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Department ofBotany

No. 202
October 2001

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In This Issue

Rare Species to be Listed Under the Endangered Species Act

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and several conservation organizations have reached an agreement that will speed up federal protections for 29 animal and plant species proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. The preliminary agreement, reached with the Center for Biological Diversity, Southern Appalachian Biodiversity Project, California Native Plant Society, and the Biodiversity Legal Foundation, will allow the agency to issue final listing decisions for 14 species and propose eight more species for listing. Funds were made available for these actions by extending the deadlines for eight other critical habitat designations. "I hope this can be a model for future agreements," Interior Secretary Gale Norton said.

The agency is considering the emergency listing of three rare species: the Tumbling Creek cavesnail, which has declined precipitously in the single cave in Missouri where it is found; the pygmy rabbit of Washington, with fewer than 50 individuals, separated from other pygmy rabbit populations for thousands of years; and the Carson wandering skipper butterfly, Pseudocopaeodes eunus, the only one in it genus, found in grassland habitats on alkaline substrates in Nevada and California.

The Department of the Interior and the conservation organizations are still negotiating a written settlement document. "All parties to this agreement ultimately want the same thing to conserve and recover threatened and endangered species," said Marshall Jones, the acting director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The agreement will then be reviewed and approved by the Interior and Justice Departments before it is finalized and presented to the courts.

Species affected by the agreement include:

  • Ohlone tiger beetle of California, found only in Santa Cruz County, threatened by habitat fragmentation and habitat degradation due to invasion of non-native vegetation. Only five populations of Ohlone tiger beetles are known to exist.

  • Spalding's catchfly of Idaho, Oregon, Montana, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada, a member of the carnation family, threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation, grazing by livestock, and competition from non-native plant species.

  • Showy stickseed, Washingtons rarest plant, known from only one location in Chelan County, threatened by fire suppression and competition with non-native plant species.

  • The San Diego ambrosia, restricted to San Diego and Riverside Counties, California and Baja California, Mexico, threatened by destruction, fragmentation, and degradation of habitat caused by recreational and commercial development and off-road vehicle use.

  • Mountain yellow-legged frog of Southern California, reduced to only a few isolated remnants in the San Gabriel, San Jacinto, and San Bernardino Mountains. Hypothesized causes of the decline include predation from introduced trout or possibly by air pollution.

  • Coastal Cutthroat trout of Washington and Oregon, declined to near extinction in two rivers, due to habitat loss and incidental harvesting.

  • Buena Vista Lake ornate shrew of California, with no more than 38 individuals observed since their rediscovery in 1986, threatened by agricultural activities and possible selenium poisoning.

  • Chiricahua leopard frog of Arizona and New Mexico, now absent from many historical localities, threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation, predation by non-native organisms, and disease.

  • Scaleshell mussel of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, known from 13 streams, with decreasing population size due to habitat loss and water quality degradation.

  • Vermilion darter of Alabama, found in less than 8 miles of creeks in Jefferson County, and faces many threats, including altered stream dynamics, excessive sedimentation, and agricultural runoff pollutants.

  • Mississippi gopher frog of Mississippi, known from only one site in Harrison County, Mississippi, with a population of 100 frogs, threatened by habitat fragmentation and destruction from nearby residential development and road construction.

  • Golden sedge of North Carolina, known from only eight populations in Pender and Onslow counties, threatened by habitat alteration due to residential, commercial, and industrial development, mining, and suppression of fire.

  • Holmgren milk-vetch, known from three small populations in Washington County, Utah, and adjacent Mohave County, Arizona. Shivwits milk-vetch, known from five small populations in Washington County, Utah. Both species face habitat disturbance from urban development, off-road vehicles, grazing, displacement by exotic weeds, and mineral development.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Looking for a nice close-up of a bark beetle to show your forestry class? Need a shot of bamboo or acacia for your educational Webpage? Look no further than Forestry Images <> for people teaching forestry, ecology, or similar topics. A joint venture by the U.S. Forest Service and the University of Georgia, Forestry Images holds nearly 4,500 color jpeg images of forest plants, insects, silvicultural practices, invasive organisms, and general natural scenes. Each image page includes a catalog number, Latin and vernacular nomenclature, and photographer's name. Images can be viewed and downloaded in a variety of sizes, but only registered members can access images with a resolution of 1536x1024 pixels or above (registration is free). All images are copyrighted by The University of Georgia, may only be used for nonprofit, educational purposes, and must bear appropriate citations.

- from The Scout Report,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

The Green Landscaping with Native Plants <> web site is maintained by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Great Lakes National Program Office. Primarily designed for the Great Lakes region, it has useful information applicable nationwide. Highlights include a tool kit for local governments to promote the use of native plants, a law review article on municipal weed laws, an outstanding native plant CD by Springfield Township, Michigan, a handbook with how-to information for homeowners, case studies, fact sheets, and more. This site is especially useful for those wanting to integrate native plants into a landscape and for advocates promoting the use of native plants.

Current Literature

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Abbiati, M., and Basset, A. 2001. Introduction - Ecological research and conservation of coastal ecosystems. Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):233-234.

Alexander, M.A., and Eischeid, J.K. 2001. Climate variability in regions of amphibian declines. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):930-942.

Ambrogi, A.O. 2001. Transfer of marine organisms: a challenge to the conservation of coastal biocoenoses. Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):243-251.

Archabald, K., and Naughton-Treves, L. 2001. Tourism revenue-sharing around national parks in western Uganda: early efforts to identify and reward local communities. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):135-149.

Armstrong, D.P., and Ewen, J.G. 2001. Assessing the value of follow-up translocations: a case study using New Zealand robins. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):239-247.

Bairlein, F., and Prinzinger, R. 2001. Ornithology - leisure or science? J. Ornithol. 142:124-128.

Baxter, J.M. 2001. Establishing management schemes on marine Special Areas of Conservation in Scotland. Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):261-265.

Beck, M.W., and Odaya, M. 2001. Ecoregional planning in marine environments: identifying priority sites for conservation in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):235-242.

Belk, M.C., Whitney, M.J., and Schaalje, G.B. 2001. Complex effects of predators: determining vulnerability of the endangered June sucker to an introduced predator. Anim. Conserv. 4:251-256.

Bellan, G.L., and Bellan-Santini, D.R. 2001. A review of littoral tourism, sport and leisure activities: consequences on marine flora and fauna. Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):325-333.

Berger, J., and Berger, K. 2001. Endangered species and the decline of America's western legacy: what do changes in funding reflect? BioScience 51(7):591-593.

Berger, J., Stacey, P.B., Bellis, L., and Johnson, M.P. 2001. A mammalian predator-prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):947-960.

Berrens, R.P. 2001. The safe minimum standard of conservation and endangered species: a review. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):104-116.

Bestelmeyer, B.T., and Wiens, J.A. 2001. Ant biodiversity in semiarid landscape mosaics: the consequences of grazing vs. natural heterogeneity. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):1123-1140.

Bezzel, E. 2001. Does only the sparrow survive? Birds in the exploited landscape 2000. J. Ornithol. 142:160-171.

Bodie, J.R. 2001. Stream and riparian management for freshwater turtles. J. Environ. Manage. 62(4):443-455.

Bodmer, R.E., and Lozano, E.P. 2001. Rural development and sustainable wildlife use in Peru. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1163-1170.

Bohn, T., and Amundsen, P.A. 2001. The competitive edge of an invading specialist. Ecology 82(8):2150-2163.

Bonotto, S. 2001. Aspects of pollution on the coastal ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea. Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):319-323.

Bradbury, R.B., Payne, R.J.H., Wilson, J.D., and Krebs, J.R. 2001. Predicting population responses to resource management. TREE 16(8):440-445.

Brower, A., Reedy, C., and Yelin-Kefer, J. 2001. Consensus versus conservation in the upper Colorado River Basin Recovery Implementation Program. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1001-1007.

Brown, N.R., Noss, R.F., Diamond, D.D., and Myers, M.N. 2001. Conservation biology and forest certification: working together toward ecological sustainability. J. Forestry 99(8):18-25.

Bühler, C., and Schmid, B. 2001. The influence of management regime and altitude on the population structure of Succisa pratensis: implications for vegetation monitoring. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(4):689-698.

Carbayo, F., Leal-Zanchet, A.M., and Vieira, E.M. 2001. Land planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Terricola) as indicators of man-induced disturbance in a south Brazilian rainforest. Belgian J. Zool. 131:223-224.

Carey, C., Heyer, W.R., Wilkinson, J., Alford, R.A., Arntzen, J.W., Halliday, T., Hungerford, L., Lips, K.R., Middleton, E.M., Orchard, S.A., and Rand, A.S. 2001. Amphibian declines and environmental change: use of remote-sensing data to identify environmental correlates. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):903-913.

Carr, L.W., and Fahrig, L. 2001. Effect of road traffic on two amphibian species of differing vagility. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1071-1078.

Carroll, C., Noss, R.F., and Paquet, P.C. 2001. Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the Rocky Mountain region. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):961-980.

Cassinello, J., Gomendio, M., and Roldan, E.R.S. 2001. Relationship between coefficient of inbreeding and parasite burden in endangered gazelles. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1171-1174.

Chase, R., and Robinson, D.G. 2001. The uncertain history of land snails on Barbados: implications for conservation. Malacologia 43(1-2):33-57.

Chung, S.S., and Poon, C.S. 2001. Accounting for the shortage of solid waste disposal facilities in Southern China. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):99-103.

Clarke, K.R., and Warwick, R.M. 2001. A further biodiversity index applicable to species lists: variation in taxonomic distinctness. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 216:265-278.

Clout, M. 2001. Where protection is not enough: active conservation in New Zealand. TREE 16(8):415-416.

Conrad, K.F., Perry, J.N., and Woiwod, I.P. 2001. An abundance-occupancy time-lag during the decline of an arctiid tiger moth. Ecol. Lett. 4(4):300-303.

Crumpacker, D.W., Box, E.O., and Hardin, E.D. 2001. Implications of climatic warming for conservation of native trees and shrubs in Florida. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1008-1020.

da Silva, J.M.C., and Tabarelli, M. 2001. The future of the Atlantic forest in northeastern Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):819-820.

de Lange, P.J., and Heenan, P.B. 2001. A new Coprosma (Rubiaceae) from the Surville Cliffs, North Cape, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 39(2):217-223.

Dearborn, D.C., Anders, A.D., and Flint, E.N. 2001. Trends in reproductive success of Hawaiian seabirds: is guild membership a good criterion for choosing indicator species? Biol. Conserv. 101(1):97-103.

Demaster, D.P., Fowler, C.W., Perry, S.L., and Richlen, M.E. 2001. Predation and competition: the impact of fisheries on marine-mammal populations over the next one hundred years. J. Mammal. 82(3):641-651.

Develice, R.L., and Martin, J.R. 2001. Assessing the extent to which roadless areas complement the conservation of biological diversity. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):1008-1018.

Dobson, A.P., Rodriguez, J.P., and Roberts, W.M. 2001. Synoptic tinkering: integrating strategies for large-scale conservation. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):1019-1026.

Dunn, E.H., Hussell, D.J.T., and Welsh, D.A. 2001. Conservation value and rankings of exotic species - reply. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):818.

Dustan, P., Dobson, E., and Nelson, G. 2001. Landsat thematic mapper: detection of shifts in community composition of coral reefs. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):892-902.

Ehrenfeld, D. 2001. A postscript to Orr's Commandments. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):825-826.

Elmhagen, B., and Angerbjörn, A. 2001. The applicability of metapopulation theory to large mammals. Oikos 94(1):89-100.

Enk, T.A., Picton, H.D., and Williams, J.S. 2001. Factors limiting a bighorn sheep population in Montana following a dieoff. Northwest Sci. 75(3):280-291.

Ewen, J.G., Clarke, R.H., Moysey, E., Boulton, R.L., Crozier, R.H., and Clarke, M.F. 2001. Primary sex ratio bias in an endangered cooperatively breeding bird, the black-eared miner, and its implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):137-145.

Feber, R.E., Brereton, T.M., Warren, M.S., and Oates, M. 2001. The impacts of deer on woodland butterflies: the good, the bad and the complex. Forestry 74(3):271-276.

Feh, C., Munkhtuya, B., Enkhbold, S., and Sukhbaatar, T. 2001. Ecology and social structure of the Gobi khulan Equus hemionus subsp in the Gobi B National Park, Mongolia. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):51-61.

Fellowes, J.R., Fang, Z., Shing, L.K., Hau, B.C.H., Lau, M.W.N., Lam, V.W.Y., Young, L., and Hafner, H. 2001. Status update on white-eared night heron Gorsachius magnificus in South China. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(2):101-111.

Fernandez, J., and Caballero, A. 2001. Accumulation of deleterious mutations and equalization of parental contributions in the conservation of genetic resources. Heredity 86:480-488.

Ferraro, P.J. 2001. Global habitat protection: limitations of development interventions and a role for conservation performance payments. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):990-1000.

Ferreras, P., Gaona, P., Palomares, F., and Delibes, M. 2001. Restore habitat or reduce mortality? Implications from a population viability analysis of the Iberian lynx. Anim. Conserv. 4:265-274.

Fischer, F., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2001. Decreases in ungulate population densities. Examples from the Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):131-135.

Flasbarth, J. 2001. The importance of ornithology for nature conservation. J. Ornithol. 142:172-181.

Fletcher, J.D., Shipley, L.A., McShea, W.J., and Shumway, D.L. 2001. Wildlife herbivory and rare plants: the effects of white-tailed deer, rodents, and insects on growth and survival of Turk's cap lily. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):229-238.

Foley, C.A.H., Papageorge, S., and Wasser, S.K. 2001. Noninvasive stress and reproductive measures of social and ecological pressures in free-ranging African elephants. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1134-1142.

Forbes, B.C., Ebersole, J.J., and Strandberg, B. 2001. Anthropogenic disturbance and patch dynamics in circumpolar arctic ecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):954-969.

Frenot, Y., Gloaguen, J.C., Massé, L., and Lebouvier, M. 2001. Human activities, ecosystem disturbance and plant invasions in subantarctic Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):33-50.

Fuller, R.J., and Gill, R.M.A. 2001. Ecological impacts of increasing numbers of deer in British woodland. Forestry 74(3):193-199.

Gallet, S., and Roze, F. 2001. Conservation of heathland by sheep grazing in Brittany (France): importance of grazing period on dry and mesophilous heathlands. Ecol. Eng. 17(4):333-344.

Gardenfors, U. 2001. Classifying threatened species at national versus global levels. TREE 16(9):511-516.

Gerlach, J. 2001. Predator, prey and pathogen interactions in introduced snail populations. Anim. Conserv. 4:203-209.

Gibbs, J.P., and Breisch, A.R. 2001. Climate warming and calling phenology of frogs near Ithaca, New York, 1900-1999. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1175-1178.

Gill, J.A., Norris, K., and Sutherland, W.J. 2001. The effects of disturbance on habitat use by black-tailed godwits Limosa limosa. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(4):846-856.

Godley, B.J., Broderick, A.C., Downie, J.R., Glen, F., Houghton, J.D., Kirkwood, I., Reece, S., and Hays, G.C. 2001. Thermal conditions in nests of loggerhead turtles: further evidence suggesting female skewed sex ratios of hatchling production in the Mediterranean. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 263(1):45-63.

Goodall, H. 2001. Renewing country: Aboriginal people and their lands in rangeland environments. Rangeland J. 23(1):99-115.

Gotelli, N.J., and Colwell, R.K. 2001. Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecol. Lett. 4(4):379-391.

Grandjean, F., Gouin, N., Souty-Grosset, C., and Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. 2001. Drastic bottlenecks in the endangered crayfish species Austropotamobius pallipes in Spain and implications for its colonization history. Heredity 86:431-438.

Gross, J.E. 2001. Evaluating effects of an expanding mountain goat population on native bighorn sheep: a simulation model of competition and disease. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):171-185.

Hammond, R.L., Macasero, W., Flores, B., Mohammed, O.B., Wacher, T., and Bruford, M.W. 2001. Phylogenetic reanalysis of the Saudi gazelle and its implications for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1123-1133.

Harding, E.K., Doak, D.F., and Albertson, J.D. 2001. Evaluating the effectiveness of predator control: the non-native red fox as a case study. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1114-1122.

Harwood, J. 2001. Marine mammals and their environment in the twenty-first century. J. Mammal. 82(3):630-640.

Hettinger, N. 2001. Defining and evaluating exotic species: issues for Yellowstone Park policy. West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(3):257-260.

Hoebee, S.E., and Young, A.G. 2001. Low neighbourhood size and high interpopulation differentiation in the endangered shrub Grevillea iaspicula McGill (Proteaceae). Heredity 86:489-496.

Hokit, D.G., Stith, B.M., and Branch, L.C. 2001. Comparison of two types of metapopulation models in real and artificial landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1102-1113.

Homolka, M., and Heroldova, M. 2001. Native red deer and introduced chamois: foraging habits and competition in a subalpine meadow-spruce forest area. Folia Zoolog. 50(2):89-98.

Howard, M.N., Skagen, S.K., and Kennedy, P.L. 2001. Does habitat fragmentation influence nest predation in the shortgrass prairie? Condor 103(3):530-536.

Huang, J.C., Wang, W.K., Hong, K.H., and Chiang, T.Y. 2001. Population differentiation and phylogeography of Hygrophila pogonocalyx based on RAPDs fingerprints. Aquat. Bot. 70(4):269-280.

Hugot, J.P., Baujard, P., and Morand, S. 2001. Biodiversity in helminths and nematodes as a field of study: an overview. Nematology 3:199-208.

Iankova, E., Cantos, M., Linan, J., Robeva, P., and Troncoso, A. 2001. In vitro propagation of Angelica pancicii Vauds., an endangered plant species in Bulgaria. Seed Sci. Technol. 29(2):477-482.

Imbeau, L., Mönkkönen, M., and Desrochers, A. 2001. Long-term effects of forestry on birds of the eastern Canadian boreal forests: a comparison with Fennoscandia. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1151-1162.

Izsak, C., and Price, A.R.G. 2001. Measuring beta-diversity using a taxonomic similarity index, and its relation to spatial scale. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 215:69-77.

Jackson, D.B. 2001. Experimental removal of introduced hedgehogs improves wader nest success in the Western Isles, Scotland. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(4):802-812.

Jayanthi, M., and Mandal, P.K. 2001. Low genetic polymorphism in natural populations of Crotalaria longipes. Biol. Plantarum 44(3):455-457.

Johnson, P.N. 2001. Vegetation recovery after fire on a southern New Zealand peatland. New Zeal. J. Bot. 39(2):251-267.

Jones, B., Gliddon, C., and Good, J.E.G. 2001. The conservation of variation in geographically peripheral populations: Lloydia serotina (Liliaceae) in Britain. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):147-156.

Jukofsky, D. 2001. Shared conservation experiences. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):818-819.

Kazmaier, R.T., Hellgren, E.C., Ruthven, D.C., and Synatzske, D.R. 2001. Effects of grazing on the demography and growth of the Texas tortoise. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1091-1101.

Kiesecker, J.M., Blaustein, A.R., and Miller, C.L. 2001. Transfer of a pathogen from fish to amphibians. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1064-1070.

Kirby, K.J. 2001. The impact of deer on the ground flora of British broadleaved woodland. Forestry 74(3):219-229.

Knapp, R.A., Matthews, K.R., and Sarnelle, O. 2001. Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecol. Monogr. 71(3):401-421.

Kvist, L.P., Andersen, M.K., Stagegaard, J., Hesselsoe, M., and Llapapasca, C. 2001. Extraction from woody forest plants in flood plain communities in Amazonian Peru: use, choice, evaluation and conservation status of resources. Forest Ecol. Manag. 150(1-2):147-174.

Lardicci, C., Como, S., Corti, S., and Rossi, F. 2001. Changes and recover of macrozoobenthic communities after restoration measures of the Orbetello Lagoon (Tyrrhenian coast, Italy). Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):281-287.

Lindegarth, M., and Chapman, M.G. 2001. Testing hypotheses about management to enhance habitat for feeding birds in a freshwater wetland. J. Environ. Manage. 62(4):375-388.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., MacGregor, C., Tribolet, C., and Donnelly, C.F. 2001. A prospective longitudinal study of landscape matrix effects on fauna in woodland remnants: experimental design and baseline data. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):157-169.

Lockwood, J.L., Fenn, K.H., Caudill, J.M., Okines, D., Bass, O.L., Duncan, J.R., and Pimm, S.L. 2001. The implications of Cape Sable seaside sparrow demography for Everglades restoration. Anim. Conserv. 4:275-281.

Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the Western Division of New South Wales: an ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. Rangeland J. 23(1):44-70.

Lyons, K.G., and Schwartz, M.W. 2001. Rare species loss alters ecosystem function - invasion resistance. Ecol. Lett. 4(4):358-365.

Mamuris, Z., Sfougaris, A.I., and Stamatis, C. 2001. Genetic structure of Greek brown hare (Lepus europaeus) populations as revealed by mtDNA RFLP-PCR analysis: implications for conserving genetic diversity. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):187-196.

Manne, L.L., and Pimm, S.L. 2001. Beyond eight forms of rarity: which species are threatened and which will be next? Anim. Conserv. 4:221-229.

Mariette, S., Chagné, D., Lézier, C., Pastuszka, P., Raffin, A., Plomion, C., and Kremer, A. 2001. Genetic diversity within and among Pinus pinaster populations: comparison between AFLP and microsatellite markers. Heredity 86:469-479.

Martinez-Abrain, A., Viedma, C., Ramon, N., and Oro, D. 2001. A note on the potential role of philopatry and conspecific attraction as conservation tools in Audouin's gull Larus audouinii. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(2):143-147.

Maschinski, J. 2001. Impacts of ungulate herbivores on a rare willow at the southern edge of its range. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):119-130.

McCarthy, M.A., Possingham, H.P., Day, J.R., and Tyre, A.J. 2001. Testing the accuracy of population viability analysis. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1030-1038.

McCulloch, N., and Norris, K. 2001. Diagnosing the cause of population changes: localized habitat change and the decline of the endangered St Helena wirebird. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(4):771-783.

McMahon, G., Gregonis, S.M., Waltman, S.W., Omernik, J.M., Thorson, T.D., Freeouf, J.A., Rorick, A.H., and Keys, J.E. 2001. Developing a spatial framework of common ecological regions for the conterminous United States. Environ. Manage. 28(3):293-316.

Meffe, G.K. 2001. The context of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):815-816.

Meine, C. 2001. Roosevelt, conservation, and the revival of democracy. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):829-831.

Mesquita, N., Carvalho, G., Shaw, P., Crespo, E., and Coelho, M.M. 2001. River basin-related genetic structuring in an endangered fish species, Chondrostoma lusitanicum, based on mtDNA sequencing and RFLP analysis. Heredity 86:253-264.

Middleton, E.M., Herman, J.R., Celarier, E.A., Wilkinson, J.W., Carey, C., and Rusin, R.J. 2001. Evaluating ultraviolet radiation exposure with satellite data at sites of amphibian declines in Central and South America. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):914-929.

Morris, A.J., Whittingham, M.J., Bradbury, R.B., Wilson, J.D., Kyrkos, A., Buckingham, D.L., and Evans, A.D. 2001. Foraging habitat selection by yellowhammers (Emberiza citrinella) nesting in agriculturally contrasting regions in lowland England. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):197-210.

Moser, D.M., Kasermann, C., Palese, R., Baumler, B., Gygax, A., and Wyler, N. 2001. Swiss floristic notes (2001). Bot. Helvetica 111(1):87-106.

Moss, R. 2001. Second extinction of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in Scotland? Biol. Conserv. 101(2):255-257.

Muldavin, E.H., Neville, P., and Harper, G. 2001. Indices of grassland biodiversity in the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion derived from remote sensing. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):844-855.

Mumby, P.J. 2001. Beta and habitat diversity in marine systems: a new approach to measurement, scaling and interpretation. Oecologia 128(2):274-280.

Naidoo, R., and Adamowicz, W.L. 2001. Effects of economic prosperity on numbers of threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1021-1029.

Negi, G.C.S. 2001. The need for micro-scale and meso-scale hydrological research in the Himalayan Mountains. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):95-98.

Newman, D., and Tallmon, D.A. 2001. Experimental evidence for beneficial fitness effects of gene flow in recently isolated populations. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1054-1063.

Newton, T.J., Monroe, E.M., Kenyon, R., Gutreuter, S., Welke, K.I., and Thiel, P.A. 2001. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 20(3):468-485.

Niemela, J. 2001. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and habitat fragmentation: a review. Eur. J. Entomol. 98(2):127-132.

Niklasson, M., and Drakenberg, B. 2001. A 600-year tree-ring fire history from Norra Kvills National Park, southern Sweden: implications for conservation strategies in the hemiboreal zone. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):63-71.

Nordén, B., and Paltto, H. 2001. Wood-decay fungi in hazel wood: species richness correlated to stand age and dead wood features. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):1-8.

Noss, R.F. 2001. Toward a pro-life politics. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):827-828.

Noss, R.F., and Kranz, R. 2001. Ecological issues in conservation. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):945-946.

Nyakaana, S., Abe, E.L., Arctander, P., and Siegismund, H.R. 2001. DNA evidence for elephant social behaviour breakdown in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Anim. Conserv. 4:231-237.

Odell, E.A., and Knight, R.L. 2001. Songbird and medium-sized mammal communities associated with exurban development in Pitkin County, Colorado. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1143-1150.

Oehler, D.A., Boodoo, D., Plair, B., Kuchinski, K., Campbell, M., Lutchmedial, G., Ramsubage, S., Maruska, E.J., and Malowski, S. 2001. Translocation of blue and gold macaw Ara ararauna into its historical range on Trinidad. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(2):129-141.

Orians, G.H., and Soulé, M.E. 2001. Whither conservation biology research? Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1187-1188.

Orr, D.W. 2001. Rewriting the Ten Commandments of American politics. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):821-824.

Patten, M.A., and Erickson, R.A. 2001. Conservation value and rankings of exotic species. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):817-818.

Peng, J.J., Jiang, Z.G., and Hu, J.C. 2001. Status and conservation of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): a review. Folia Zoolog. 50(2):81-88.

Penteriani, V., and Faivre, B. 2001. Effects of harvesting timber stands on goshawk nesting in two European areas. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):211-216.

Pescador, M., and Peris, S. 2001. Effects of land use on nest predation: an experimental study in Spanish croplands. Folia Zoolog. 50(2):127-136.

Peterjohn, B.G. 2001. Some considerations on the use of ecological models to predict species' geographic distributions. Condor 103(3):661-663.

Peterson, A.T. 2001. Predicting species' geographic distributions based on ecological niche modeling. Condor 103(3):599-605.

Peterson, G.D., and Heemskerk, M. 2001. Deforestation and forest regeneration following small-scale gold mining in the Amazon: the case of Suriname. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):117-126.

Phinney, J.T., Muller-Karger, F., Dustan, P., and Sobel, J. 2001. Using remote sensing to reassess the mass mortality of Diadema antillarum 1983-1984. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):885-891.

Piper, R.W., Compton, S.G., Rasplus, J.Y., and Piry, S. 2001. The species status of Cathormiocerus britannicus, an endemic, endangered British weevil. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):9-13.

Pressey, R.L., and Taffs, K.H. 2001. Sampling of land types by protected areas: three measures of effectiveness applied to western New South Wales. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):105-117.

Pringle, C.M. 2001. Hydrologic connectivity and the management of biological reserves: a global perspective. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):981-998.

Pryke, S.R., and Samways, M.J. 2001. Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):85-96.

Rao, K.S., and Pant, R. 2001. Land use dynamics and landscape change pattern in a typical micro watershed in the mid elevation zone of central Himalaya, India. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 86(2):113-123.

Rawal, R.S., and Dhar, U. 2001. Protected area network in Indian Himalayan region: need for recognizing values of low profile protected areas. Curr. Sci. 81(2):175-184.

Richards, A.J. 2001. Does low biodiversity resulting from modern agricultural practice affect crop pollination and yield? Ann. Botany 88(2):165-172.

Richards, D.C., Cazier, L.D., and Lester, G.T. 2001. Spatial distribution of three snail species, including the invader Potamopyrgus antipodarum, in a freshwater spring. West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(3):375-380.

Riley, S.J., and Malecki, R.A. 2001. A landscape analysis of cougar distribution and abundance in Montana, USA. Environ. Manage. 28(3):317-323.

Robertson, D.P., and Hull, R.B. 2001. Beyond biology: toward a more public ecology for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):970-979.

Robinson, J.A., Lulla, K.P., Kashiwagi, M., Suzuki, M., Nellis, M.D., Bussing, C.E., Long, W.J.L., and McKenzie, L.J. 2001. Conservation applications of astronaut photographs of Earth: tidal-flat loss (Japan), elephant effects on vegetation (Botswana), and seagrass and mangrove monitoring (Australia). Conserv. Biol. 15(4):876-884.

Roca, A.L., Georgiadis, N., Pecon-Slattery, J., and O'Brien, S.J. 2001. Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa. Science 293(5534):1473-1477.

Saatchi, S., Agosti, D., Alger, K., Delabie, J., and Musinsky, J. 2001. Examining fragmentation and loss of primary forest in the southern Bahian Atlantic forest of Brazil with radar imagery. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):867-875.

Sabovljevic, M., Ganeva, A., Tsakiri, E., and Stefanut, S. 2001. Bryology and bryophyte protection in south-eastern Europe. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):73-84.

Saleh, M.A., Helmy, I., and Giegengack, R. 2001. The cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus (Schreber, 1776) in Egypt (Felidae, Acinonychinae). Mammalia 65(2):177-193.

Sanchez, J., Ochoa, J., and Voss, R.S. 2001. Rediscovery of Oryzomys gorgasi (Rodentia: Muridae). With notes on taxonomy and natural history. Mammalia 65(2):205-213.

Santangelo, G., and Abbiati, M. 2001. Red coral: conservation and management of an over-exploited Mediterranean species. Aquat. Conserv. 11(4):253-259.

Schlaepfer, M.A., and Gavin, T.A. 2001. Edge effects on lizards and frogs in tropical forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1079-1090.

Schneider, M.F. 2001. Habitat loss, fragmentation and predator impact: spatial implications for prey conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(4):720-735.

Schueck, L.S., Marzluff, J.M., and Steenhof, K. 2001. Influence of military activities on raptor abundance and behavior. Condor 103(3):606-615.

Schullery, P. 2001. What is natural? Philosophical analysis and Yellowstone practice. West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(3):255-256.

Scott, J.M., Davis, F.W., McGhie, R.G., Wright, R.G., Groves, C., and Estes, J. 2001. Nature reserves: do they capture the full range of America's biological diversity? Ecol. Appl. 11(4):999-1007.

Seymour, A.M., Montgomery, M.E., Costello, B.H., Ihle, S., Johnsson, G., St John, B., Taggart, D., and Houlden, B.A. 2001. High effective inbreeding coefficients correlate with morphological abnormalities in populations of South Australian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Anim. Conserv. 4:211-219.

Sheil, D. 2001. Conservation and biodiversity monitoring in the tropics: realities, priorities, and distractions. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1179-1182.

Simberloff, D. 2001. Biological invasions - how are they affecting us, and what can we do about them? West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(3):308-315.

Sinclair, E.A., Swenson, E.L., Wolfe, M.L., Choate, D.C., Bates, B., and Crandall, K.A. 2001. Gene flow estimates in Utah's cougars imply management beyond Utah. Anim. Conserv. 4:257-264.

Smith, T.B., Kark, S., Schneider, C.J., Wayne, R.K., and Moritz, C. 2001. Biodiversity hotspots and beyond: the need for preserving environmental transitions. TREE 16(8):431.

Soderstrom, B., Part, T., and Linnarsson, E. 2001. Grazing effects on between-year variation of farmland bird communities. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):1141-1150.

Song, S.J., and M'Gonigle, R.M. 2001. Science, power, and system dynamics: the political economy of conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):980-989.

Stahl, P., Vandel, J.M., Herrenschmidt, V., and Migot, P. 2001. The effect of removing lynx in reducing attacks on sheep in the French Jura Mountains. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):15-22.

Stallard, R.F. 2001. Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: analysis of US government data archives. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):943-953.

Stalmans, M., Balkwill, K., Witkowski, E.T.F., and Rogers, K.H. 2001. A landscape ecological approach to address scaling problems in conservation management and monitoring. Environ. Manage. 28(3):389-401.

Stave, J., Oba, G., and Stenseth, N.C. 2001. Temporal changes in woody-plant use and the ekwar indigenous tree management system along the Turkwel River, Kenya. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):150-159.

Stein, B.A. 2001. A fragile cornucopia - assessing the status of US biodiversity. Environment 43(7):10-22.

Steininger, M.K., Tucker, C.J., Ersts, P., Killeen, T.J., Villegas, Z., and Hecht, S.B. 2001. Clearance and fragmentation of tropical deciduous forest in the Tierras Bajas, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):856-866.

Steininger, M.K., Tucker, C.J., Townshend, J.R.G., Killeen, T.J., Desch, A., Bell, V., and Ersts, P. 2001. Tropical deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):127-134.

Stewart, A.J.A. 2001. The impact of deer on lowland woodland invertebrates: a review of the evidence and priorities for future research. Forestry 74(3):259-270.

Stirling, G., and Wilsey, B. 2001. Empirical relationships between species richness, evenness, and proportional diversity. Am. Nat. 158(3):286-299.

Stoate, C., Morris, R.M., and Wilson, J.D. 2001. Cultural ecology of whitethroat (Sylvia communis) habitat management by farmers: field-boundary vegetation in lowland England. J. Environ. Manage. 62(4):329-341.

Stoate, C., Morris, R.M., and Wilson, J.D. 2001. Cultural ecology of whitethroat (Sylvia communis) habitat management by farmers: winter in farmland trees and shrubs in Senegambia. J. Environ. Manage. 62(4):343-356.

Stobutzki, I., Miller, M., and Brewer, D. 2001. Sustainability of fishery bycatch: a process for assessing highly diverse and numerous bycatch. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):167-181.

Sullivan, T.P., Sullivan, D.S., and Lindgren, P.M.F. 2001. Stand structure and small mammals in young lodgepole pine forest: 10-year results after thinning. Ecol. Appl. 11(4):1151-1173.

Swengel, S.R., and Swengel, A.B. 2001. Relative effects of litter and management on grassland bird abundance in Missouri, USA. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(2):113-128.

Thysell, D.R., and Carey, A.B. 2001. Quercus garryana communities in the Puget Trough, Washington. Northwest Sci. 75(3):219-235.

Treydte, A.C., Williams, J.B., Bedin, E., Ostrowski, S., Seddon, P.J., Marschall, E.A., Waite, T.A., and Ismail, K. 2001. In search of the optimal management strategy for Arabian oryx. Anim. Conserv. 4:239-249.

Trombitsky, I., Lobcenco, V., Moshu, A., and Strugulea, O. 2001. The European mudminnow, Umbra krameri, still populates the Dniester River in Moldova. Folia Zoolog. 50(2):159-160.

Turner, W., Sterling, E.J., and Janetos, A.C. 2001. Special section: contributions of remote sensing to biodiversity conservation: a NASA approach. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):832-834.

van den Berg, L.J.L., Bullock, J.M., Clarke, R.T., Langston, R.H.W., and Rose, R.J. 2001. Territory selection by the Dartford warbler (Sylvia undata) in Dorset, England: the role of vegetation type, habitat fragmentation and population size. Biol. Conserv. 101(2):217-228.

van Heezik, Y., and Ostrowski, S. 2001. Conservation breeding for reintroductions: assessing survival in a captive flock of houbara bustards. Anim. Conserv. 4:195-201.

Van Kirk, R.W., and Benjamin, L. 2001. Status and conservation of salmonids in relation to hydrologic integrity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(3):359-374.

Van Nieuwstadt, M.G.L., Sheil, D., and Kartawinata, K. 2001. The ecological consequences of logging in the burned forests of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1183-1186.

Walpole, M.J., and Goodwin, H.J. 2001. Local attitudes towards conservation and tourism around Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):160-166.

Wang, Y.Q., and Moskovits, D.K. 2001. Tracking fragmentation of natural communities and changes in land cover: applications of landsat data for conservation in an urban landscape (Chicago wilderness). Conserv. Biol. 15(4):835-843.

Wirtitsch, M., Hoi, H., Valera, F., and Kristin, A. 2001. Habitat composition and use in the lesser grey shrike Lanius minor. Folia Zoolog. 50(2):137-150.

Withgott, J. 2001. Scientists want tougher endangered species law. Science 293(5534):1417.

Wolf, D.E., Takebayashi, N., and Rieseberg, L.H. 2001. Predicting the risk of extinction through hybridization. Conserv. Biol. 15(4):1039-1053.

Wolf, J.H.D., and Konings, C.J.F. 2001. Toward the sustainable harvesting of epiphytic bromeliads: a pilot study from the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 101(1):23-31.

Yoccoz, N.G., Nichols, J.D., and Boulinier, T. 2001. Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. TREE 16(8):446-453.

Zavaleta, E.S., Hobbs, R.J., and Mooney, H.A. 2001. Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. TREE 16(8):454-459.

Zettler, J.A., Spira, T.P., and Allen, C.R. 2001. Ant-seed mutualisms: can red imported fire ants sour the relationship? Biol. Conserv. 101(2):249-253.

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