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No. 201
September 2001

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In This Issue

NASA Joins with Conservation Biologists to Get the Big Picture

NASA's views of Earth-from satellite images to photographs taken by astronauts-can give conservation biologists the big picture of how our planet and the life on it are changing, from forest fragmentation to the possible link between UV-B radiation and amphibian declines.

To explore NASA's role in conservation, the August issue of Conservation Biology includes a 12-paper special section "NASA and the Conservation of Biodiversity," which was co-edited by Woody Turner of NASA's Office of Earth Science in Washington, D.C., and Eleanor Sterling of the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, New York.

Many of these projects stem from a 1997 workshop co-hosted by NASA and the Smithsonian Institution entitled "Applications of NASA Technology for Biodiversity Conservation," where NASA researchers and conservation biologists found ways of applying NASA's tools to conservation challenges worldwide.

    The projects include:

  • Using radar images to distinguish patches of natural forest from areas of cocoa planted under remnant canopy trees in Brazil's Atlantic coast rainforest. Compared to optical technology, radar has the advantage of penetrating both the cloud cover and tree canopy. Such work could help identify high-biodiversity areas for reserves and corridors. This work is by Saasan Saatchi of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, and colleagues.

  • Using astronauts' low Earth orbit photographs to identify woodlands damaged by the growing elephant population in Botswana's Chobe National Park. Nearly 400,000 photographs taken by astronauts since the late 1960s are available in a searchable database at <>. This work is by Julie Robinson of NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and her colleagues.

  • Using satellite images to determine if surface currents could have spread the pathogen that caused the mass sea urchin deaths in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico in 1993-1994. This work is by Jonathan Phinney of the Center for Marine Conservation in Washington, D.C., and his colleagues.

  • Using satellite-derived UV-B radiation data to show that UV-B has increased significantly at 11 Central American sites where amphibians have declined. This work is by Elizabeth Middleton of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and her colleagues. The special section also includes three other papers investigating correlations between amphibian declines and environmental factors.

The proceedings from the initial 1997 workshop entitled "Applications of NASA Technology for Biodiversity Conservation" are available at <>. In addition, the proceedings from the 1999 symposium "Conservation Biology and NASA: New Opportunities for Research & Applications" are available at <>.

New Journal Announcement

A new international website <> and corresponding journal, Ecological Indicators, has recently been launched. The website hosts information about key works in the field of ecological and environmental indicators, as well as information on forthcoming symposia such as the "3rd International Symposium on Environmental Indicators and Indices" being held October 2-5, 2001 in Rome, Italy. Other links of interest can also be found, including EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and Environment Canada's Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network. The ultimate aim of Ecological Indicators is to integrate the monitoring and assessment of ecological and environmental indicators with management practices. The journal will provide a forum for the discussion of the applied scientific development and review of traditional indicator approaches as well as for theoretical, modeling and quantitative applications such as index development. The journal is intended for scientists, decision-makers and resource managers working with or using ecological and environmental indicators for the long-term goals of assessing extent, condition and trends within the environment.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

National Wildlife Federation (NWF) has launched a Backyard Wildlife Habitat planning feature through its eNature website. The Planner provides outdoor enthusiasts with a multitude of online resources to help them create sustainable, wildlife friendly landscapes. The feature allows users to assess wildlife value of their backyards, balconies, or other spaces, to upload photographs of their habitat, and to create a list of native plants and wildlife living in or using the habitat in using eNature's regional field guide resources. Users can also have their yard certified by NWF as an official Backyard Wildlife Habitat site. To learn how to turn your backyard into an enticing wildlife refuge, go to <>.

First published by Entomological Information Services in 1996-97 in four volumes, the Nomina Insecta Nearctica <> is an online checklist with a complete listing (minus synonyms) of the approximately 90,000 species of insects of North America north of Mexico. The checklist is arranged alphabetically, by taxonomic rank. Detailed information includes "the current generic name, the species name, the author or authors of the name, the date of publication, and finally (in parentheses), the generic name under which the species was originally described." Beginners should start at the table of contents and follow the links.

- from The Scout Report,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

American Memory, the Library of Congress' "gateway to rich primary source materials relating to the history and culture of the United States," offers Conservation and Environmental Maps <>, a website on the exploration and land use in the United States. These historic and recent maps will be of great interest to ecologists, as they show "changes in the landscape, including natural and man-made features, recreational and wilderness areas, geology, topography, wetland area, vegetation, and wildlife." The site may be searched by keyword or browsed by Subject Index, Creator Index, Geographic Location Index, or Title Index.

- from The Scout Report

Current Literature

Adams, S.B., Frissell, C.A., and Rieman, B.E. 2001. Geography of invasion in mountain streams: consequences of headwater lake fish introductions. Ecosystems 4(4):296-307.

Adams, W.M., and Hulme, D. 2001. If community conservation is the answer in Africa, what is the question? Oryx 35(3):193-200.

Albert, D.M., Bowyer, R.T., and Miller, S.D. 2001. Effort and success of brown bear hunters in Alaska. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(2):501-508.

Albert, M.J., Escudero, A., and Iriondo, J.M. 2001. Female reproductive success of narrow endemic Erodium paularense in contrasting microhabitats. Ecology 82(6):1734-1747.

Allen, C.R., Forys, E.A., Rice, K.G., and Wojcik, D.P. 2001. Effects of fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on hatching turtles and prevalence of fire ants on sea turtle nesting beaches in Florida. Fl. Entomol. 84(2):250-253.

Alonso, I., Hartley, S.E., and Thurlow, M. 2001. Competition between heather and grasses on Scottish moorlands: interacting effects of nutrient enrichment and grazing regime. J. Veg. Sci. 12(2):249-260.

Anders, C.M., and Murrell, Z.E. 2001. Morphological, molecular, and biogeographical variation within the imperiled Virginia Spiraea. Castanea 66(1-2):24-41.

Angelici, F.M., and Luiselli, L. 2001. Distribution and status of the Apennine hare Lepus corsicanus in continental Italy and Sicily. Oryx 35(3):245-249.

Armbrecht, I., Tischer, I., and Chacon, P. 2001. Nested subsets and partition patterns in ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Colombian dry forest fragments. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 77(3):196-209.

Avenant-Oldewage, A. 2001. Argulus japonicus in the Olifants River system - possible conservation threat? S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 31(1-2):59-63.

Backes, M.M. 2001. The role of indigenous trees for the conservation of biocultural diversity in traditional agroforestry land use systems: The Bungoma case study: in-situ conservation of indigenous tree species. Agroforestry Syst. 52(2):119-132.

Baillie, S.R. 2001. The contribution of ringing to the conservation and management of bird populations: a review. Ardea 89(1):167-184.

Bajema, R.A., DeVault, T.L., Scott, P.E., and Lima, S.L. 2001. Reclaimed coal mine grasslands and their significance for Henslow's sparrows in the American Midwest. Auk 118(2):422-431.

Báldi, A., Csorba, G., and Korsós, Z. 2001. Setting priorities for the conservation of terrestrial vertebrates in Hungary. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(8):1283-1296.

Barrett, C.B., Brandon, K., Gibson, C., and Gjertsen, H. 2001. Conserving tropical biodiversity amid weak institutions. BioScience 51(6):497-502.

Barry, C.R., Rooney, T.P., Ventura, S.I., and Waller, D.M. 2001. Evaluation of biodiversity value based on wildness: a study of the western Northwoods, Upper Great Lakes, USA. Nat. Areas J. 21(3):229-242.

Bates, P.J.J., Nwe, T., Swe, K.M., and Bu, S.S.H. 2001. Further new records of bats from Myanmar (Burma), including Craseonycteris thonglongyai Hill 1974 (Chiroptera: Craseonycteridae). Acta Chiropterologica 3(1):33-41.

Beamish, R.J. 2001. Updated status of the Vancouver Island Lake lamprey, Lampetra macrostoma, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(1):127-130.

Beck, J.B., Naczi, R.F.C., and Calie, P.J. 2001. Insights into the species delineation and population structure of Solidago shortii (Asteraceae) through morphometric analysis. Rhodora 103(914):151-171.

Bell, S.S., Brooks, R.A., Robbins, B.D., Fonseca, M.S., and Hall, M.O. 2001. Faunal response to fragmentation in seagrass habitats: implications for seagrass conservation. Biol. Conserv. 100(1):115-123.

Berggren, A., Carlson, A., and Kindvall, O. 2001. The effect of landscape composition on colonization success, growth rate and dispersal in introduced bush-crickets Metrioptera roeseli. J. Anim. Ecol. 70(4):663-670.

Blake, J.G., and Loiselle, B.A. 2001. Bird assemblages in second-growth and old-growth forests, Costa Rica: perspectives from mist nets and point counts. Auk 118(2):304-326.

Blaney, C.S., and Kotanen, P.M. 2001. The vascular flora of Akimiski Island, Nunavut Territory, Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(1):88-98.

Boesch, D.F., Brinsfield, R.B., and Magnien, R.E. 2001. Chesapeake Bay eutrophication: scientific understanding, ecosystem restoration, and challenges for agriculture. J. Environ. Qual. 30(2):303-320.

Bougher, N.L., and Lebel, T. 2001. Sequestrate (truffle-like) fungi of Australia and New Zealand. Aust. Syst. Bot. 14(3):439-484.

Bramley, G.N., and Waas, J.R. 2001. Laboratory and field evaluation of predator odors as repellents for kiore (Rattus exulans) and ship rats (R. rattus). J. Chem. Ecol. 27(5):1029-1047.

Bright, P.W., and Smithson, T.J. 2001. Biological invasions provide a framework for reintroductions: selecting areas in England for pine marten releases. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(8):1247-1265.

Brown, J.W. 2001. Species turnover in the leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Plummers Island, Maryland: assessing a century of inventory data. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 103(3):673-685.

Butet, A., and Leroux, A.B.A. 2001. Effects of agriculture development on vole dynamics and conservation of Montagu's harrier in western French wetlands. Biol. Conserv. 100(3):289-295.

Byg, A., and Balslev, H. 2001. Traditional knowledge of Dypsis fibrosa (Arecaceae) in eastern Madagascar. Econ. Bot. 55(2):263-275.

Campbell, R.R. 2001. Rare and endangered fishes and marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Marine Mammal Subcommittee Status Reports: XIII. Can. Field-Natural. 115(1):115-117.

Cane, J.H., Minckley, R.L., and Kervin, L.J. 2000. Sampling bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for pollinator community studies: pitfalls of pan-trapping. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 73(4):225-231.

Chiarello, A.G., and de Melo, F.R. 2001. Primate population densities and sizes in Atlantic forest remnants of northern Espirito Santo, Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 22(3):379-396.

Choudhury, A. 2001. An overview of the status and conservation of the red panda Ailurus fulgens in India, with reference to its global status. Oryx 35(3):250-259.

Collinge, S.K. 2001. Spatial ecology and biological conservation - introduction. Biol. Conserv. 100(1):1-2.

Collinge, S.K., Holyoak, M., Barr, C.B., and Marty, J.T. 2001. Riparian habitat fragmentation and population persistence of the threatened valley elderberry longhorn beetle in central California. Biol. Conserv. 100(1):103-113.

Cook, A.G. 2001. A review of the comparative morphology and systematics of Utah Lake suckers (Catostomidae). J. Zool. 254:293-308.

Cox, J., and Engstrom, R.T. 2001. Influence of the spatial pattern of conserved lands on the persistence of a large population of red-cockaded woodpeckers. Biol. Conserv. 100(1):137-150.

Crawford, J.S., Wahren, C.H.A., Kyle, S., and Moir, W.H. 2001. Responses of exotic plant species to fires in Pinus ponderosa forests in northern Arizona. J. Veg. Sci. 12(2):261-268.

Crisp, M.D., Laffan, S., Linder, H.P., and Monro, A. 2001. Endemism in the Australian flora. J. Biogeogr. 28(2):183-198.

Cuthbert, R., Fletcher, D., and Davis, L.S. 2001. A sensitivity analysis of Hutton's shearwater: prioritizing conservation research and management. Biol. Conserv. 100(2):163-172.

Dahlberg, A., Schimmel, J., Taylor, A.F.S., and Johannesson, H. 2001. Post-fire legacy of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the Swedish boreal forest in relation to fire severity and logging intensity. Biol. Conserv. 100(2):151-161.

Dajdok, Z., and Kacki, Z. 2001. The distribution of Arum maculatum L. (Araceae) in Poland. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 70(2):103-106.

Davies, K.F., Melbourne, B.A., and Margules, C.R. 2001. Effects of within- and between-patch processes on community dynamics in a fragmentation experiment. Ecology 82(7):1830-1846.

de Leeuw, J., Waweru, M.N., Okello, O.O., Maloba, M., Nguru, P., Said, M.Y., Aligula, H.M., Heitkonig, I.M.A., and Reid, R.S. 2001. Distribution and diversity of wildlife in northern Kenya in relation to livestock and permanent water points. Biol. Conserv. 100(3):297-306.

Devall, M., Schiff, N., and Boyette, D. 2001. Ecology and reproductive biology of the endangered pondberry, Lindera melissifolia (Walt) Blume. Nat. Areas J. 21(3):250-258.

Dodson, S.I., and Lillie, R.A. 2001. Zooplankton communities of restored depressional wetlands in Wisconsin, USA. Wetlands 21(2):292-300.

Dolphin, K., and Quicke, D.L.J. 2001. Estimating the global species richness of an incompletely described taxon: an example using parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 73(3):279-286.

Donovan, T.M., and Thompson, F.R. 2001. Modeling the ecological trap hypothesis: a habitat and demographic analysis for migrant songbirds. Ecol. Appl. 11(3):871-882.

Eeley, H.A.C., Lawes, M.J., and Reyers, B. 2001. Priority areas for the conservation of subtropical indigenous forest in southern Africa: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(8):1221-1246.

Epifanio, J., and Nielsen, J. 2000. The role of hybridization in the distribution, conservation and management of aquatic species. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 10(3):245-251.

Escobar, F., and de Ulloa, P.C. 2000. Space and time distribution along a succesional gradient of coprofagous coleopterans (Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae) in a tropical montane forest, Narino Colombia. Rev. Biol. Trop. 48(4):961-975.

Estill, J.C., and Cruzan, M.B. 2001. Phytogeography of rare plant species endemic to the southeastern United States. Castanea 66(1-2):3-23.

Fahrig, L. 2001. How much habitat is enough? Biol. Conserv. 100(1):65-74.

Fernández-Juricic, E. 2001. Avian spatial segregation at edges and interiors of urban parks in Madrid, Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(8):1303-1316.

Ferreras, P. 2001. Landscape structure and asymmetrical inter-patch connectivity in a metapopulation of the endangered Iberian lynx. Biol. Conserv. 100(1):125-136.

Figueiredo, E. 2001. A revision of Calvoa Hook. f. (Melastomataceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 136(2):179-205.

Florencio, L., Kato, M.T., and de Lima, E.S. 2001. Integrated measures for preservation, restoration and improvement of the environmental conditions of the Lagoon Olho d'Agua basin. Environ. Int. 26(7-8):551-555.

Ford, J. 2001. The relevance of indigenous knowledge to contemporary sustainability. Northwest Sci. 75(2):183-188.

Forys, E.A., Quistorff, A., and Allen, C.R. 2001. Potential fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) impact on the endangered Schaus swallowtail (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Fl. Entomol. 84(2):254-258.

Frantzen, M.A.J., Ferguson, J.W.H., and de Villiers, M.S. 2001. The conservation role of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Biol. Conserv. 100(2):253-260.

Friar, E.A., Boose, D.L., Ladoux, T., Roalson, E.H., and Robichaux, R.H. 2001. Population structure in the endangered Mauna Loa silversword, Argyroxiphium kauense (Asteraceae), and its bearing on reintroduction. Mol. Ecol. 10(7):1657-1663.

Frid, A. 2001. Habitat use by endangered huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus): cattle, snow, and the problem of multiple causes. Biol. Conserv. 100(2):261-267.

Fridley, J.D. 2001. The influence of species diversity on ecosystem productivity: how, where, and why? Oikos 93(3):514-526.

Gentile, J.H., Harwell, M.A., Cropper, W., Harwell, C.C., Deangelis, D., Davis, S., Ogden, J.C., and Lirman, D. 2001. Ecological conceptual models: a framework and case study on ecosystem management for South Florida sustainability. Sci. Total Environ. 274(1-3):231-253.

Gerber, L.R., and Hilborn, R. 2001. Catastrophic events and recovery from low densities in populations of otariids: implications for risk of extinction. Mammal Rev. 31(2):131-150.

Germano, D.J., Rathbun, G.B., and Saslaw, L.R. 2001. Managing exotic grasses and conserving declining species. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(2):551-559.

Gibbs, J.P. 2001. Demography versus habitat fragmentation as determinants of genetic variation in wild populations. Biol. Conserv. 100(1):15-20.

Gillespie, G.R. 2001. The role of introduced trout in the decline of the spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 100(2):187-198.

Glenz, C., Massolo, A., Kuonen, D., and Schlaepfer, R. 2001. A wolf habitat suitability prediction study in Valais (Switzerland). Landscape Urban Plan. 55(1):55-65.

Godfray, H.C.J., and Lawton, J.H. 2001. Scale and species numbers. TREE 16(7):400-404.

González-Solís, J., Guix, J.C., Mateos, E., and Llorens, L. 2001. Population density of primates in a large fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(8):1267-1282.

Gosse, J.W., and Montevecchi, W.A. 2001. Relative abundances of forest birds of prey in western Newfoundland. Can. Field-Natural. 115(1):57-63.

Groom, M.J. 2001. Consequences of subpopulation isolation for pollination, herbivory, and population growth in Clarkia concinna concinna (Onagraceae). Biol. Conserv. 100(1):55-63.

Guo, Z.W., Xiao, X.M., Gan, Y.L., and Zheng, Y.J. 2001. Ecosystem functions, services and their values - a case study in Xingshan County of China. Ecol. Econ. 38(1):141-154.

Halliday, T. 2001. The wider implications of amphibian population declines. Oryx 35(3):181-182.

Harrison, S., Rice, K., and Maron, J. 2001. Habitat patchiness promotes invasion by alien grasses on serpentine soil. Biol. Conserv. 100(1):45-53.

Hess, G.R., and Fischer, R.A. 2001. Communicating clearly about conservation corridors. Landscape Urban Plan. 55(3):195-208.

Hortal, J., Lobo, J.M., and Martín-Piera, F. 2001. Forecasting insect species richness scores in poorly surveyed territories: the case of the Portuguese dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae). Biodivers. Conserv. 10(8):1343-1367.

Horvath, R., Magura, T., Peter, G., and Bayar, K. 2000. Edge effect on weevil and spider communities at the Bukk National Park in Hungary. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 46(4):275-290.

Horvitz, C.C., and Koop, A. 2001. Removal of nonnative vines and post-hurricane recruitment in tropical hardwood forests of Florida. Biotropica 33(2):268-281.

Houston, J. 2001. Status of the Texada stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp., in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(1):152-156.

Hunter, W.C., Buehler, D.A., Canterbury, R.A., Confer, J.L., and Hamel, P.B. 2001. Conservation of disturbance-dependent birds in eastern North America. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(2):440-455.

Inchausti, P., and Weimerskirch, H. 2001. Risks of decline and extinction of the endangered Amsterdam albatross and the projected impact of long-line fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 100(3):377-386.

Inoue, M., and Nakano, S. 2001. Fish abundance and habitat relationships in forest and grassland streams, northern Hokkaido, Japan. Ecol. Res. 16(2):233-247.

Jackson, J.B.C., Kirby, M.X., Berger, W.H., Bjorndal, K.A., Botsford, L.W., Bourque, B.J., Bradbury, R.H., Cooke, R., Erlandson, J., Estes, J.A., Hughes, T.P., Kidwell, S., Lange, C.B., Lenihan, H.S., Pandolfi, J.M., Peterson, C.H., Steneck, R.S., Tegner, M.J., and Warner, R.R. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293(5530):629-638.

Jaksic, F.M., Pavez, E.F., Jimenez, J.E., and Torres-Mura, J.C. 2001. The conservation status of raptors in the metropolitan region, Chile. J. Raptor Res. 35(2):151-158.

James, F.C., Hess, C.A., Kicklighter, B.C., and Thum, R.A. 2001. Ecosystem management and the niche gestalt of the red-cockaded woodpecker in longleaf pine forests. Ecol. Appl. 11(3):854-870.

Jansen, A., and Robertson, A.I. 2001. Riparian bird communities in relation to land management practices in floodplain woodlands of south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 100(2):173-185.

Jepson, P., Brickle, N., and Chayadin, Y. 2001. The conservation status of Tanimbar corella and blue-streaked lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: results of a rapid contextual survey. Oryx 35(3):224-233.

Jiang, M.Y., and Kadono, Y. 2001. Seasonal growth and reproductive ecology of two threatened aquatic macrophytes, Blyxa aubertii and B. echinosperma (Hydrocharitaceae), in irrigation ponds of south-western Japan. Ecol. Res. 16(2):249-256.

Jones-Engel, L., Engel, G.A., Schillaci, M.A., Babo, R., and Froehlich, J. 2001. Detection of antibodies to selected human pathogens among wild and pet macaques (Macaca tonkeana) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Am. J. Primatol. 54(3):171-178.

Jones, M.J., Sullivan, M.S., Marsden, S.J., and Linsley, M.D. 2001. Correlates of extinction risk of birds from two Indonesian islands. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 73(1):65-79.

Katzourakis, A., Purvis, A., Azmeh, S., Rotheray, G., and Gilbert, F. 2001. Macroevolution of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae): the effect of using higher-level taxa in studies of biodiversity, and correlates of species richness. J. Evol. Biol. 14(2):219-227.

Kery, M., Matthies, D., and Fischer, M. 2001. The effect of plant population size on the interactions between the rare plant Gentiana cruciata and its specialized herbivore Maculinea rebeli. J. Ecology 89(3):418-427.

Kratter, A.W., Steadman, D.W., Smith, C.E., Filardi, C.E., and Webb, H.P. 2001. Avifauna of a lowland forest site on Isabel, Solomon Islands. Auk 118(2):472-483.

Kutiel, P., and Zhevelev, Y. 2001. Recreational use impact on soil and vegetation at picnic sites in Aleppo pine forests on Mount Carmel, Israel. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 49(1):49-56.

Lacey, E.P., Royo, A., Bates, R., and Herr, D. 2001. The role of population dynamic models in biogeographic studies: an illustration from a study of Lobelia boykinii, a rare species endemic to the Carolina Bays. Castanea 66(1-2):115-125.

Larison, B., Laymon, S.A., Williams, P.L., and Smith, T.B. 2001. Avian responses to restoration: nest-site selection and reproductive success in song sparrows. Auk 118(2):432-442.

Lavoie, C., Zimmermann, C., and Pellerin, S. 2001. Peatland restoration in southern Quebec (Canada): a paleoecological perspective. Ecoscience 8(2):247-258.

Le Houerou, H.N. 2001. Biogeography of the arid steppeland north of the Sahara. J. Arid Environ. 48(2):103-128.

LeBlond, R.J. 2001. Endemic plants of the Cape Fear Arch region. Castanea 66(1-2):83-97.

Lee, P.L.M., Bradbury, R.B., Wilson, J.D., Flanagan, N.S., Richardson, L., Perkins, A.J., and Krebs, J.R. 2001. Microsatellite variation in the yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella: population structure of a declining farmland bird. Mol. Ecol. 10(7):1633-1644.

Lenders, H.J.R., Leuven, R.S.E.W., Nienhuis, P.H., de Nooij, R.J.W., and Van Rooij, S.A.M. 2001. BIO-SAFE: a method for evaluation of biodiversity values on the basis of political and legal criteria. Landscape Urban Plan. 55(2):121-137.

Lennartsson, T., and Oostermeijer, J.G.B. 2001. Demographic variation and population viability in Gentianella campestris: effects of grassland management and environmental stochasticity. J. Ecology 89(3):451-463.

Li, B.L., and Charnov, E.L. 2001. Diversity-stability relationships revisited: scaling rules for biological communities near equilibrium. Ecol. Model. 140(3):247-254.

Linder, H.P. 2001. Plant diversity and endemism in sub-Saharan tropical Africa. J. Biogeogr. 28(2):169-182.

Lobo, J.M., Castro, I., and Moreno, J.C. 2001. Spatial and environmental determinants of vascular plant species richness distribution in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 73(2):233-253.

Loreau, M., and Hector, A. 2001. Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature 412(6842):72-76.

Loubser, G.J.J., Mouton, P.L., and Nel, J.A.J. 2001. The ecotourism potential of herpetofauna in the Namaqua National Park, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 31(1-2):13-23.

Mac Nally, R., and Brown, G.W. 2001. Reptiles and habitat fragmentation in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia: predictions, compositional change and faunal nestedness. Oecologia 128(1):116-125.

Mallawaarachchi, T., Blamey, R.K., Morrison, M.D., Johnson, A.K.L., and Bennett, J.W. 2001. Community values for environmental protection in a cane farming catchment in nsrthern Australia: a choice modelling study. J. Environ. Manage. 62(3):301-316.

Matern, S.A. 2001. Using temperature and salinity tolerances to predict the success of the shimofuri goby, a recent invader into California. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 130(4):592-599.

Mathews, F., and Macdonald, D.W. 2001. The sustainability of the common crane (Grus grus) flock breeding in Norfolk: insights from simulation modelling. Biol. Conserv. 100(3):323-333.

McCarthy, M.A., Possingham, H.P., and Gill, A.M. 2001. Using stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal fire management for Banksia ornata. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(3):585-592.

McGlone, M.S., Duncan, R.P., and Heenan, P.B. 2001. Endemism, species selection and the origin and distribution of the vascular plant flora of New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 28(2):199-216.

McKinney, C.L. 2001. Effects of human population, area, and time on non-native plant and fish diversity in the United States. Biol. Conserv. 100(2):243-252.

Menges, E.S., Dolan, R.W., Yahr, R., and Gordon, D.R. 2001. Comparative genetics of seven plants endemic to Florida's Lake Wales Ridge. Castanea 66(1-2):98-114.

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Paredes, R., and Zavalaga, C.B. 2001. Nesting sites and nest types as important factors for the conservation of Humboldt penguins (Sphensicus humboldti). Biol. Conserv. 100(2):199-205.

Parker, B.R., Schindler, D.W., Donald, D.B., and Anderson, R.S. 2001. The effects of stocking and removal of a nonnative salmonid on the plankton of an alpine lake. Ecosystems 4(4):334-345.

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Pressey, R.L., and Taffs, K.H. 2001. Scheduling conservation action in production landscapes: priority areas in western New South Wales defined by irreplaceability and vulnerability to vegetation loss. Biol. Conserv. 100(3):355-376.

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Rosenberg, J., and Korsmo, F.L. 2001. Local participation, international politics, and the environment: the World Bank and the Grenada dove. J. Environ. Manage. 62(3):283-300.

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Wawrosch, C., Malla, P.R., and Kopp, B. 2001. Clonal propagation of Lilium nepalense D. Don, a threatened medicinal plant of Nepal. Plant Cell Rep. 20(4):285-288.

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Weekley, C.W., and Race, T. 2001. The breeding system of Ziziphus celata Judd and D.W. Hall (Rhamnaceae), a rare endemic plant of the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida, USA: implications for recovery. Biol. Conserv. 100(2):207-213.

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Wiktander, U., Olsson, O., and Nilsson, S.G. 2001. Seasonal variation in home-range size, and habitat area requirement of the lesser spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos minor) in southern Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 100(3):387-395.

Willers, B. 2001. The postmodern attack on wilderness. Nat. Areas J. 21(3):259-265.

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Wolfl, M., Bufka, L., Cerveny, J., Koubek, P., Heurich, M., Habel, H., Huber, T., and Poost, W. 2001. Distribution and status of lynx in the border region between Czech Republic, Germany and Austria. Acta Theriol. 46(2):181-194.

Woodroffe, R. 2001. Assessing the risks of intervention: immobilization, radio-collaring and vaccination of African wild dogs. Oryx 35(3):234-244.

Xie, Y., Li, Z.Y., Gregg, W.P., and Dianmo, L. 2001. Invasive species in China - an overview. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(8):1317-1341.

Xie, Z.W., Lu, Y.Q., Ge, S., Hong, D.Y., and Li, F.Z. 2001. Clonality in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon, Poaceae) and its implications for conservation management. Am. J. Bot. 88(6):1058-1064.

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Zacharias, M.A., and Roff, J.C. 2001. Explanations of patterns of intertidal diversity at regional scales. J. Biogeogr. 28(4):471-483.

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