Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany

No. 200
August 2001

[PDF Print Version]

In This Issue

'Extinct' Tree Rediscovered on Island

Trochetia parviflora, a small, attractive tree found only on Mauritius, was recently rediscovered in April by scientist Vincent Florens and his colleague Jean-Claude Sevathian. The Mauritian plant was last seen in the wild in 1863. The pair found one plant clinging to a rocky slope in the Corps de Garde Mountain Nature Reserve, 6 km from the nearest area in which it was previously known.

"We could not believe we had found the species, it seemed too good to be true," Florens said in a statement released by IUCN, the World Conservation Union. "We both knew the plant very well from old herbarium samples and knew what it was immediately. The plant is exquisite with its curvy trunk, dense branches, small pointed leaves and pale green fruits, and has survived for centuries in the harsh conditions of the cliff edge."

Since the initial rediscovery, the scientists have intensified their search on the mountain and have now found 63 plants. Although thrilled by the find, they are concerned for the continued survival of the species. "All the plants are in a precarious situation, within a 500 m stretch of mountain slope which is vulnerable to landslides and fire that could destroy the population," Florens said.

The genus Trochetia is well known in Mauritius, as Trochetia boutoniana is the countrys national flower, known locally as Boucle dOreille (French for ear-ring). Mauritius has nearly 300 threatened species, or around 27 percent of the islands estimated 1,100 native species. The main threat is invasive introduced plant species that have taken over almost all the islands natural habitats. Introduced rats and monkeys eat the tree's fruit, and termites attack the plants. Tree cuttings and collected seeds are being used to try to propagate the species to help boost the wild population. "Now that this almost mythical species has been rediscovered maybe we can hope that one day, people could find other 'extinct' species clinging to life in other remote areas," Florens added.

- adapted from IUCN

Rare Birds Return to Wild

The San Diego Zoos Keauhou Bird Conservation Center released six endangered Hawaiian puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) on the island of Kauaithe birds native home. Researchers fitted the captive-bred birds with radio transmitters to track their progress through the islands Alakai Swamp, said to be the rainiest place on Earth.

The introduction of non-native animals and diseases has imperiled the islands native puaiohi population, which currently numbers less than 300. To combat this trend, researchers have successfully released two dozen captive-bred puaiohi into the wild in the past three years. The Keauhou Bird Conservation works cooperatively with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the State of Hawaiis Division of Forestry and Wildlife and the Biological Resources Division of the US Geological Survey.

- from Endangered Species UPDATE

Future Meetings

The international meeting "Science for Plant Conservation An International Conference for Botanic Gardens" will be held on July 8-10, 2002 at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. Botanic gardens throughout the world are actively involved in plant conservation at the local, regional, and international levels. Recently, Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) published an international agenda for botanic gardens that identifies the importance of conservation research at botanic gardens. The goal of this conference is to bring together conservation scientists from the world's botanic gardens and academia to share methods and results (including field, laboratory, horticultural, and analytical) that will advance plant conservation measurably. In addition to a three-day conference, pre- and post-conference field trips will be available. For further information or to express interest contact Mary Foody ( or Steve Waldren (, Conservation Conference, Botany Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland; Tel: +353-1-6081274; Fax: +353-1-6081147; or visit the conference web site at

Information Highway Hi-Lites

WISIA-online <> is a new internet database containing information on the national and international protection status of more than 10,000 animal and plant species protected through national nature conservation legislation in Germany. The website covers those species that are assigned special or strict protection status by the German Federal Nature Conservation Act. The data presented on this website are based on the Information System on International Species Conservation (WISIA) maintained by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. This internal database contains relevant data on nomenclature, protection and distribution of animal or plant taxa. Queries will lead to the following output: (1) scientific name of the species, (2) German vernacular name, (3) protection status, and (4) annexes of the species conservation regularizations. WISIA-online is a useful tool for everyone concerned with species conservation, including customs officers, companies trading in animals and plants, animal breeders and plant nurseries, associations, and generally for the interested public.

The Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland <> is a joint project of The Biota of North America Program (North Carolina Botanical Garden) and the Museum Informatics Project (University of California at Berkeley). This no-frills checklist contains a wealth of information, including scientific and common names of North American Flora (and any synonyms), a "dot map" of state or provincial distribution of taxa, and a list of distributional locality names. The checklist may be queried by text search or hierarchy select, with results available in "browse" or "phytogeography and synonymy" modes. To access the checklist, first-time users should read the overview and instructions in the Getting Started section.

- from The Scout Report,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

The Forest Conservation Portal <> is maintained by, a non-governmental organization dedicated to "ending deforestation, preserving old-growth forests, conserving all forests, maintaining climatic systems and commencing the age of ecological restoration." At the Portal, users will find a large series of news articles and resources on forests, forest regions, forest ecology, forest destruction and protection, and related information. Intended for activists and activism, this site contains current news with international coverage.

- from The Scout Report

Current Literature

Adriaensen, F., Louette, M., Stevens, J., Plompen, W., and Verheyen, G. 2001. Fragmented distribution and genetic differentiation of the forest fody, Foudio eminentissima algondae, on the island of Mayotte (Comoros). Ostrich 72(1-2):28-34.

Allen, C.R., Pearlstine, L.G., and Kitchens, W.M. 2001. Modeling viable mammal populations in gap analyses. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):135-144.

An, L., Liu, J.G., Ouyang, Z.Y., Linderman, M., Zhou, S.Q., and Zhang, H.M. 2001. Simulating demographic and socioeconomic processes on household level and implications for giant panda habitats. Ecol. Model. 140(1-2):31-49.

Andayani, N., Morales, J.C., Forstner, M.R.J., Supriatna, J., and Melnick, D.J. 2001. Genetic variability in mtDNA of the silvery gibbon: implications for the conservation of a critically endangered species. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):770-775.

Andersen, A.N., Ludwig, J.A., Lowe, L.M., and Rentz, D.C.F. 2001. Grasshopper biodiversity and bioindicators in Australian tropical savannas: responses to disturbance in Kakadu National Park. Austral Ecol. 26(3):213-222.

Anderson, E.N. 2001. Tropical forest game conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):791-792.

Anderson, G.J., Bernardello, G., and Engel, M.S. 2001. Conservation implications of a newly discovered bee species on Isla Robinson Crusoe, Chile. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):803-805.

Aptroot, A. 2001. Lichenized and saprobic fungal biodiversity of a single Elaeocarpus tree in Papua New Guinea, with the report of 200 species of ascomycetes associated with one tree. Fungal Diversity 6:1-11.

Ashkenazi, S. 2001. Long-term trends in the breeding populations of waterbirds (1951-1985) at a sewage treatment plant. Ostrich 72(1-2):10-19.

Barnosky, A.D., Hadly, E.A., Maurer, B.A., and Christie, M.I. 2001. Temperate terrestrial vertebrate faunas in North and South America: interplay of ecology, evolution, and geography with biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):658-674.

Bennett, C.L., Leonard, S., and Carter, S. 2001. Abundance, diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 54(2):119-126.

Bevanger, K., and Broseth, H. 2001. Bird collisions with power lines - an experiment with ptarmigan (Lagopus spp.). Biol. Conserv. 99(3):341-346.

Bjorkland, R., and Pringle, C.M. 2001. Educating our communities and ourselves about conservation of aquatic resources through environmental outreach. BioScience 51(4):279-282.

Blake, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Karesh, W.B. 2001. GPS telemetry of forest elephants in Central Africa: results of a preliminary study. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(2):178-186.

Borgella, R., Snow, A.A., and Gavin, T.A. 2001. Species richness and pollen loads of hummingbirds using forest fragments in southern Costa Rica. Biotropica 33(1):90-109.

Bos, D.H., and Sites, J.W. 2001. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris; Amphibia, Ranidae). Mol. Ecol. 10(6):1499-1513.

Bossuyt, B., Honnay, O., Van Stichelen, K., Hermy, M., and Van Assche, J. 2001. The effect of a complex land use history on the restoration possibilities of heathland in central Belgium. Belgian J. Bot. 134(1):29-40.

Bouzat, J.L. 2001. The population genetic structure of the greater rhea (Rhea americana) in an agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):277-284.

Brouwer, E., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2001. Degraded softwater lakes: possibilities for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):155-166.

Brown, K.S., and Freitas, A.V.L. 2000. Atlantic forest butterflies: indicators for landscape conservation. Biotropica 32(4B):934-956.

Brunberg, A.K., and Blomqvist, P. 2001. Quantification of anthropogenic threats to lakes in a lowland county of central Sweden. Ambio 30(3):127-134.

Bullock, J.M., Pywell, R.F., Burke, M.J.W., and Walker, K.J. 2001. Restoration of biodiversity enhances agricultural production. Ecol. Lett. 4(3):185-189.

Burgman, M.A., Possingham, H.P., Lynch, A.J.J., Keith, D.A., McCarthy, M.A., Hopper, S.D., Drury, W.L., Passioura, J.A., and Devries, R.J. 2001. A method for setting the size of plant conservation target areas. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):603-616.

Byers, J.E., and Goldwasser, L. 2001. Exposing the mechanism and timing of impact of nonindigenous species on native species. Ecology 82(5):1330-1343.

Campi, M.J., and Mac Nally, R. 2001. Birds on edge: avian assemblages along forest-agricultural boundaries of central Victoria, Australia. Anim. Conserv. 4:121-132.

Caparroz, R., Miyaki, C.Y., Bampi, M.I., and Wajntal, A. 2001. Analysis of the genetic variability in a sample of the remaining group of Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Psittaciformes: Aves) by DNA fingerprinting. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):307-311.

Carpenter, D.W., Jung, R.E., and Sites, J.W. 2001. Conservation genetics of the endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah, Plethodontidae). Anim. Conserv. 4:111-119.

Cengel, B., Velioglu, E., Tolun, A.A., and Kaya, Z. 2000. Pattern and magnitude of genetic diversity in Pinus nigra ARNOLD subspecies pallasiana populations from Kazdagi: implications for in situ conservation. Silvae Genet. 49(6):249-256.

Chown, S.L., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Gremmen, N.J.M., and Gaston, K. 2001. World heritage status and conservation of southern ocean islands. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):550-557.

Church, R., Gerrard, R., Hollander, A., and Stoms, D. 2000. Understanding the tradeoffs between site quality and species presence in reserve site selection. Forest Sci. 46(2):157-167.

Clarke, R.H., Gordon, I.R., and Clarke, M.F. 2001. Intraspecific phenotypic variability in the black-eared miner (Manorina melanotis); human-facilitated introgression and the consequences for an endangered taxon. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):145-155.

Coffman, C.J., Nichols, J.D., and Pollock, K.H. 2001. Population dynamics of Microtus pennsylvanicus in corridor-linked patches. Oikos 93(1):3-21.

Colas, B., Olivieri, I., and Riba, M. 2001. Spatio-temporal variation of reproductive success and conservation of the narrow-endemic Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). Biol. Conserv. 99(3):375-386.

Combreau, O., Launay, F., and Lawrence, M. 2001. An assessment of annual mortality rates in adult-sized migrant houbara bustards (Chlamydotis [undulata] macqueenii). Anim. Conserv. 4:133-141.

Comín, F.A., Romero, J.A., Hernández, O., and Menéndez, M. 2001. Restoration of wetlands from abandoned rice fields for nutrient removal, and biological community and landscape diversity. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):201-208.

Condit, R., Robinson, W.D., Ibanez, R., Aguilar, S., Sanjur, A., Martinez, R., Stallard, R.F., Garcia, T., Angehr, G.R., Petit, L., Wright, S.J., Robinson, T.R., and Heckadon, S. 2001. The status of the Panama Canal watershed and its biodiversity at the beginning of the 21st century. BioScience 51(5):389-398.

Cooper, J., and Ryan, P.G. 2001. The agreement on the conservation of albatrosses and petrels: implications for research and monitoring at the Prince Edward Islands. S. Afr. J. Sci. 97(3-4):78-79.

Cosgrove, P.J., and Hastie, L.C. 2001. Conservation of threatened freshwater pearl mussel populations: river management, mussel translocation and conflict resolution. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):183-190.

Courchamp, F., and Macdonald, D.W. 2001. Crucial importance of pack size in the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Anim. Conserv. 4:169-174.

Cowie, R.H. 2001. Decline and homogenization of Pacific faunas: the land snails of American Samoa. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):207-222.

Cramer, P.C., and Portier, K.M. 2001. Modeling Florida panther movements in response to human attributes of the landscape and ecological settings. Ecol. Model. 140(1-2):51-80.

d'Huart, J.P., and Grubb, P. 2001. Distribution of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and the desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in the Horn of Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(2):156-169.

Davradou, M., and Namkoong, G. 2001. Science, ethical arguments, and management in the preservation of land for grizzly bear conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):570-577.

De Lopez, T.T. 2001. Stakeholder management for conservation projects: a case study of Ream National Park, Cambodia. Environ. Manage. 28(1):47-60.

De Vries, S.M.G. 2001. Conservation of natural ecosystems of poplar and willow. Forest Chron. 77(2):255-257.

Debrot, A.O., and van Soest, R.W.M. 2001. First records of the freshwater sponges Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera and Spongilla alba (Porifera: Spongillidae) from Curacao, with species descriptions and data from transplantation experiments. Caribbean J. Sci. 37(1-2):88-94.

Deconchat, M., and Balent, G. 2001. Vegetation and bird community dynamics in fragmented coppice forests. Forestry 74(2):105-118.

Di Mauro, D., and Dietz, T. 2001. Assessment of an interpretive program for US coast guard personnel. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):776-779.

Dickinson, H.C., Fa, J.E., and Lenton, S.M. 2001. Microhabitat use by a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus vanzoi). Anim. Conserv. 4:143-156.

Dimmick, W.W., Ghedotti, M.J., Grose, M.J., Maglia, A.M., Meinhardt, D.J., and Pennock, D.S. 2001. The evolutionarily significant unit and adaptive criteria: a response to Young. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):788-790.

Dinesen, L., Lehmberg, T., Rahner, M.C., and Fjeldså, J. 2001. Conservation priorities for the forests of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, based on primates, duikers and birds. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):223-236.

dos Reis, M.S., Fantini, A.C., Nodari, R.O., Reis, A., Guerra, M.P., and Mantovani, A. 2000. Management and conservation of natural populations in Atlantic rain forest: the case study of palm heart (Euterpe edulis martius). Biotropica 32(4B):894-902.

Douglas, J.W., and Brown, P. 2000. Notes on successful spawning and recruitment of a stocked population of the endangered Australian freshwater fish, trout cod, Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier) (Percichthyidae). Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 122:143-147.

Duffy, S.B., Corson, M.S., and Grant, W.E. 2001. Simulating land-use decisions in the La Amistad Biosphere Reserve buffer zone in Costa Rica and Panama. Ecol. Model. 140(1-2):9-29.

Easterling, W.E., Brandle, J.R., Hays, C.J., Guo, Q.F., and Guertin, D.S. 2001. Simulating the impact of human land use change on forest composition in the Great Plains agroecosystems with the Seedscape model. Ecol. Model. 140(1-2):163-176.

Ellerbrock, M. 2001. The sorcerer’s tool: Technology as servant or master? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):18. <>

Emberton, K.C. 2001. Exploratory phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses within three land-snail families in southeastern-most Madagascar. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 72(4):567-584.

Engelhardt, K.A.M., and Ritchie, M.E. 2001. Effects of macrophyte species richness on wetland ecosystem functioning and services. Nature 411(6838):687-689.

Etisham-Ul-Haq, M., Allnutt, T.R., Smith-Ramírez, C., Gardner, M.F., Armesto, J.J., and Newton, A.C. 2001. Patterns of genetic variation in in and ex situ populations of the threatened Chilean vine Berberidopsis corallina, detected using RAPD markers. Ann. Botany 87(6):813-821.

Evans, K.M., Ladiges, P.Y., Newbigin, E., and Ades, P.K. 2001. Genetic variation in Banksia saxicola (Proteaceae), a rare Australian plant with a markedly disjunct distribution. Plant Syst. Evol. 227(1-2):105-115.

Fattorini, M. 2001. Establishment of transplants on machine-graded ski runs above timberline in the Swiss Alps. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):119-126.

Fieberg, J., and Ellner, S.P. 2001. Stochastic matrix models for conservation and management: a comparative review of methods. Ecol. Lett. 4(3):244-266.

Fleishman, E. 2001. Moving scientific review beyond academia. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):547-549.

Galetti, M. 2001. Indians within conservation units: lessons from the Atlantic forest. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):798-799.

Gaylard, A., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2001. Habitat assessment for a rare, arboreal forest mammal, the tree hyrax Dendrohyrax arboreus. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(2):205-212.

Gerlach, J., and Le Maitre, S. 2001. Sex ratio variation in small island populations of an endangered bird, the Seychelles magpie robin, Copsychus sechellarum. Ostrich 72(1-2):114-117.

Gillespie, T.W. 2001. Application of extinction and conservation theories for forest birds in Nicaragua. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):699-709.

Gkaraveli, A., Williams, J.H., and Good, J.E.G. 2001. Fragmented native woodlands in Snowdonia (UK): assessment and amelioration. Forestry 74(2):89-103.

Gratwicke, B., and Marshall, B.E. 2001. The impact of Azolla filiculoides Lam. on animal biodiversity in streams in Zimbabwe. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(2):216-218.

Grenier, C. 2001. The Galapagos Islands, failure of conservation. Biofutur 2001(211):38-41.

Groombridge, J.J., Bruford, M.W., Jones, C.G., and Nichols, R.A. 2001. Evaluating the severity of the population bottleneck in the Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus from ringing records using MCMC estimation. J. Anim. Ecol. 70(3):401-409.

Grootjans, A.P., Everts, H., Bruin, K., and Fresco, L. 2001. Restoration of wet dune slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea Islands: recolonization after large-scale sod cutting. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):137-146.

Hancock, C., Storey, A., Downing, J., and Szewczak, S.M. 2001. Interagency resource teams: a model for collaborative approaches to environmental education. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):596-602.

Hansen, A., and Dale, V. 2001. Biodiversity in US forests under global climate change. Ecosystems 4(3):161-163.

Harrison, R.D. 2001. Drought and the consequences of El Nino in Borneo: a case study of figs. Pop. Ecol. 43(1):63-75.

Heads, M. 2001. Regional patterns of biodiversity in New Guinea plants. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 136(1):67-73.

Hedrick, P.W., Kim, T.J., and Parker, K.M. 2001. Parasite resistance and genetic variation in the endangered Gila topminnow. Anim. Conserv. 4:103-109.

Hedrick, P.W., Parker, K.M., and Lee, R.N. 2001. Using microsatellite and MHC variation to identify species, ESUs, and MUs in the endangered Sonoran topminnow. Mol. Ecol. 10(6):1399-1412.

Hels, T., and Buchwald, E. 2001. The effect of road kills on amphibian populations. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):331-340.

Henry, J.P. 2001. Choosing strategies for conservation. Biofutur 2001(211):30-33.

Herremans, M., and Herremans-Tonnoeyr, D. 2001. Roadside abundance of raptors in the Western Cape province, South Africa: a three-decade comparison. Ostrich 72(1-2):96-100.

Hobbs, R.J., and Harris, J.A. 2001. Restoration ecology: repairing the Earth's ecosystems in the new millennium. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):239-246.

Huesemann, M.H. 2001. Can pollution problems be effectively solved by environmental science and technology? An analysis of critical limitations. Ecol. Econ. 37(2):271-287.

Infield, M. 2001. Cultural values: a forgotten strategy for building community support for protected areas in Africa. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):800-802.

Janssen, M.A. 2001. An immune system perspective on ecosystem management. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):13. <>

Joly, K., and Myers, W.L. 2001. Patterns of mammalian species richness and habitat associations in Pennsylvania. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):253-260.

Kalejta-Summers, B., Allan, D.G., and Longrigg, T.D. 2001. Long-term trends, seasonal abundance and energy consumption of waterbirds at Rietvlei, Western Cape, South Africa, 1950-1997. Ostrich 72(1-2):63-79.

Kalejta-Summers, B., McCarthy, M., and Underhill, L.G. 2001. Long-term trends, seasonal abundance and energy consumption of waterbirds at Strandfontein, Western Cape, South Africa, 1953-1993. Ostrich 72(1-2):80-95.

Kessler, M. 2001. Maximum plant-community endemism at intermediate intensities of anthropogenic disturbance in Bolivian montane forests. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):634-641.

Kiker, C.F., Milon, J.W., and Hodges, A.W. 2001. Adaptive learning for science-based policy: the Everglades restoration. Ecol. Econ. 37(3):403-416.

Kirk, D.A., and Hobson, K.A. 2001. Bird-habitat relationships in jack pine boreal forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 147(2-3):217-243.

Klötzli, F., and Grootjans, A.P. 2001. Restoration of natural and semi-natural wetland systems in Central Europe: progress and predictability of developments. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):209-219.

Knapp, C.R. 2001. Status of a translocated Cyclura iguana colony in the Bahamas. J. Herpetol. 35(2):239-248.

Knight, M.H., Kshatriya, M., Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Nicholls, A.O., and Hall-Martin, A.J. 2001. Evaluating herbivore extinction probabilities in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Afr. Zool. 36(1):13-22.

Kuchling, G. 2000. Concept and design of the Madagascar side-necked turtle Erymnochelys madagascariensis breeding facility at Ampijoroa, Madagascar. Dodo 36:62-74.

Lacher, T.E., and Alho, C.J.R. 2001. Terrestrial small mammal richness and habitat associations in an Amazon forest-Cerrado contact zone. Biotropica 33(1):171-181.

Lahti, D.C. 2001. The "edge effect on nest predation" hypothesis after twenty years. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):365-374.

Lamont, B.B., Marsula, R., Enright, N.J., and Witkowski, E.T.F. 2001. Conservation requirements of an exploited wildflower: modelling the effects of plant age, growing conditions and harvesting intensity. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):157-168.

Landrum, L.R. 2001. What has happened to descriptive systematics? What would make it thrive? Syst. Bot. 26(2):438-442.

Lefevre, F., Kajba, D., Heinze, B., Rotach, P., De Vries, S.M.G., and Turok, J. 2001. Black poplar: a model for gene resource conservation in forest ecosystems. Forest Chron. 77(2):239-244.

Lewison, R., Fitzhugh, E.L., and Galentine, S.P. 2001. Validation of a rigorous track classification technique: identifying individual mountain lions. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):313-321.

Liu, J.G. 2001. Integrating ecology with human demography, behavior, and socioeconomics: needs and approaches. Ecol. Model. 140(1-2):1-8.

Mac Nally, R., Parkinson, A., Horrocks, G., Conole, L., and Tzaros, C. 2001. Relationships between terrestrial vertebrate diversity, abundance and availability of coarse woody debris on south-eastern Australian floodplains. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):191-205.

Machado, R.B., and da Fonseca, G.A.B. 2000. The avifauna of Rio Doce Valley, southeastern Brazil, a highly fragmented area. Biotropica 32(4B):914-924.

Maes, D., and Van Dyck, H. 2001. Butterfly diversity loss in Flanders (north Belgium): Europe's worst case scenario? Biol. Conserv. 99(3):263-276.

Magura, T., Kodobocz, V., and Tothmeresz, B. 2001. Effects of habitat fragmentation on carabids in forest patches. J. Biogeogr. 28(1):129-138.

Martin, T.J., and Major, R.E. 2001. Changes in wolf spider (Araneae) assemblages across woodland-pasture boundaries in the central wheat-belt of New South Wales, Australia. Austral Ecol. 26(3):264-274.

McDonald, A.A., Liu, J.G., Prince, H., and Kress, K. 2001. A socio-economic-ecological simulation model of land acquisition to expand a national wildlife refuge. Ecol. Model. 140(1-2):99-110.

Medail, F. 2001. Biodiversity hot spots: a tool for conservation. Biofutur 2001(211):37.

Middleton, J.V. 2001. The stream doctor project: community-driven stream restoration. BioScience 51(4):293-296.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Shea, K., Possingham, H., Coulson, T., and Wilcox, C. 2001. Competing harvesting strategies in a simulated population under uncertainty. Anim. Conserv. 4:157-167.

Morellato, L.P.C., and Haddad, C.F.B. 2000. Introduction: the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Biotropica 32(4B):786-792.

Moro, D. 2001. Evaluation and cost-benefits of controlling house mice (Mus domesticus) on islands: an example from Thevenard Island, Western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):355-364.

Morrison, J.L., and Humphrey, S.R. 2001. Conservation value of private lands for crested caracaras in Florida. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):675-684.

Munasinghe, M. 2001. Exploring the linkages between climate change and sustainable development: A challenge for transdisciplinary research. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):14. <>

Murphy, M.T. 2001. Source-sink dynamics of a declining eastern kingbird population and the value of sink habitats. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):737-748.

Nogales, M., Rando, J.C., Valido, A., and Martin, A. 2001. Discovery of a living giant lizard, genus Gallotia (Reptilia: Lacertidae), from La Gomera, Canary Islands. Herpetologica 57(2):169-179.

Norris, D.R., and Stutchbury, B.J.M. 2001. Extraterritorial movements of a forest songbird in a fragmented landscape. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):729-736.

Norstedt, G., Bader, P., and Ericson, L. 2001. Polypores as indicators of conservation value in Corsican pine forests. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):347-354.

Noss, R.F. 2001. Beyond Kyoto: forest management in a time of rapid climate change. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):578-590.

Nuttall, D.B., and Parker, V. 2001. An overview of the history and distribution of the olive-headed weaver, Ploceus olivaceiceps, with preliminary observations of a sub-population near Panda, Mozambique. Ostrich 72(1-2):101-104.

Odom, R.H., Ford, W.M., Edwards, J.W., Stihler, C.W., and Menzel, J.M. 2001. Developing a habitat model for the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):245-252.

Ostermann, S.D., Deforge, J.R., and Edge, W.D. 2001. Captive breeding and reintroduction evaluation criteria: a case study of peninsular bighorn sheep. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):749-760.

Owen, A. 2000. The collection of eight Montserrat orioles Icterus oberi and their establishment at Jersey Zoo. Dodo 36:51-61.

Papageorgiou, K. 2001. A combined park management framework based on regulatory and behavioral strategies: use of visitors' knowledge to assess effectiveness. Environ. Manage. 28(1):61-73.

Parris, K.M. 2001. Distribution, habitat requirements and conservation of the cascade treefrog (Litoria pearsoniana, Anura: Hylidae). Biol. Conserv. 99(3):285-292.

Patzelt, A., Wild, U., and Pfadenhauer, J. 2001. Restoration of wet fen meadows by topsoil removal: vegetation development and germination biology of fen species. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):127-136.

Paulsen, C.M., and Fisher, T.R. 2001. Statistical relationship between parr-to-smolt survival of Snake River spring-summer chinook salmon and indices of land use. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 130(3):347-358.

Pearce, J., Ferrier, S., and Scotts, D. 2001. An evaluation of the predictive performance of distributional models for flora and fauna in north-east New South Wales. J. Environ. Manage. 62(2):171-184.

Pearman, P.B. 2001. Conservation value of independently evolving units: sacred cow or testable hypothesis? Conserv. Biol. 15(3):780-783.

Pedrono, M. 2000. Interactive management of wild and captive populations: conservation strategies for the ploughshare tortoise Geochelone yniphora in Madagascar. Dodo 36:93-94.

Peres, C.A., and Zimmerman, B. 2001. Perils in parks or parks in peril? Reconciling conservation in Amazonian reserves with and without use. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):793-797.

Pfadenhauer, J. 2001. Some remarks on the socio-cultural background of restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):220-229.

Phillis, Y.A., and Andriantiatsaholiniaina, L.A. 2001. Sustainability: an ill-defined concept and its assessment using fuzzy logic. Ecol. Econ. 37(3):435-456.

Pimentel, D. 2001. Pricing biodiversity and ecosystem services. BioScience 51(4):270-271.

Ponder, W.F., Carter, G.A., Flemons, P., and Chapman, R.R. 2001. Evaluation of museum collection data for use in biodiversity assessment. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):648-657.

Price, E.C., and Feistner, A.T.C. 2000. Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust scientific output 1999. Dodo 36:98-113.

Raman, T.R.S. 2001. Effect of slash-and-burn shifting cultivation on rainforest birds in Mizoram, northeast India. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):685-698.

Ramanamanjato, J.B., and Ganzhorn, J.U. 2001. Effects of forest fragmentation, introduced Rattus rattus and the role of exotic tree plantations and secondary vegetation for the conservation of an endemic rodent and a small lemur in littoral forests of southeastern Madagascar. Anim. Conserv. 4:175-183.

Rao, M., Terborgh, J., and Nuñez, P. 2001. Increased herbivory in forest isolates: implications for plant community structure and composition. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):624-633.

Razafindrajao, F. 2000. Study of the Madagascar teal Anas bernieri and other Anatidae of the western wetlands of Madagascar. Dodo 36:90.

Razandrimamilafiniarivo, O.C., Reid, D., and Bekarany, E. 2000. Captive management and reproduction of the Madagascar flat-tailed tortoise Pyxis planicauda at the Chelonian Captive Breeding Centre, Ampijoroa, Madagascar. Dodo 36:75-81.

Regan, T.J., Regan, H.M., Bonham, K., Taylor, R.J., and Burgman, M.A. 2001. Modelling the impact of timber harvesting on a rare carnivorous land snail (Tasmaphena lamproides) in northwest Tasmania, Australia. Ecol. Model. 139(2-3):253-264.

Ribaudo, M.O., Heimlich, R., Claassen, R., and Peters, M. 2001. Least-cost management of nonpoint source pollution: source reduction versus interception strategies for controlling nitrogen loss in the Mississippi Basin. Ecol. Econ. 37(2):183-197.

Richter, S.C., Young, J.E., Seigel, R.A., and Johnson, G.N. 2001. Postbreeding movements of the dark gopher frog, Rana sevosa Goin and Netting: implications for conservation and management. J. Herpetol. 35(2):316-321.

Rodgers, J.A., Smith, H.T., and Thayer, D.D. 2001. Integrating nonindigenous aquatic plant control with protection of snail kite nests in Florida. Environ. Manage. 28(1):31-37.

Rogers-Bennett, L., and Pearse, J.S. 2001. Indirect benefits of marine protected areas for juvenile abalone. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):642-647.

Roldán, A.I., and Simonetti, J.A. 2001. Plant-mammal interactions in tropical Bolivian forests with different hunting pressures. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):617-623.

Rolim, S.G., do Cuto, H.T.Z., and de Jesus, R.M. 2001. Temporal fluctuations in the floristic composition of an Atlantic tropical forest. Biotropica 33(1):12-22.

Rosch, M., Chown, S.L., and McGeoch, M.A. 2001. Testing a bioindicator assemblage: gall-inhabiting moths and urbanization. Afr. Entomol. 9(1):85-94.

Roy, D.B., Rothery, P., Moss, D., Pollard, E., and Thomas, J.A. 2001. Butterfly numbers and weather: predicting historical trends in abundance and the future effects of climate change. J. Anim. Ecol. 70(2):201-217.

Rubin, C.S., Warner, R.E., Bouzat, J.L., and Paige, K.N. 2001. Population genetic structure of Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) in an urban landscape. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):323-330.

Sarno, R.J., Franklin, W.L., O'Brien, S.J., and Johnson, W.E. 2001. Patterns of mtDNA and microsatellite variation in an island and mainland population of guanacos in southern Chile. Anim. Conserv. 4:93-101.

Schiller, A., Hunsaker, C.T., Kane, M.A., Wolfe, A.K., Dale, V.H., Suter, G.W., Russell, C.S., Pion, G., Jensen, M.H., and Konar, V.C. 2001. Communicating ecological indicators to decision makers and the public. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(1):19. <>

Schmid-Holmes, S., and Drickamer, L.C. 2001. Impact of forest patch characteristics on small mammal communities: a multivariate approach. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):293-305.

Schumacker, R. 2001. The hepatic flora of the Azores: brief historical outline, present knowledge, endemics and phytogeographical aspects. Belgian J. Bot. 134(1):51-63.

Sharma, I.K. 2001. Understanding clonal diversity patterns through allozyme polymorphism in an endangered and geographically restricted Australian shrub, Zieria baeuerlenii and its implications for conservation. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 29(7):681-695.

Sklar, F.H., Fitz, H.C., Wu, Y., Van Zee, R., and McVoy, C. 2001. The design of ecological landscape models for Everglades restoration. Ecol. Econ. 37(3):379-401.

Smith, A.L., Ortiz, J.S., and Robertson, R.J. 2001. Distribution patterns of migrant and resident birds in successional forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Biotropica 33(1):153-170.

Smith, R. 2000. Census of Jersey wall lizards Podarcis muralis and ecological correlates of distribution at fort sites in Jersey. Dodo 36:95-96.

Stanturf, J.A., Schoenholtz, S.H., Schweitzer, C.J., and Shepard, J.P. 2001. Achieving restoration success: myths in bottomland hardwood forests. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):189-200.

Stone, C., Old, K., Kile, G., and Coops, N. 2001. Forest health monitoring in Australia: national and regional commitments and operational realities. Ecosyst. Health 7(1):48-58.

Stratford, J.A., and Stouffer, P.C. 2001. Reduced feather growth rates of two common birds inhabiting central Amazonian forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):721-728.

Strier, K.B. 2000. Population viabilities and conservation implications for muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in Brazil's Atlantic forest. Biotropica 32(4B):903-913.

Su, B., Fu, Y.X., Wang, Y.X., Jin, L., and Chakraborty, R. 2001. Genetic diversity and population history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18(6):1070-1076.

Summerville, K.S., and Crist, T.O. 2001. Effects of experimental habitat fragmentation on patch use by butterflies and skippers (Lepidoptera). Ecology 82(5):1360-1370.

Swart, J.A.A., van der Windt, H.J., and Keulartz, J. 2001. Valuation of nature in conservation and restoration. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):230-238.

Tabanez, A.A.J., and Viana, V.M. 2000. Patch structure within Brazilian Atlantic forest fragments and implications for conservation. Biotropica 32(4B):925-933.

Tallowin, J.R.B., and Smith, R.E.N. 2001. Restoration of a Cirsio-Molinietum fen meadow on an agriculturally improved pasture. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):167-178.

Thibault, M., and Blaney, S. 2001. Sustainable human resources in a protected area in southwestern Gabon. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):591-595.

Trajano, E. 2000. Cave faunas in the Atlantic tropical rain forest: composition, ecology, and conservation. Biotropica 32(4B):882-893.

Valladares-Padua, C., Martins, C.S., Wormell, D., and Setz, E.Z.F. 2000. Preliminary evaluation of the reintroduction of a mixed wild-captive group of black lion tamarins Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Dodo 36:30-38.

van Diggelen, R., Grootjans, A.P., and Harris, J.A. 2001. Ecological restoration: state of the art or state of the science? Restor. Ecol. 9(2):115-118.

Van Krunkelsven, E. 2001. Density estimation of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in Salonga National Park, Congo. Biol. Conserv. 99(3):387-391.

Waage, J.K., and Reaser, J.K. 2001. A global strategy to defeat invasive species. Science 292(5521):1486.

WallisDeVries, M.F., and Raemakers, I. 2001. Does extensive grazing benefit butterflies in coastal dunes? Restor. Ecol. 9(2):179-188.

Walpole, M.J., Morgan-Davies, M., Milledge, S., Bett, P., and Leader-Williams, N. 2001. Population dynamics and future conservation of a free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) population in Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 99(2):237-243.

Weber, A., Fohrer, N., and Möller, D. 2001. Long-term land use changes in a mesoscale watershed due to socio-economic factors - effects on landscape structures and functions. Ecol. Model. 140(1-2):125-140.

Wellnitz, T., and Poff, N.L. 2001. Functional redundancy in heterogeneous environments: implications for conservation. Ecol. Lett. 4(3):177-179.

Welsh, H.H., and Droege, S. 2001. A case for using plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North American Forests. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):558-569.

Wemmer, L.C., Özesmi, U., and Cuthbert, F.J. 2001. A habitat-based population model for the Great Lakes population of the piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Biol. Conserv. 99(2):169-181.

Weyland Vieira, M.C., Carauta, J.P.P., Parrini, R., Souza, S.B., Delgado, W.A., and Pacheco, J.F. 2000. The fauna corridors among forest fragments in Lagoa Farm, Monte Belo, MG. Albertoa 9:17-24.

Wilkie, D.S., and Godoy, R.A. 2001. Income and price elasticities of bushmeat demand in lowland Amerindian societies. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):761-769.

Willems, J.H. 2001. Problems, approaches, and results in restoration of Dutch calcareous grassland during the last 30 years. Restor. Ecol. 9(2):147-154.

Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Perrin, M.R., and Symes, C.T. 2001. Abundance and activity patterns of the Cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus) in two afromontane forests in South Africa. Afr. Zool. 36(1):71-77.

Wormell, D., and Brayshaw, M. 2000. The design and redevelopment of New World primate accommodation at Jersey Zoo: a naturalistic approach. Dodo 36:9-19.

Wright, T.F., Toft, C.A., Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E., Gonzalez-Elizondo, J., Albornoz, M., Rodriguez-Ferraro, A., Rojas-Suárez, F., Sanz, V., Trujillo, A., Beissinger, S.R., Berovides, V., Gálvez, X., Brice, A.T., Joyner, K., Eberhard, J., Gilardi, J., Koenig, S.E., Stoleson, S., Martuscelli, P., Meyers, J.M., Renton, K., Rodríguez, A.M., Sosa-Asanza, A.C., Vilella, F.J., and Wiley, J.W. 2001. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):710-720.

Young, K.A. 2001. Defining units of conservation for intraspecific biodiversity: reply to Dimmick et al. Conserv. Biol. 15(3):784-787.

Zajac, R.N., and Whitlatch, R.B. 2001. Response of macrobenthic communities to restoration efforts in a New England estuary. Estuaries 24(2):167-183.

Zielinski, W.J., Slauson, K.M., Carroll, C.R., Kent, C.J., and Kudrna, D.G. 2001. Status of American martens in coastal forests of the Pacific states. J. Mammal. 82(2):478-490.

**To read and print the pdf of the newsletter,
you must download Adobe Acrobat (free)**
Get Acrobat Reader here.

[ TOP ]