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Department ofBotany

No. 199
July 2001

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In This Issue

Early Blossoming Flowers in Washington Attributed to Global Warming

Smithsonian scientists have evidence that Washington's famous cherry trees are blooming on the average seven days earlier than 30 years ago, apparently due to global warming. In a recent paper published in Biodiversity and Conservation (2001, 10:597-612) by Mones Abu-Asab, Paul Peterson, Stanwyn Shetler, and Sylvia Stone Orli of the Department of Systematic Biology Botany, the results of a 30-year study of flowering plant species common in the Washington, D.C. metro area indicates that the rise in the region's average minimum temperatures is producing earlier flowering in 89 of the 100 common plant species investigated. On average, flowering plants are blossoming 4.5 days earlier in 2000 than in 1970. The study suggests that the trend toward earlier blooming of flowering plants may be a result of global warming.

The scientists examined botanical data collected by more than 125 individuals over a 30-year period beginning in 1970 in order to reach their findings. Data was obtained at sites in Washington, D.C. and its vicinity (a 35-mile radius from the center of the district).

"This trend of earlier flowering is consistent with what we know about the effects of global warming," said Shetler. "When we compared the records from the Smithsonian study with local, long-term temperature records we discovered statistically significant correlations. The minimum temperature has been going up over these years and the early arrival of the cherry blossoms appears to be one of the results."

Hepatica americana
Hepatica americana is now flowering 23 days earlier than in the 1970s.

Analysis of the database infers that early blooming is not a phenomenon isolated to cherry blossoms. Among the 100 native and naturalized plant species analyzed by the researchers, 89 have shown a consistent trend of flowering earlier and earlier each year. The species with the greatest advance in flowering time, Duchesnea indica (false strawberry), blooms on average 46 days earlier. Eleven species in the study show a reverse trend by blooming later, including Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), which blooms on average 10.4 days later.

The consequences could be significant, as Shetler explained, "Based on this study, we can expect a gradually expanding growing season, which may be lengthened at both ends if the warmer temperatures prolong the end of summer as well. Over a long period the species composition of our local flora could change. Species like the sugar maple that require a long cold period may die out in our region. Invasive alien species, especially from more southern climes, may become more and more of a problem. Weedy species that can bloom throughout relatively mild winters could spread. If these trends continue, persons with allergy problems will experience them earlier because some of the first plants to bloom are wind-pollinated trees, such as the American elm and common alder."

The Smithsonian botanists will continue to study the flowering patterns of local plant species in order to contribute to the general understanding of the effects of global warming. Shetler and Orli are the authors of the "Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Washington-Baltimore Area," an inventory of the vascular flora in the Washington, D.C. area. A website for the DC Flora <> is maintained where the database can be searched.

New Journal Announcement

The Journal for Nature Conservation succeeds the Zeitschrift für Ökologie und Naturschutz, published by Urban & Fischer Journals. After 10 years of publication in German the journal is now published in English to address a wider and more international audience. The Journal for Nature Conservation <> is a scientific journal focusing on methods and techniques used in nature conservation. This international and interdisciplinary journal offers a forum for the communication of modern approaches to nature conservation. It aims to provide both scientists and practitioners in conservation theory, policy and management with comprehensive and applicable information. In particular, the journal wants to encourage the communication between scientists and practitioners, and thereby explore new research avenues that integrate biodiversity issues with socio-economic concepts. Review and research papers as well as short communications are welcome from a wide range of disciplines, such as landscape ecology, restoration ecology, theoretical ecology, ecological modeling, ecological economics, conservation biology, wildlife management, environmental planning, policy making, and environmental education. For more information contact Editorial Office, Journal for Nature Conservation, Coastal Resources Centre, Presentation Building, University College, Cork, Ireland; Tel: +353-21-4904129; Fax: +353-21-4904289; E-mail:

Job Opportunities

A Graduate Student Research Assistantship funded by the USDA National Research Initiative is available for a PhD student interested in phylogenetic biology. The Assistantship will provide training in the theory and methods of taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, including model-based approaches to DNA character analysis. The specific research will involve the construction of a worldwide species phylogeny and database of the bumble bees (Bombus). The student will work with Drs. Sydney Cameron at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Paul Williams at the Natural History Museum in London. Collecting trips are scheduled for N. India/Nepal and specific regions of the Alps. Applicants with a strong interest in the breadth of systematics are encouraged to apply. This is a research training grant to do systematics in the strict sense, but does not exclude those with interests in behavioral evolution and biodiversity. Preference will be given to students interested in working on the systematics and behavior of bees, particularly bumble bees. Applicants with background experience in systematics, genetics, computer applications, biodiversity and conservation are encouraged to apply. For full consideration applications must be received by 15 September 2001. The University of Illinois is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity employer. Please send letter of interest and CV to Dr. Sydney Cameron, Dept. of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 505 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801; e-mail:

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Research entomologist Ted Schultz from the Smithsonian Institution maintains the Ant Database <>. This online database represents the Smithsonian's identified ant collection, including 4,580 valid named species or subspecies. The taxonomy is current with Bolton's 1995 catalog and includes reported holdings through June 1998. The database may be queried by Subfamily, Tribe, Genus, Subgenus, Species, Subspecies, Author, or Types, and typical returns give concise taxonomic information, total specimens (workers, females, and males), author, and year.

- from The Scout Report for Science & Engineering,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

The website Sea Anemones of the World <> is comprised of an electronic catalog of species (of Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, and Ptychodactiaria), a bibliography of literature in which those species were described, and an inventory of type specimens for more than 1,300 species of Sea Anemones. Distribution maps and images are also available for most type specimens. Led by Dr. Daphne Fautin of the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Kansas, this impressive initiative targets researchers in particular, but is an excellent resource for educators and students as well. The site is searchable by Genus, Species, Museum, Author, Year, or Distribution; typical returns lead the viewer to concise information on the species' original description, the type specimen's locality and museum, and one to several images of the species (color images, black-and-white illustrations, and more).

- from The Scout Report

The commercial site TreeGuide: The Natural History of Trees <> offers news, features, and information about trees, with an emphasis on North American trees (including natives, naturalized, and ornamental). Designed for the general public, the site includes many curiosities, adding interest to every topic and making this a great resource for undergraduates. The content of the site includes full taxonomic information, current news, and partially-completed information on regional trees, tree biology, and "superlative" trees. At present, about 150 of 1,000 trees are described in the database, with completion of the database "anticipated by the second quarter of 2001."

- from The Scout Report

Based at the University of Montana and directed by Dr. Peter Rice, the INVADERS Database System <> is "a comprehensive database of exotic plant names and weed distribution records for five states in the northwestern United States." Designed for use by land management and weed regulatory agencies, INVADERS uses a query interface (plant name or location) to sort and display information. Data are updated regularly so as to increase the chance of detecting and halting the rapid spread of alien weeds. Highlights of the site include the noxious weed listings for all US states and six Canadian provinces, historic distribution records against which to compare current plant distributions, and summary statistics such as the number of invasive species detected per state or a summary of the 120 year invasion, among others. The INVADERS database will prove both interesting and useful to managers and academics, alike.

- from The Scout Report

A partnership of Environment Canada (Canadian Wildlife Service) and Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Wild Species 2000 website <> displays a recent report on the status of Canada's wild species. Combining results from Provincial, Territorial, and Federal monitoring efforts for the first time, the report represents a substantial contribution to understanding the general status of species in Canada. The report provides a contextual introduction to biological diversity, describes data and methods, and gives general status assessments for ferns, orchids, butterflies, freshwater fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals (terrestrial and marine). Subsequent reports are planned, with anticipation of expanded information so as to report on additional taxa.

- from The Scout Report

Current Literature

Abu-Asab, M.S., Peterson, P.M., Shetler, S.G., and Orli, S.S. 2001. Earlier plant flowering in spring as a response to global warming in the Washington, DC, area. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):597-612.

Aiken, J.J., Godley, B.J., Broderick, A.C., Austin, T., Ebanks-Petrie, G., and Hays, G.C. 2001. Two hundred years after a commercial marine turtle fishery: the current status of marine turtles nesting in the Cayman Islands. Oryx 35(2):145-151.

Amori, G., and Gippoliti, S. 2001. Identifing priority ecoregions for rodent conservation at the genus level. Oryx 35(2):158-165.

Angelstam, P., and Andersson, L. 2001. Estimates of the needs for forest reserves in Sweden. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):38-51.

Asfaw, Z., and Tadesse, M. 2001. Prospects for sustainable use and development of wild food plants in Ethiopia. Econ. Bot. 55(1):47-62.

Atkinson, I.A.E. 2001. Introduced mammals and models for restoration. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):81-96.

Barnes, R.F.W., Craig, G.C., Dublin, H.T., and Thouless, C.R. 2001. The African elephant database. Oryx 35(2):172.

Battles, J.J., Shlisky, A.J., Barrett, R.H., Heald, R.C., and Allen-Diaz, B.H. 2001. The effects of forest management on plant species diversity in a Sierran conifer forest. Forest Ecol. Manag. 146(1-3):211-222.

Beard, J.S., Chapman, A.R., and Gioia, P. 2000. Species richness and endemism in the Western Australian flora. J. Biogeogr. 27(6):1257-1268.

Beggs, J. 2001. The ecological consequences of social wasps (Vespula spp.) invading an ecosystem that has an abundant carbohydrate resource. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):17-28.

Bisson, I.A., Martin, D., and Stutchbury, B.J.M. 2000. Acadian flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, nest site characteristics at the northern edge of its range. Can. Field-Natural. 114(4):689-691.

Brown, D.K., Echelle, A.A., Propst, D.L., Brooks, J.E., and Fisher, W.L. 2001. Catastrophic wildfire and number of populations as factors influencing risk of extinction for Gila trout (Oncorhynchus gilae). West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(2):139-148.

Brown, J.H. 2001. Mammals on mountainsides: elevational patterns of diversity. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10(1):101-109.

Buckland, S.M., Thompson, K., Hodgson, J.G., and Grime, J.P. 2001. Grassland invasions: effects of manipulations of climate and management. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):301-309.

Bullock, J.M., Franklin, J., Stevenson, M.J., Silvertown, J., Coulson, S.J., Gregory, S.J., and Tofts, R. 2001. A plant trait analysis of responses to grazing in a long-term experiment. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):253-267.

Burke, A. 2001. Classification and ordination of plant communities of the Naukluft Mountains, Namibia. J. Veg. Sci. 12(1):53-60.

Cabeza, M., and Moilanen, A. 2001. Design of reserve networks and the persistence of biodiversity. TREE 16(5):242-248.

Canaday, C., and Rivadeneyra, J. 2001. Initial effects of a petroleum operation on Amazonian birds: terrestrial insectivores retreat. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):567-595.

Carbone, C., Christie, S., Conforti, K., Coulson, T., Franklin, N., Ginsberg, J.R., Griffiths, M., Holden, J., Kawanishi, K., Kinnaird, M., Laidlaw, R., Lynam, A., Macdonald, D.W., Martyr, D., McDougal, C., Nath, L., O'Brien, T., Seidensticker, J., Smith, D.J.L., Sunquist, M., Tilson, R., and Shahruddin, W.N.W. 2001. The use of photographic rates to estimate densities of tigers and other cryptic mammals. Anim. Conserv. 4:75-79.

Carlsson, J., and Nilsson, J. 2001. Effects of geomorphological structures on genetic differentiation among brown trout populations in a northern boreal river drainage. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 130(1):36-45.

Casas, A., Valiente-Banuet, A., Viveros, J.L., Caballero, J., Cortes, L., Davila, P., Lira, R., and Rodriguez, I. 2001. Plant resources of the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Valley, Mexico. Econ. Bot. 55(1):129-166.

Caudell, J.N., and Riddleberger, K.A. 2001. Management of nonreleasable raptors for conservation education programs. J. Raptor Res. 35(1):49-57.

Chabot, A.A., Titman, R.D., and Bird, D.M. 2001. Habitat use by loggerhead shrikes in Ontario and Quebec. Can. J. Zool. 79(5):916-925.

Choquenot, D., and Parkes, J. 2001. Setting thresholds for pest control: how does pest density affect resource viability? Biol. Conserv. 99(1):29-46.

Clark, J. 2001. The global wood market, prices and plantation investment: an examination drawing on the Australian experience. Environ. Conserv. 28(1):53-64.

Corti, C., and Luiselli, L. 2001. Macroprotodon cucullatus on Lampedusa Island (Mediterranean Sea): notes on its natural history, morphometrics, and conservation. Amphibia-Reptilia 22(1):129-134.

Coulson, T., Mace, G.M., Hudson, E., and Possingham, H. 2001. The use and abuse of population viability analysis. TREE 16(5):219-221.

Croll, D.A., Clark, C.W., Calambokidis, J., Ellison, W.T., and Tershy, B.R. 2001. Effect of anthropogenic low-frequency noise on the foraging ecology of Balaenoptera whales. Anim. Conserv. 4:13-27.

Cullen, L., Bodmer, E.R., and Valladares-Padua, C. 2001. Ecological consequences of hunting in Atlantic forest patches, São Paulo, Brazil. Oryx 35(2):137-144.

d'Eeckenbrugge, G.C., Barney, V.E., Jorgensen, P.M., and MacDougal, J.M. 2001. Passiflora tarminiana, a new cultivated species of Passiflora subgenus Tacsonia (Passifloraceae). Novon 11(1):8-15.

Daltry, J.C., Bloxam, Q., Cooper, G., Day, M.L., Hartley, J., Henry, M., Lindsay, K., and Smith, B.E. 2001. Five years of conserving the 'world's rarest snake', the Antiguan racer Alsophis antiguae. Oryx 35(2):119-127.

de Lange, P.J., and Murray, B.G. 2001. A new Achyranthes (Amaranthaceae) from Phillip Island, Norfolk Island group, South Pacific Ocean. New Zeal. J. Bot. 39(1):1-8.

de Oliveira, A.A., and Nelson, B.W. 2001. Floristic relationships of terra firme forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecol. Manag. 146(1-3):169-179.

Dennis, R.L.H. 2001. Progressive bias in species status is symptomatic of fine-grained mapping units subject to repeated sampling. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):483-494.

Dennis, R.L.H., Shreeve, T.G., Olivier, A., and Coutsis, J.G. 2000. Contemporary geography dominates butterfly diversity gradients within the Aegean archipelago (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea). J. Biogeogr. 27(6):1365-1383.

Doresky, J., Morgan, K., Ragsdale, L., Townsend, H., Barron, M., and West, M. 2001. Effects of military activity on reproductive success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. J. Field Ornithol. 72(2):305-311.

Dowding, J.E., and Murphy, E.C. 2001. The impact of predation by introduced mammals on endemic shorebirds in New Zealand: a conservation perspective. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):47-64.

Duffey, E. 2001. Preface - Introduced pest species and biodiversity conservation in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):1.

Dunham, K.M. 2001. Status of a reintroduced population of mountain gazelles Gazella gazella in central Arabia: management lessons from an aridland reintroduction. Oryx 35(2):111-118.

Ehnstrom, B. 2001. Leaving dead wood for insects in boreal forests - suggestions for the future. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):91-98.

Elek, Z., Magura, T., and Tóthmérész, T. 2001. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Web Ecol. [Online] 2:32-37.

Elliott, G.P., Merton, D.V., and Jansen, P.W. 2001. Intensive management of a critically endangered species: the kakapo. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):121-133.

Emmerson, M.C., Solan, M., Emes, C., Paterson, D.M., and Raffaelli, D. 2001. Consistent patterns and the idiosyncratic effects of biodiversity in marine ecosystems. Nature 411(6833):73-77.

Fearnside, P.M. 2001. Soybean cultivation as a threat to the environment in Brazil. Environ. Conserv. 28(1):23-38.

Feng, J., Lajia, C., Taylor, D.J., and Webster, M.S. 2001. Genetic distinctiveness of endangered dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur schaeferi): evidence from mitochondrial control region and Y-linked ZFY intron sequences. J. Heredity 92(1):9-15.

Fert, G. 2001. Honey bee heritage conservation on La Palma Island. Am. Bee J. 141(5):354-356.

Fitzgerald, B.M., and Gibb, J.A. 2001. Introduced mammals in a New Zealand forest: long-term research in the Orongorongo Valley. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):97-108.

Fonseca, C.R., and Ganade, G. 2001. Species functional redundancy, random extinctions and the stability of ecosystems. J. Ecology 89(1):118-125.

Galimberti, F., Sanvito, S., Boitani, L., and Fabiani, A. 2001. Viability of the southern elephant seal population of the Falkland Islands. Anim. Conserv. 4:81-88.

Garagna, S., Zuccotti, M., Vecchi, M.L., Rabini, P.G., Capanna, E., and Redi, C.A. 2001. Human-dominated ecosystems and restoration ecology: Seveso today. Chemosphere 43(4-7):577-585.

Ge, Y., and Chang, J. 2001. Existence analysis of populations of Mosla hangchowensis, an endangered plant. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 42(2):141-147.

Granstrom, A. 2001. Fire management for biodiversity in the European boreal forest. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):62-69.

Groppe, K., Steinger, T., Schmid, B., Baur, B., and Boller, T. 2001. Effects of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus. J. Ecology 89(2):247-255.

Haemig, P.D. 2001. Symbiotic nesting of birds with formidable animals: a review with applications to biodiversity conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):527-540.

Haines, A. 2001. Eleocharis aestuum (Cyperaceae), a new tidal river shore spikesedge of the eastern United States. Novon 11(1):45-49.

Hall, S.J. 2001. Is offshore oil exploration good for benthic conservation? TREE 16(1):58.

Halloy, S., and Williams, T. (Eds.). 2000. Applied Complexity - From Neural Nets to Managed Landscapes. New Zealand Insitute for Crop & Food Research Ltd. Christchurch, New Zealand. 409 pp.

Hammer, K., Heller, J., and Engels, J. 2001. Monographs on underutilized and neglected crops. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 48(1):3-5.

Hansson, L. 2001. Key habitats in Swedish managed forests. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):52-61.

Hatfield, J.S., Henry, P.F.P., Olsen, G.H., Paul, M.M., and Hammerschlag, R.S. 2001. Failure of tetracycline as a biomarker in batch-marking juvenile frogs. J. Wildlife Dis. 37(2):318-323.

Heaney, L.R. 2001. Small mammal diversity along elevational gradients in the Philippines: an assessment of patterns and hypotheses. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10(1):15-39.

Hepworth, D.K., Ottenbacher, M.J., and Chamberlain, C.B. 2001. Occurrence of native Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki pleuriticus) in the Escalante River drainage, Utah. West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(2):129-138.

Hill, M., Eames, J.C., Trai, L.T., and Cu, N. 2001. Population sizes, status and habitat associations of forest birds in Chu Yang Sin Nature Reserve, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(1):49-70.

Holguin, G., Vazquez, P., and Bashan, Y. 2001. The role of sediment microorganisms in the productivity, conservation, and rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems: an overview. Biol. Fert. Soils 33(4):265-278.

Holmgren, M., and Scheffer, M. 2001. El Nino as a window of opportunity for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Ecosystems 4(2):151-159.

Holmgren, M., Scheffer, M., Ezcurra, E., Gutierrez, J.R., and Mohren, G.M.J. 2001. El Nino effects on the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. TREE 16(2):89-94.

Holyoake, A., Waldman, B., and Gemmell, N.J. 2001. Determining the species status of one of the world's rarest frogs: a conservation dilemma. Anim. Conserv. 4:29-35.

Hutson, A.M., Mickleburgh, S.P., and Racey, P.A. (Compilers). 2001. Micorchiropteran Bats. Global Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 258 pp.

Ikeda, H., and Itoh, K. 2001. Germination and water dispersal of seeds from a threatened plant species Penthorum chinense. Ecol. Res. 16(1):99-106.

Ingram, D. 2001. The Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species. Oryx 35(2):97-98.

Ingvarsson, P.K. 2001. Restoration of genetic variation lost - the genetic rescue hypothesis. TREE 16(2):62-63.

Jaeger, J.R., Riddle, B.R., Jennings, R.D., and Bradford, D.F. 2001. Rediscovering Rana onca: evidence for phylogenetically distinct leopard frogs from the border region of Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Copeia (2):339-354.

Jepson, P., Jarvie, J.K., MacKinnon, K., and Monk, K.A. 2001. The end for Indonesia's lowland forests? Science 292(5518):859-861.

Jones, K.E., Barlow, K.E., Vaughan, N., Rodriguez-Duran, A., and Gannon, M.R. 2001. Short-term impacts of extreme environmental disturbance on the bats of Puerto Rico. Anim. Conserv. 4:59-66.

Kanda, N., and Allendorf, F.W. 2001. Genetic population structure of bull trout from the Flathead River basin as shown by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA markers. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 130(1):92-106.

Khurana, E., and Singh, J.S. 2001. Ecology of seed and seedling growth for conservation and restoration of tropical dry forest: a review. Environ. Conserv. 28(1):39-52.

Kouki, J., Lofman, S., Martikainen, P., Rouvinen, S., and Uotila, A. 2001. Forest fragmentation in Fennoscandia: linking habitat requirements of wood-associated threatened species to landscape and habitat changes. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):27-37.

Kula, E. 2001. Islam and environmental conservation. Environ. Conserv. 28(1):1-9.

Lacerda, D.R., Acedo, M.D.P., Lemos, J.P., and Lovato, B. 2001. Genetic diversity and structure of natural populations of Plathymenia reticulata (Mimosoideae), a tropical tree from the Brazilian Cerrado. Mol. Ecol. 10(5):1143-1152.

Larson, S.R., Cartier, E., McCracken, C.L., and Dyer, D. 2001. Mode of reproduction and amplified fragment length polymorphism variation in purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra): Utilization of natural germplasm sources. Mol. Ecol. 10(5):1165-1177.

Larsson, S., and Danell, K. 2001. Science and the management of boreal forest biodiversity. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):5-9.

Lebeda, A., Dolezalova, I., Kristkova, E., and Mieslerova, B. 2001. Biodiversity and ecogeography of wild Lactuca spp. in some European countries. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 48(2):153-164.

Li, M., Liang, B., Feng, Z.J., and Tamate, H.B. 2001. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus troxellanae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene sequences. Primates 42(2):153-160.

Lim, B.K., and Engstrom, M.D. 2001. Species diversity of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Iwokrama Forest, Guyana, and the Guianan subregion: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):613-657.

Lomolino, M.V. 2001. Elevation gradients of species-density: historical and prospective views. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10(1):3-13.

Lovett, J.C., Clarke, G.P., Moore, R., and Morrey, G.H. 2001. Elevational distribution of restricted range forest tree taxa in eastern Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):541-550.

MacDougall, A. 2001. Conservation status of Saint John River Valley Hardwood Forest in western New Brunswick. Rhodora 103(913):47-70.

Marini, M.A. 2001. Effects of forest fragmentation on birds of the cerrado region, Brazil. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(1):13-25.

Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Goffin, D., Dixon, C.E., Borchers, D.L., Mayle, B.A., and Peace, A.J. 2001. Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern Scotland. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):349-363.

Mason, C.F. 2001. Woodland area, species turnover and the conservation of bird assemblages in lowland England. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):495-510.

McKinney, M.L. 2001. Role of human population size in raising bird and mammal threat among nations. Anim. Conserv. 4:45-57.

McLellan, B.N., and Hovey, F.W. 2001. Natal dispersal of grizzly bears. Can. J. Zool. 79(5):838-844.

McMaster, D.G., and Davis, S.K. 2001. An evaluation of Canada's permanent cover program: habitat for grassland birds? J. Field Ornithol. 72(2):195-210.

Moreno, C.E., and Halffter, G. 2001. On the measure of sampling effort used in species accumulation curves. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):487-490.

Moyle, P.B., and Davis, L.H. 2000. A list of freshwater, anadromous, and euryhaline fishes of California. Calif. Fish Game 86(4):244-258.

Mustajarvi, K., Siikamaki, P., Rytkonen, S., and Lammi, A. 2001. Consequences of plant population size and density for plant-pollinator interactions and plant performance. J. Ecology 89(1):80-87.

Mutschler, T., Randrianarisoa, A.J., and Feistner, A.T.C. 2001. Population status of the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis. Oryx 35(2):152-157.

Nersting, L.G., and Arctander, P. 2001. Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu. Mol. Ecol. 10(3):711-719.

Nichols, R.A., Bruford, M.W., and Groombridge, J.J. 2001. Sustaining genetic variation in a small population: evidence from the Mauritius kestrel. Mol. Ecol. 10(3):593-602.

Niemela, J. 2001. The utility of movement corridors in forested landscapes. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):70-78.

Niemela, J., Larsson, S., and Simberloff, D. 2001. Concluding remarks - finding ways to integrate timber production and biodiversity in Fennoscandian forestry. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):119-123.

Nilsson, S.G., Hedin, J., and Niklasson, M. 2001. Biodiversity and its assessment in boreal and nemoral forests. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):10-26.

Nor, S.M. 2001. Elevational diversity patterns of small mammals on Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10(1):41-62.

Nugent, G., Fraser, W., and Sweetapple, P. 2001. Top down or bottom up? Comparing the impacts of introduced arboreal possums and 'terrestrial' ruminants on native forests in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):65-79.

Oldfield, S. 2001. Rediscovering and conserving endangered trees. Oryx 35(2):170-171.

Olsson, P., and Folke, C. 2001. Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems 4(2):85-104.

Osborne, P.E., Alonso, J.C., and Bryant, R.G. 2001. Modelling landscape-scale habitat use using GIS and remote sensing: a case study with great bustards. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):458-471.

Pascarella, J.B., Waddington, K.D., and Neal, P.R. 2001. Non-apoid flower-visiting fauna of Everglades National Park, Florida. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):551-566.

Pearce, F. 2001. The people versus nature - there must be a way to save biodiversity without starving the poor. New Sci. 170(2290):12.

Pearce, J.L., Cherry, K., Drielsma, M., Ferrier, S., and Whish, G. 2001. Incorporating expert opinion and fine-scale vegetation mapping into statistical models of faunal distribution. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):412-424.

Pedersen, A.A., and Loeschcke, V. 2001. Conservation genetics of peripheral populations of the mygalomorph spider Atypus affinis (Atypidae) in northern Europe. Mol. Ecol. 10(5):1133-1142.

Peres, C.A. 2001. Paving the way to the future of Amazonia. TREE 16(5):217-219.

Petit, S., Firbank, R., Wyatt, B., and Howard, D. 2001. MIRABEL: Models for integrated review and assessment of biodiversity in European landscapes. Ambio 30(2):81-88.

Quattro, J.M., Jones, W.J., and Rohde, F.C. 2001. Evolutionarily significant units of rare pygmy sunfishes (genus Elassoma). Copeia (2):514-520.

Raivio, S., Normark, E., Pettersson, B., and Salpakivi-Salomaa, P. 2001. Science and the management of boreal forest biodiversity - forest industries' views. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):99-104.

Randi, E., Mucci, N., Claro-Hergueta, F., Bonnet, A., and Douzery, E.J.P. 2001. A mitochondrial DNA control region phylogeny of the Cervinae: speciation in Cervus and implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 4:1-11.

Reichow, D., and Smith, M.J. 2001. Microsatellites reveal high levels of gene flow among populations of the California squid Loligo opalescens. Mol. Ecol. 10(5):1101-1109.

Robinson, J.M. 2001. The dynamics of avicultural markets. Environ. Conserv. 28(1):76-85.

Rodrigues, F.H.G., Marinho, J., and dos Santos, H.G. 2001. Home ranges of translocated lesser anteaters Tamandua tetradactyla in the cerrado of Brazil. Oryx 35(2):166-169.

Rouget, M., Richardson, D.M., Milton, S.J., and Polakow, D. 2001. Predicting invasion dynamics of four alien Pinus species in a highly fragmented semi-arid shrubland in South Africa. Plant Ecol. 152(1):79-92.

Russello, M.A., and Amato, G. 2001. Application of a noninvasive, PCR-based test for sex identification in an endangered parrot, Amazona guildingii. Zoo Biol. 20(1):41-45.

Ryan, P.G., Cooper, J., and Glass, J.P. 2001. Population status, breeding biology and conservation of the Tristan albatross Diomedea [exulans] dabbenena. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(1):35-48.

Saavedra, B., and Simonetti, J.A. 2001. New records of Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae) and Geoxus valdivianus (Rodentia: Muridae) in central Chile: their implications for biogeography and conservation. Mammalia 65(1):96-100.

Sanchez-Cordero, V. 2001. Elevation gradients of diversity for rodents and bats in Oaxaca, Mexico. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10(1):63-76.

Sartori, F., and Assini, S. 2001. Vegetation evolution in a reclaimed area contaminated with dioxin. Chemosphere 43(4-7):525-535.

Saunders, A., and Norton, D.A. 2001. Ecological restoration at Mainland Islands in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):109-119.

Schonewald, C.M. 2000. Introduction to boundary space. Complexity 6(2):41-57.

Schulke, B., and Waser, N.M. 2001. Long-distance pollinator flights and pollen dispersal between populations of Delphinium nuttallianum. Oecologia 127(2):239-245.

Siegel, R.B., Desante, D.F., and Nott, M.P. 2001. Using point counts to establish conservation priorities: how many visits are optimal? J. Field Ornithol. 72(2):228-235.

Siegismund, H.R., and Jensen, J.S. 2001. Intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation of Quercus in Denmark. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(2):103-116.

Simberloff, D. 2001. Management of boreal forest biodiversity - A view from the outside. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):105-118.

Simkova, A., Morand, S., Matejusova, I., Jurajda, P.V., and Gelnar, M. 2001. Local and regional influences on patterns of parasite species richness of central European fishes. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(4):511-525.

Sinclair, A., and Catling, P.M. 2000. Ontario goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis, populations in relation to habitat size, paths, and woodland edges. Can. Field-Natural. 114(4):652-655.

Slingsby, D.R., Proctor, J., and Carter, S.P. 2001. Stabililty and change in ultramafic fellfield vegatation at the Keen of Hamar, Shetland, Scotland. Plant Ecol. 152(2):157-165.

Smogor, R.A., and Angermeier, P.L. 2001. Determining a regional framework for assessing biotic integrity of Virginia streams. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 130(1):18-35.

Stow, A.J., Sunnucks, P., Briscoe, D.A., and Gardner, M.G. 2001. The impact of habitat fragmentation on dispersal of Cunningham's skink (Egernia cunninghami): evidence from allelic and genotypic analyses of microsatellites. Mol. Ecol. 10(4):867-878.

Tella, J.L. 2001. Sex-ratio theory in conservation biology - comment. TREE 16(2):76-77.

Towns, D.R., Daugherty, C.H., and Cree, A. 2001. Raising the prospects for a forgotten fauna: a review of 10 years of conservation effort for New Zealand reptiles. Biol. Conserv. 99(1):3-16.

Tunstall, V., Teshome, A., and Torrance, J.K. 2001. Distribution, abundance and risk of loss of sorghum landraces in four communities in North Shewa and South Welo, Ethiopia. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 48(2):131-142.

Van Den Born, R.J.G., Lenders, R.H.J., De Groot, W., and Huijsman, E. 2001. The new biophilia: an exploration of visions of nature in Western countries. Environ. Conserv. 28(1):65-75.

van der Merwe, J.H., and Lohrentz, G. 2001. Demarcating coastal vegetation buffers with multicriteria evaluation and GIS at Saldanha Bay, South Africa. Ambio 30(2):89-95.

van Rensburg, B.J., Chown, S.L., van Jaarsveld, A.S., and McGeoch, M.A. 2000. Spatial variation and biogeography of sand forest avian assemblages in South Africa. J. Biogeogr. 27(6):1385-1401.

Vanha-Majamaa, I., and Jalonen, J. 2001. Green tree retention in Fennoscandian forestry. Scand. J. Forest Res. 16(S3):79-90.

Wall, D., Mooney, H., Adams, G., Boxshall, G., Dobson, A., Nakashizuka, T., Seyani, J., Samper, C., and Sarukhan, J. 2001. An International Biodiversity Observation Year. TREE 16(1):52-54.

Walpole, M.J. 2001. Feeding dragons in Komodo National Park: a tourism tool with conservation complications. Anim. Conserv. 4:67-73.

Walsh, C.J., Sharpe, A.K., Breen, P.F., and Sonneman, J.A. 2001. Effects of urbanization on streams of the Melbourne region, Victoria, Australia. I. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Freshwater Biol. 46(4):535-551.

Watkinson, A.R., and Ormerod, S.J. 2001. Grasslands, grazing and biodiversity: editors' introduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):233-237.

Watson, M., and Thirgood, S. 2001. Could translocation aid hen harrier conservation in the UK? Anim. Conserv. 4:37-43.

Westmacott, S. 2001. Developing decision support systems for integrated coastal management in the tropics: is the ICM decision-making environment too complex for the development of a useable and useful DSS? J. Environ. Manage. 62(1):55-74.

Whitford, K.R., and Williams, M.R. 2001. Survival of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Sm.) and marri (Corymbia calophylla Lindl.) habitat trees retained after logging. Forest Ecol. Manag. 146(1-3):181-197.

Willott, S.J. 2001. Species accumulation curves and the measure of sampling effort. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(2):484-486.

Wirgin, I., Oppermann, T., and Stabile, J. 2001. Genetic divergence of robust redhorse Moxostoma robustum (Cypriniformes Catostomidae) from the Oconee River and the Savannah River based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Copeia (2):526-530.

Zimmerman, B., Peres, C.A., Malcolm, J.R., and Turner, T. 2001. Conservation and development alliances with the Kayapo of south-eastern Amazonia, a tropical forest indigenous people. Environ. Conserv. 28(1):10-22.

Zino, F., Oliveira, P., King, S., Buckle, A., Biscoito, M., Neves, H.C., and Vasconcelos, A. 2001. Conservation of Zino's petrel Pterodroma madeira in the archipelago of Madeira. Oryx 35(2):128-136.

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