. columbianum (Ranunculaceae) populations. Am. J. Bot. 88(2):337-347.

Conte, L., and Cristofolini, G. 2000. Infraspecific diversity of Cytisus emeriflorus Reichenb. (Leguminosae), an endemic plant with disjunct distribution: evidence from isozyme data. Plant Biosystems 134(3):373-384.

Costin, B.J., Morgan, J.W., and Young, A.G. 2001. Reproductive success does not decline in fragmented populations of Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. tricolor (Asteraceae). Biol. Conserv. 98(3):273-284.

Cottingham, K.L., Brown, B.L., and Lennon, J.T. 2001. Biodiversity may regulate the temporal variability of ecological systems. Ecol. Lett. 4(1):72-85.

Creel, S. 2001. Four factors modifying the effect of competition on carnivore population dynamics as illustrated by African wild dogs. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):271-274.

Crooks, K.R., Suarez, A.V., Bolger, D.T., and Soulé, M.E. 2001. Extinction and colonization of birds on habitat islands. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):159-172.

Cypher, B.L., Warrick, G.D., Otten, M.R.M., O'Farrell, T.P., Berry, W.H., Harris, C.E., Kato, T.T., McCue, P.M., Scrivner, J.H., and Zoellick, B.W. 2000. Population dynamics of San Joaquin kit foxes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Wildlife Monogr. (145):1-43.

Dale, S. 2001. Female-biased dispersal, low female recruitment, unpaired males, and the extinction of small and isolated bird populations. Oikos 92(2):344-356.

De Groot, K.L., and Smith, J.N.M. 2001. Community-wide impacts of a generalist brood parasite, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). Ecology 82(3):868-881.

Debinski, D.M., Ray, C., and Saveraid, E.H. 2001. Species diversity and the scale of the landscape mosaic: do scales of movement and patch size affect diversity? Biol. Conserv. 98(2):179-190.

Ding, C.Q., and Zheng, G.M. 2000. The regions of conservation importance for grouse, partridges and pheasants in China. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(4):319-330.

Dixon, D.J. 2001. Figs, wasps and species concepts: a re-evaluation of the infraspecific taxa of Ficus macrophylla (Moraceae: Urostigma sect. Malvanthera). Aust. Syst. Bot. 14(1):125-132.

Dukes, J.S. 2001. Biodiversity and invasibility in grassland microcosms. Oecologia 126(4):563-568.

Durell, S.E.A.L.D. 2000. Individual feeding specialisation in shorebirds: population consequences and conservation implications. Biol. Rev. 75(4):503-518.

Ehrlén, J., Van Groenendael, J., and De Kroon, H. 2001. Reliability of elasticity analysis: reply to Mills et al. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):278-280.

Elgar, M.A., and Clode, D. 2001. Inbreeding and extinction in island populations: a cautionary note. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):284-286.

Evans, D.M., and Day, K.R. 2001. Does shooting disturbance affect diving ducks wintering on large shallow lakes? A case study on Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):315-323.

Fairbanks, D.H.K., Reyers, B., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2001. Species and environment representation: selecting reserves for the retention of avian diversity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):365-379.

Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2001. Density dependent habitat selection of corridors in a fragmented landscape. Ibis 143(2):278-287.

Fiedler, C.E., Arno, S.F., Keegan, C.E., and Blatner, K.A. 2001. Overcoming America's wood deficit: an overlooked option. BioScience 51(1):53-58.

Finney, S.K., Wanless, S., Harris, M.P., and Monaghan, P. 2001. The impact of gulls on puffin reproductive performance: an experimental test of two management strategies. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):159-165.

Flaspohler, D.J., Temple, S.A., and Rosenfield, R.N. 2001. Effects of forest edges on ovenbird demography in a managed forest landscape. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):173-183.

Frankham, R. 2001. Inbreeding and extinction in island populations: reply to Elgar and Clode. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):287-289.

Freitag, A., Martinoli, A., and Urzelai, J. 2001. Monitoring the feeding activity of nesting birds with an autonomous system: case study of the endangered wryneck Jynx torquilla. Bird Study 48:102-109.

Galetti, M. 2001. The future of the Atlantic Forest. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):4.

Gaston, K.J., Rodrigues, A.S.L., van Rensburg, B.J., Koleff, P., and Chown, S.L. 2001. Complementary representation and zones of ecological transition. Ecol. Lett. 4(1):4-9.

Gordon, C.E., and Ornelas, J.F. 2000. Comparing endemism and habitat restriction in Mesoamerican tropical deciduous forest birds: implications for biodiversity conservation planning. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(4):289-303.

Griffiths, R.A., and Williams, C. 2000. Modelling population dynamics of great crested newts (Triturus cristatus): a population viability analysis. Herp. J. 10(4):157-163.

Hackney, E.E., and McGraw, J.B. 2001. Experimental demonstration of an Allee effect in American ginseng. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):129-136.

Harlow, P.S., and Biciloa, P.N. 2001. Abundance of the Fijian crested iguana (Brachylophus vitiensis) on two islands. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):223-231.

Hedrick, P.W., Lee, R.N., and Parker, K.M. 2000. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) variation in the endangered Mexican wolf and related canids. Heredity 85(6):617-624.

Heegaard, E. 2000. Patch dynamics and/or the species-environmental relationship in conservation bryology. Lindbergia 25(2-3):85-88.

Hodgetts, N.G. 2000. Bryophyte conservation and the British National Biodiversity Network: using data for conservation. Lindbergia 25(2-3):140-143.

Holmes, P.M. 2001. Shrubland restoration following woody alien invasion and mining: effects of topsoil depth, seed source, and fertilizer addition. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):71-84.

Holt, S., Papastavrou, V., and Phillips, C. 2001. Response to report on the CITES conference in Nairobi, insofar as it refers to whales. Oryx 35(1):84-85.

Huth, A., and Ditzer, T. 2001. Long-term impacts of logging in a tropical rain forest - a simulation study. Forest Ecol. Manag. 142(1-3):33-51.

Infield, M., and Namara, A. 2001. Community attitudes and behaviour towards conservation: an assessment of a community conservation programme around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Oryx 35(1):48-60.

Ingerpuu , N., and Vellak, K. 2000. Species of the Red Data Book of European bryophytes in Estonia. Lindbergia 25(2-3):111-115.

James, A., Gaston, K.J., and Balmford, A. 2001. Can we afford to conserve biodiversity? BioScience 51(1):43-52.

Jim, C.Y. 2001. Ecological and landscape rehabilitation of a quarry site in Hong Kong. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):85-94.

Johnson, D.H., and Igl, L.D. 2001. Area requirements of grassland birds: a regional perspective. Auk 118(1):24-34.

Joly, P., Miaud, C., Lehmann, A., and Grolet, O. 2001. Habitat matrix effects on pond occupancy in newts. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):239-248.

Kautz, R.S., and Cox, J.A. 2001. Strategic habitats for biodiversity conservation in Florida. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):55-77.

Kearns, C.A. 2001. North American dipteran pollinators: assessing their value and conservation status. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):5. <>

Kelly, M.J. 2001. Lineage loss in Serengeti cheetahs: consequences of high reproductive variance and heritability of fitness on effective population size. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):137-147.

Kerr, J.T. 2001. Butterfly species richness patterns in Canada: energy, heterogeneity, and the potential consequences of climate change. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):10. <>

Kevan, P.G., and Phillips, T.P. 2001. The economic impacts of pollinator declines: an approach to assessing the consequences. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):8. <>

Kjoss, V.A., and Litvaitis, J.A. 2001. Community structure of snakes in a human-dominated landscape. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):285-292.

Komonen, A. 2001. Structure of insect communities inhabiting old-growth forest specialist bracket fungi. Ecol. Entomol. 26(1):63-75.

Kunnasranta, M., Hyvarinen, H., Sipila, T., and Medvedev, N. 2001. Breeding habitat and lair structure of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida ladogensis) in northern Lake Ladoga in Russia. Polar Biol. 24(3):171-174.

Laaka-Lindberg, S., Hedderson, T.A., and Longton, R.E. 2000. Rarity and reproductive characters in the British hepatic flora. Lindbergia 25(2-3):78-85.

Lahav-Ginott, S., Kadmon, R., and Gersani, M. 2001. Evaluating the viability of Acacia populations in the Negev Desert: a remote sensing approach. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):127-137.

Landergott, U., Schneller, J.J., Holderegger, R., and Kozlowski, G. 2000. Population history of the rare fern species Dryopteris cristata in Switzerland. Bot. Helvetica 110(2):151-170.

Laurance, W.F. 2001. Tropical logging and human invasions. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):4-5.

Lee, D.S., and Walsh-McGehee, M. 2000. Population estimates, conservation concerns, and management of tropicbirds in the Western Atlantic. Caribbean J. Sci. 36(3-4):267-279.

Leopold, A.C., Andrus, R., Finkeldey, A., and Knowles, D. 2001. Attempting restoration of wet tropical forests in Costa Rica. Forest Ecol. Manag. 142(1-3):243-249.

Leslie, A.J., and Spotila, J.R. 2001. Alien plant threatens Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) breeding in Lake St. Lucia, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):347-355.

Liang, L.H., Stocking, M., Brookfield, H., and Jansky, L. 2001. Biodiversity conservation through agrodiversity. Global Environ. Change 11(1):97-101.

Longton, R.E., and Hedderson, T.A. 2000. What are rare species and why conserve them? Lindbergia 25(2-3):53-61.

Lord, A., Waas, J.R., Innes, J., and Whittingham, M.J. 2001. Effects of human approaches to nests of northern New Zealand dotterels. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):233-240.

Lu, X., and Zheng, G.M. 2000. Why do eared-pheasants of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau show so much morphological variation? Bird Conserv. Int. 10(4):305-309.

Marchant, J. 2001. Stopped in its tracks - Some conservation efforts may be driving rhino numbers down. New Sci. 169(2279):17.

Marlin, J.C., and LaBerge, W.E. 2001. The native bee fauna of Carlinville, Illinois, revisited after 75 years: a case for persistence. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):9. <>

Marsh, D.M., and Trenham, P.C. 2001. Metapopulation dynamics and amphibian conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):40-49.

Maunder, M., Lyte, B., Dransfield, J., and Baker, W. 2001. The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):259-271.

McCarthy, M.A., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Possingham, H.P. 2001. Assessing spatial PVA models of arboreal marsupials using significance tests and Bayesian statistics. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):191-200.

McKenney, D. 2001. Thinking about the economics of genetic resource management for Canadian forestry. Forest Chron. 77(1):105-109.

McLachlan, S.M., and Bazely, D.R. 2001. Recovery patterns of understory herbs and their use as indicators of deciduous forest regeneration. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):98-110.

McNeilage, A., Plumptre, A.J., Brock-Doyle, A., and Vedder, A. 2001. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: Gorilla census 1997. Oryx 35(1):39-47.

Mikusínski, G., Gromadzki, M., and Chylarecki, P. 2001. Woodpeckers as indicators of forest bird diversity. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):208-217.

Mills, L.S., Doak, D.F., and Wisdom, M.J. 2001. Elasticity analysis for conservation decision making: reply to Ehrlén et al. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):281-283.

Montalvo, A.M., and Ellstrand, N.C. 2001. Nonlocal transplantation and outbreeding depression in the subshrub Lotus scoparius (Fabaceae). Am. J. Bot. 88(2):258-269.

Mooney, H.A., and Hobbs, R.J. (Eds.). 2000. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Island Press. Washington, DC. 457 pp.

Nakamura, T., and Short, K. 2001. Land-use planning and distribution of threatened wildlife in a city of Japan. Landscape Urban Plan. 53(1-4):1-15.

Norris, S. 2001. A new voice in conservation. BioScience 51(1):7-12.

O'Neill, G., and Paulson, D.R. 2001. An annotated list of odonata collected in Ghana in 1997, a checklist of Ghana odonata, and comments on West African odonate biodiversity and biogeography. Odonatologica 30(1):67-86.

Oldham, R.S., and Humphries, R.N. 2000. Evaluating the success of great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) translocation. Herp. J. 10(4):183-190.

Olea, P.P. 2001. Postfledging dispersal in the endangered Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni. Bird Study 48:110-115.

Olfelt, J.P., Furnier, G.R., and Luby, J.J. 2001. What data determine whether a plant taxon is distinct enough to merit legal protection? A case study of Sedum integrifolium (Crassulaceae). Am. J. Bot. 88(3):401-410.

Oliver, C.D. 2001. Policies and practices: options for pursuing forest sustainability. Forest Chron. 77(1):49-60.

Packer, L., and Owen, R. 2001. Population genetic aspects of pollinator decline. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):4. <>

Pascarella, J.B. 2000. A new record for the rare and endangered tree Eugenia haematocarpa Alain (Myrtaceae) in the Sierra de Cayey Mountains, Puerto Rico. Caribbean J. Sci. 36(1-2):146.

Porembski, S., and Biedinger, N. 2001. Epiphytic ferns for sale: influence of commercial plant collection on the frequency of Platycerium stemaria (Polypodiaceae) in coconut plantations on the southeastern Ivory Coast. Plant Biol. 3(1):72-76.

Pressey, R.L., and Cowling, R.M. 2001. Reserve selection algorithms and the real world. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):275-277.

Primack, R.B. 2001. Publish again in another language. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):290-291.

Provencher, L., Herring, B.J., Gordon, D.R., Rodgers, H.L., Galley, K.E.M., Tanner, G.W., Hardesty, J.L., and Brennan, L.A. 2001. Effects of hardwood reduction techniques on longleaf pine sandhill vegetation in northwest Florida. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):13-27.

Pullin, A.S., and Knight, T.M. 2001. Effectiveness in conservation practice: pointers from medicine and public health. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):50-54.

Pushpangadan, P., and Nair, K.N. 2001. Future of systematics and biodiversity research in India: Need for a National Consortium and National Agenda for systematic biology research. Curr. Sci. 80(5):631-638.

Puth, L.M., and Wilson, K.A. 2001. Boundaries and corridors as a continuum of ecological flow control: lessons from rivers and streams. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):21-30.

Putz, F.E., Blate, G.M., Redford, K.H., Fimbel, R., and Robinson, J. 2001. Tropical forest management and conservation of biodiversity: an overview. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):7-20.

Rajora, O.P., and Mosseler, A. 2001. Challenges and opportunities for conservation of forest genetic resources. Euphytica 118(2):197-212.

Ratcliffe, C.S., and Crowe, T.M. 2001. Habitat utilisation and home range size of helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):333-345.

Rees, J.T., and Gershwin, L.A. 2000. Non-indigenous hydromedusae in California's upper San Francisco Estuary: life cycles, distribution, and potential environmental impacts. Sci. Mar. 64:73-86.

Reusch, T.B.H. 2001. New markers - old questions: population genetics of seagrasses. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 211:261-274.

Revilla, E., Palomares, F., and Delibes, M. 2001. Edge-core effects and the effectiveness of traditional reserves in conservation: Eurasian badgers in Donana National Park. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):148-158.

Rigg, C.M. 2001. Orchestrating ecosystem management: challenges and lessons from Sequoia National Forest. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):78-90.

Robertson, J.M.Y., and van Schaik, C.P. 2001. Causal factors underlying the dramatic decline of the Sumatran orang-utan. Oryx 35(1):26-38.

Rodriguez, C.A., Flessa, K.W., and Dettman, D.L. 2001. Effects of upstream diversion of Colorado River water on the estuarine bivalve mollusc Mulinia coloradoensis. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):249-258.

Rosenow, J. 2001. What role for national trees in promoting biodiversity conservation? Oryx 35(1):1-2.

Roubik, D.W. 2001. Ups and downs in pollinator populations: When is there a decline? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):2. <>

Rowland, J., and Maun, M.A. 2001. Restoration ecology of an endangered plant species: establishment of new populations of Cirsium pitcheri. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):60-70.

Scribner, K.T., Arntzen, J.W., Cruddace, N., Oldham, R.S., and Burke, T. 2001. Environmental correlates of toad abundance and population genetic diversity. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):201-210.

Sérgio, C., Araújo, M., and Draper, D. 2000. Portuguese bryophyte diversity and priority areas for conservation. Lindbergia 25(2-3):116-123.

Sharfstein, B., and Steinman, A.D. 2001. Growth and survival of the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) fed 3 naturally occurring macrophyte assemblages. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 20(1):84-95.

Sherman, K. 2000. Why regional coastal monitoring for assessment of ecosystem health? Ecosyst. Health 6(3):205-216.

Shimatani, K. 2001. Multivariate point processes and spatial variation of species diversity. Forest Ecol. Manag. 142(1-3):215-229.

Short, M.J., and Reynolds, J.C. 2001. Physical exclusion of non-target species in tunnel-trapping of mammalian pests. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):139-147.

Sierro, A., Arlettaz, R., Naef-Daenzer, B., Strebel, S., and Zbinden, N. 2001. Habitat use and foraging ecology of the nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus) in the Swiss Alps: towards a conservation scheme. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):325-331.

Sim-Sim, M., Jones, M.P., and Sérgio, C. 2000. Petalophyllum ralfsii (Wils.) Nees & Gott., a threatened liverwort present in Portugal. Morphological and ecological data, directions for future conservation. Lindbergia 25(2-3):101-105.

Simon, J., Bosch, M., Molero, J., and Blanché, C. 2001. Conservation biology of the Pyrenean larkspur (Delphinium montanum): a case of conflict of plant versus animal conservation? Biol. Conserv. 98(3):305-314.

Smale, M.C., Whaley, P.T., and Smale, P.N. 2001. Ecological restoration of native forest at Aratiatia, North Island, New Zealand. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):28-37.

Smith, B.D., Ahmed, B., Ali, M.E., and Braulik, G. 2001. Status of the Ganges river dolphin or shushuk Platanista gangetica in Kaptai Lake and the southern rivers of Bangladesh. Oryx 35(1):61-72.

Smith, D.R., Villella, R.F., and Lemarie, D.P. 2001. Survey protocol for assessment of endangered freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 20(1):118-132.

Smyth, A.K., and Pavey, C.R. 2001. Foraging by the endangered black-breasted button-quail (Turnix melanogaster) within fragmented rainforest of an agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):149-157.

Soltés, R. 2000. Habitats for rare bryophytes in Slovakia. Lindbergia 25(2-3):124-127.

Stevens, M.H.H., and Carson, W.P. 2001. Phenological complementarity, species diversity, and ecosystem function. Oikos 92(2):291-296.

Tella, J.L. 2001. Action is needed now, or BSE crisis could wipe out endangered birds of prey. Nature 410(6827):408.

Thibault, J.C., and Meyer, J.Y. 2001. Contemporary extinctions and population declines of the monarchs (Pomarea spp.) in French Polynesia, South Pacific. Oryx 35(1):73-80.

Thompson, J.N., Reichman, O.J., Morin, P.J., Polis, G.A., Power, M.E., Sterner, R.W., Couch, C.A., Gough, L., Holt, R., Hooper, D.U., Keesing, F., Lovell, C.R., Milne, B.T., Molles, M.C., Roberts, D.W., and Strauss, S.Y. 2001. Frontiers of ecology. BioScience 51(1):15-24.

Thompson, J.R., Bleich, V.C., Torres, S.G., and Mulcahy, G.P. 2001. Translocation techniques for mountain sheep: does the method matter? Southwest. Nat. 46(1):87-93.

Thomson, J.D. 2001. Using pollination deficits to infer pollinator declines: Can theory guide us? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):6. <>

Tornadore, N., Marcucci, R., and Marchiori, S. 2000. Karyology, pollen and seed morphology, and distribution of eight endangered species in the Veneto region (Northern Italy). Plant Biosystems 134(1):71-82.

Towns, D.R., and Ferreira, S.M. 2001. Conservation of New Zealand lizards (Lacertilia: Scincidae) by translocation of small populations. Biol. Conserv. 98(2):211-222.

Trepanier, T.L., and Murphy, R.W. 2001. The Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata): genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of an endangered species. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 18(3):327-334.

Trewavas, A.J. 2001. The population/biodiversity paradox. Agricultural efficiency to save wilderness. Plant Physiol. 125(1):174-179.

Tubelis, D.P., and Cavalcanti, R.B. 2000. A comparison of bird communities in natural and disturbed non-wetland open habitats in the Cerrado's central region, Brazil. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(4):331-350.

Tull, J.C., and Krausman, P.R. 2001. Use of a wildlife corridor by desert mule deer. Southwest. Nat. 46(1):81-86.

Turner, S.R., Senaratna, T., Bunn, E., Tan, B., Dixon, K.W., and Touchell, D.H. 2001. Cryopreservation of shoot tips from six endangered Australian species using a modified vitrification protocol. Ann. Botany 87(3):371-378.

Urmi, E., and Schnyder, N. 2000. Bias in taxon frequency estimates with special reference to rare bryophytes in Switzerland. Lindbergia 25(2-3):89-100.

Valenzuela, N. 2001. Genetic differentiation among nesting beaches in the highly migratory giant river turtle (Podocnemis expansa) from Colombia. Herpetologica 57(1):48-57.

van Schaik, C.P., Monk, K.A., and Robertson, J.M.Y. 2001. Dramatic decline in orang-utan numbers in the Leuser Ecosystem, Northern Sumatra. Oryx 35(1):14-25.

Vickery, P.D., and Herkert, J.R. 2001. Recent advances in grassland bird research: where do we go from here? Auk 118(1):11-15.

Walker, L.R., and Powell, E.A. 2001. Soil water retention on gold mine surfaces in the Mojave Desert. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):95-103.

Walker, S., Steel, J.B., Rapson, G.L., Roxburgh, S.H., King, W.M., Watkins, A.J., Myers, T.E., Keogh, J.A., McQueen, A.A.M., and Wilson, J.B. 2001. A Chionochloa/Sphagnum/cushion valley bog in east Otago, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 25(1):39-52.

Walpole, M.J., Goodwin, H.J., and Ward, K.G.R. 2001. Pricing policy for tourism in protected areas: lessons from Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):218-227.

Weber, E. 2001. Current and potential ranges of three exotic goldenrods (Solidago) in Europe. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):122-128.

Welford, M.R. 2000. The importance of early successional habitats to rare, restricted-range, and endangered birds in the Ecuadorian Andes. Bird Conserv. Int. 10(4):351-359.

Whitten, T., Holmes, D., and MacKinnon, K. 2001. Conservation biology: a displacement behavior for academia? Conserv. Biol. 15(1):1-3.

Wielgus, R.B., Sarrazin, F., Ferriere, R., and Clobert, J. 2001. Estimating effects of adult male mortality on grizzly bear population growth and persistence using matrix models. Biol. Conserv. 98(3):293-303.

Wildhaber, M.L., Tabor, V.M., Whitaker, J.E., Allert, A.L., Mulhern, D.W., Lamberson, P.J., and Powell, K.L. 2000. Ictalurid populations in relation to the presence of a main-stem reservoir in a midwestern warmwater stream with emphasis on the threatened Neosho madtom. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 129(6):1264-1280.

Williams, N.M., and Minckley, R.L., and Silveira, F.A. 2001. Variation in native bee faunas and its implications for detecting community changes. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):7. <>

Wilson, A.M., Vickery, J.A., and Browne, S.J. 2001. Numbers and distribution of northern lapwings Vanellus vanellus breeding in England and Wales in 1998. Bird Study 48:2-17.

Wilson, B.S., and Vogel, P. 2000. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica, including the rediscovery of the blue-tailed galliwasp (Celestus duquesneyi Grant). Caribbean J. Sci. 36(3-4):244-249.

Windsor, D.M., and Clements, A.M. 2001. A germination and establishment field trial of Themeda australis (kangaroo grass) for mine site restoration in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales. Restor. Ecol. 9(1):104-110.

Wolf, A.T., and Harrison, S.P. 2001. Effects of habitat size and patch isolation on reproductive success of the serpentine morning glory. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):111-121.

Wolter, C. 2001. Conservation of fish species diversity in navigable waterways. Landscape Urban Plan. 53(1-4):135-144.

Wootton, J.T. 2001. Causes of species diversity differences: a comparative analysis of Markov models. Ecol. Lett. 4(1):46-56.

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