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Department ofBotany

No. 203
November 2001

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In This Issue

Smithsonian Botanical Symposium to Address the Convention on Biological Diversity

At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy for the conservation, sustainable development, and equitable sharing of the benefits of biodiversity. This strategy was transformed into the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) that has now been signed and/or ratified by over 175 nations. The Convention was an affirmation that the worlds biodiversity is a common concern of humankind and it has radically changed how we think about and manage the Earths biological resources. The responsibilities, priorities, and practices of taxonomists and natural historians for discovering and describing biodiversity have been significantly altered since the Earth Summit. The 2002 Smithsonian Botanical Symposium, entitled "The Convention on Biological Diversity: The Globalization of Natural History Science," will address the impact of the CDB on scientists and its ramifications for understanding the natural world.

This Symposium, to be held 5-6 April of 2002, at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., follows the highly successful first Smithsonian Botanical Symposium hosted by the Department of Botany in 2001. The previous conference entitled "Linnaean Taxonomy in the 21st Century" addressed the fundamental question of how we name plants and animals in light of recent advances in understanding the evolutionary relationships of organisms. Invited speakers and participants engaged in discussion and debate to determine if we should change the Linnaean system to meet todays needs in taxonomy and classification.

The second José Cuatrecasas Medal in Tropical Botany will also be awarded at the Smithsonian Botanical Symposium. This prestigious award is presented annually to an international scholar who has contributed significantly to advancing the field of tropical botany. The award is named in honor of Dr. José Cuatrecasas, a pioneering botanist who spent many years working in the Department of Botany at the Smithsonian and devoted his career to plant exploration in tropical South America.

The Symposium will include a day of invited speakers followed by a keynote address, and is being sponsored by the National Museum of Natural History, the Cuatrecasas Family Foundation, and the United States Botanic Garden.

For more information contact Dr. W. John Kress, Head of Botany, Department of Systematic Biology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0166; Tel: 202-357-2534; E-mail:; or visit <>.

Protecting Biodiversity-Rich Forests from Industrial Logging

Industrial logging threatens many of the world's most biologically rich forests. A concerted effort to halt or prevent logging in forests with the greatest value for conserving biodiversity is urgently needed. In support of this effort, The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and the Smithsonian's Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) are pleased to announce the release of a new report, "Logging Off: Mechanisms to Stop or Prevent Industrial Logging in Forests of High Conservation Value."

Authored by Ted Gullison, Mary Melnyk, and Carmen Wong, the report provides the broad assessment of the potential tools available to reduce or eliminate industrial logging in high conservation value forests. The authors review a series of case studies of different approaches that have already been applied in tropical and temperate forests and identify 15 different mechanisms through which logging could be stopped or prevented. These range from purchasing timber concessions for protection and cracking down on illegal logging to international timber boycotts and import bans. Several mechanisms have been successfully implemented, and some, such as conservation easements, have been applied in a number of countries for decades.

The report concludes with recommendations for actions that policymakers, non-governmental organizations, donor agencies, and industry can take to apply these mechanisms more broadly and effectively.

The full text of this report is available as a pdf download on the UCS website at <> or may be obtained from UCS Publications, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 USA; Tel: 617-547-5552; E-mail:

Pacific Conference Focuses on Mainstreaming Nature Conservation

Mainstreaming nature conservation is the theme of the much-anticipated Seventh Pacific Islands Conference on Nature Conservation and Protected Areas to be held in Rarotonga, Cook Islands from 8-12 July 2002. The four-yearly conference is the pre-eminent event in the region on nature conservation. Nature conservation is essential to the achievement of sustainable development in the region but is still perceived as peripheral to economic development planning and decision-making, hence the mainstreaming theme.

With about 250 participants expected, the Conference celebrates the significant strides made in nature conservation in the Pacific islands over the last five years. Its objectives are to review progress in the implementation of the regions Action Strategy for Nature Conservation and to define priorities and the regions nature conservation agenda for the next four years.

This conference is important because the Pacific Islands Region has more rare, endangered and threatened species per capita than anywhere else on earth. The Pacific's marine environment is an enormous and largely unexplored resource with the most extensive and diverse reef system in the world, the largest tuna fishery, deepest oceanic trenches and the healthiest remaining populations of many globally threatened species including whales, sea turtles, dugongs and saltwater crocodiles. There are large blocks of intact rainforests and many unique species and communities of plants found nowhere else in the world. Estimates suggest that 50 percent of the regions total biodiversity is at risk.

The focus for the agenda is to reflect, explore and share ideas on what mainstreaming means in practice and how to enable it to happen. It also gives delegates the opportunity to have input into the Action Strategy for Nature Conservation in the Pacific Islands Region.

Jointly organized by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme and the Cook Islands Environment Service and Ministry of Culture, the conference promises a truly Pacific experience. A steering committee, consisting of members of the Pacific Islands Roundtable for Nature Conservation is providing strategic direction for the conference. A conference website has been developed and is located at

For more information please contact Kate Brown, Conference Coordinator, South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Box 240, Apia, Samoa; Tel: 685 21929; Fax: 685 20231; Email:

Future Meetings

The 2nd National Conference on Science, Policy and Environment, co-sponsored by the National Council for Science and the Environment and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, will be held 6-7 December 2001 in Washington, D.C. The conference will seek to develop recommendations for the World Summit for Sustainable Development in September 2002. For more information contact David Blockstein, (202) 530-5810 x205, or Rob Viehl, (202) 530-5810,, or visit

Current Literature

Aarssen, L.W. 2001. On correlations and causations between productivity and species richness in vegetation: predictions from habitat attributes. Basic Appl. Ecol. 2(2):105-114.

Aber, J., Neilson, R.P., McNulty, S., Lenihan, J.M., Bachelet, D., and Drapek, R.J. 2001. Forest processes and global environmental change: predicting the effects of individual and multiple stressors. BioScience 51(9):735-751.

Agrawal, A. 2001. The Regulatory Community: decentralization and the environment in the Van Panchayats (forest councils) of Kumaon, India. Mtn. Res. Dev. 21(3):208-211.

Allen, C.R., Pearlstine, L.G., Wojcik, D.P., and Kitchens, W.M. 2001. The spatial distribution of diversity between disparate taxa: spatial correspondence between mammals and ants across south Florida, USA. Landscape Ecol. 16(5):453-464.

Bain, M.B., and Zhang, S.M. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Aspiorhynchus laticeps (Day, 1877) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 61(4):380.

Balmford, A., Moore, J., Brooks, T., Burgess, N., Hansen, L.A., Lovett, J.C., Tokumine, S., Williams, P., Woodward, F.I., and Rahbek, C. 2001. People and biodiversity in Africa - response. Science 293(5535):1591-1592.

Barker, M.G., and Pinard, M.A. 2001. Forest canopy research: sampling problems, and some solutions. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):23-38.

Basset, Y. 2001. Invertebrates in the canopy of tropical rain forests - how much do we really know? Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):87-107.

Batista, F., Bañares, A., Caujapé-Castells, J., Carqué, E., Marrero-Gómez, M., and Sosa, P.A. 2001. Allozyme diversity in three endemic species of Cistus (Cistaceae) from the Canary Islands: intraspecific and interspecific comparisons and implications for genetic conservation. Am. J. Bot. 88(9):1582-1592.

Bax, N.J., and Williams, A. 2001. Seabed habitat on the south-eastern Australian continental shelf: context, vulnerability and monitoring. Mar. Freshwater Res. 52(4):491-512.

Beck, M.W., Heck, K.L., Able, K.W., Childers, D.L., Eggleston, D.B., Gillanders, B.M., Halpern, B., Hays, C.G., Hoshino, K., Minello, T.J., Orth, R.J., Sheridan, P.F., and Weinstein, M.R. 2001. The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. BioScience 51(8):633-641.

Bell, G. 2001. Neutral macroecology. Science 293(5539):2413-2418.

Block, W.A., Franklin, A.B., Ward, J.P., Ganey, J.L., and White, G.C. 2001. Design and implementation of monitoring studies to evaluate the success of ecological restoration on wildlife. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):293-303.

Boersma, P.D., Kareiva, P., Fagan, W.F., Clark, J.A., and Hoekstra, J.M. 2001. How good are endangered species recovery plans? BioScience 51(8):643-649.

Bond, W.J., and Loffell, D. 2001. Introduction of giraffe changes acacia distribution in a South African savanna. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(3):286-294.

Bowman, D.M.J.S. 2001. Future eating and country keeping: what role has environmental history in the management of biodiversity? J. Biogeogr. 28(5):549-564.

Brand, L.A., and George, T.L. 2001. Response of passerine birds to forest edge in coast redwood forest fragments. Auk 118(3):678-686.

Brändle, M., Amarell, U., Auge, H., Klotz, S., and Brandl, R. 2001. Plant and insect diversity along a pollution gradient: understanding species richness across trophic levels. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1497-1511.

Brockett, R.C., and Clark, B.C. 2000. Repatriation of two confiscated black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in Belize. Neotrop. Primates 8(3):101-103.

Brooks, T., Balmford, A., Burgess, N., Fjeldså, J., Hansen, L.A., Moore, J., Rahbek, C., and Williams, P. 2001. Toward a blueprint for conservation in Africa. BioScience 51(8):613-624.

Brooks, T., and Thompson, H.S. 2001. Current bird conservation issues in Africa. Auk 118(3):575-582.

Brown, J.C., and Albrecht, C. 2001. The effect of tropical deforestation on stingless bees of the genus Melipona (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in Central Rondonia, Brazil. J. Biogeogr. 28(5):623-634.

Burr, B.M., Adams, G.L., Krejca, J.K., Paul, R.J., and Warren, M.L. 2001. Troglomorphic sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group in Perry County, Missouri: distribution, external morphology, and conservation status. Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):279-296.

Cao, Y., Larsen, D.P., and Hughes, R.M. 2001. Evaluating sampling sufficiency in fish assemblage surveys: a similarity-based approach. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(9):1782-1793.

Castellanos, A., Salinas, F., and Ortega-Rubio, A. 2001. Inventory and conservation of breeding waterbirds at Ojo de Liebre and Guerrero Negro Lagoons, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Cienc. Mar. 27(3):351-373.

Chaloupka, M. 2001. Historical trends, seasonality and spatial synchrony in green sea turtle egg production. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):263-279.

Chettri, N., Sharma, E., and Deb, D.C. 2001. Bird community structure along a trekking corridor of Sikkim Himalaya: a conservation perspective. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):1-16.

Chiarucci, A., Maccherini, S., and De Dominicis, V. 2001. Evaluation and monitoring of the flora in a nature reserve by estimation methods. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):305-314.

Cohn, J.P. 2001. Sonoran desert conservation. BioScience 51(8):606-610.

Conlin, D.B., and Ebersole, J.J. 2001. Restoration of an alpine disturbance: differential success of species in turf transplants, Colorado, USA. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 33(3):340-347.

Cooper, M.I., Cunningham, M., and Cherry, M.I. 2001. Taxonomic status of the Namibian violet woodhoopoe Phoeniculus damarensis as determined by mitochondrial DNA. Ibis 143(4):572-579.

Cormier, L. 2000. Cultural practices benefitting primate conservation among the Guajá of Eastern Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates 8(4):144-146.

Dale, V.H., Joyce, L.A., McNulty, S., Neilson, R.P., Ayres, M.P., Flannigan, M.D., Hanson, P.J., Irland, L.C., Lugo, A.E., Peterson, C.J., Simberloff, D., Swanson, F.J., Stocks, B.J., and Wotton, B.M. 2001. Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51(9):723-734.

Davidar, P., Yoganand, K., and Ganesh, T. 2001. Distribution of forest birds in the Andaman islands: importance of key habitats. J. Biogeogr. 28(5):663-671.

de Gruchy, M.A., Matthes, U., Gerrath, J.A., and Larson, D.W. 2001. Natural recovery and restoration potential of severely disturbed talus vegetation at Niagara Falls: assessment using a reference system. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):311-325.

De Innocentiis, S., Sola, L., Cataudella, S., and Bentzen, P. 2001. Allozyme and microsatellite loci provide discordant estimates of population differentiation in the endangered dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) within the Mediterranean Sea. Mol. Ecol. 10(9):2163-2175.

de Thoisy, B., Massemin, D., and Dewynter, M. 2000. Hunting impact on neotropical primates: a preliminary case study in French Guiana. Neotrop. Primates 8(4):141-144.

DeVries, P.J., and Walla, T.R. 2001. Species diversity and community structure in neotropical fruit-feeding butterflies. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 74(1):1-15.

Donald, P.F., and Greenwood, J.J.D. 2001. Spatial patterns of range contraction in British breeding birds. Ibis 143(4):593-601.

Duncan, J.R., and Lockwood, J.L. 2001. Extinction in a field of bullets: a search for causes in the decline of the world's freshwater fishes. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):97-105.

Duncan, R.P., Webster, R.J., and Jensen, C.A. 2001. Declining plant species richness in the tussock grasslands of Canterbury and Otago, South Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 25(2):35-47.

Eiswerth, M.E., and Haney, J.C. 2001. Maximizing conserved biodiversity: why ecosystem indicators and thresholds matter. Ecol. Econ. 38(2):259-274.

Ellingsen, K.E. 2001. Biodiversity of a continental shelf soft-sediment macrobenthos community. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 218:1-15.

Epstein, N., and Rinkevich, B. 2001. From isolated ramets to coral colonies: the significance of colony pattern formation in reef restoration practices. Basic Appl. Ecol. 2(3):219-222.

Etienne, R.S., and Heesterbeek, J.A.P. 2001. Rules of thumb for conservation of metapopulations based on a stochastic winking-patch model. Am. Nat. 158(4):389-407.

Evans, B.J., Supriatna, J., and Melnick, D.J. 2001. Hybridization and population genetics of two macaque species in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Evolution 55(8):1686-1702.

Fisher, D.O., Blomberg, S.P., and Hoyle, S.D. 2001. Mechanisms of drought-induced population decline in an endangered wallaby. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):107-115.

Floren, A., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2001. The influence of anthropogenic disturbances on the structure of arboreal arthropod communities. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):153-167.

Foggo, A., Ozanne, C.M.P., Speight, M.R., and Hambler, C. 2001. Edge effects and tropical forest canopy invertebrates. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):347-359.

Follmann, G. 2001. An integrated key to, and a critical survey of, the South American representatives of the lichen family Roccellaceae (Arthoniales). J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 90:251-267.

Frank, K.T., and Shackell, N.L. 2001. Area-dependent patterns of finfish diversity in a large marine ecosystem. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(9):1703-1707.

Freemark, K.E., and Kirk, D.A. 2001. Birds on organic and conventional farms in Ontario: partitioning effects of habitat and practices on species composition and abundance. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):337-350.

Friedman, S.K., Reich, P.B., and Frelich, L.E. 2001. Multiple scale composition and spatial distribution patterns of the north-eastern Minnesota presettlement forest. J. Ecology 89(4):538-554.

Ganzhorn, J.U., and Eisenbeiss, B. 2001. The concept of nested species assemblages and its utility for understanding effects of habitat fragmentation. Basic Appl. Ecol. 2(1):87-99.

García-Hernández, J., Hinojosa-Huerta, O., Gerhart, V., Carrillo-Guerrero, Y., and Glenn, E.P. 2001. Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) surveys in the Colorado River delta: implications for management. J. Arid Environ. 49(1):161-169.

Garnier, J.N., Bruford, M.W., and Goossens, B. 2001. Mating system and reproductive skew in the black rhinoceros. Mol. Ecol. 10(8):2031-2041.

George, T.L., and Zack, S. 2001. Spatial and temporal considerations in restoring habitat for wildlife. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):272-279.

Gerlach, J.D. 2001. Predicting invaders - comment. TREE 16(10):545.

Ghazoul, J., and McLeish, M. 2001. Reproductive ecology of tropical forest trees in logged and fragmented habitats in Thailand and Costa Rica. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):335-345.

Gillespie, T.W., and Walter, H. 2001. Distribution of bird species richness at a regional scale in tropical dry forest of Central America. J. Biogeogr. 28(5):651-662.

Glenn, E.P., Zamora-Arroyo, F., Nagler, P.L., Briggs, M., Shaw, W., and Flessa, K. 2001. Ecology and conservation biology of the Colorado River Delta, Mexico. J. Arid Environ. 49(1):5-15.

Gobster, P.H. 2001. Visions of nature: conflict and compatibility in urban park restoration. Landscape Urban Plan. 56(1-2):35-51.

Gray, J.S. 2001. Antarctic marine benthic biodiversity in a world-wide latitudinal context. Polar Biol. 24(9):633-641.

Gross, C.L. 2001. The effect of introduced honeybees on native bee visitation and fruit-set in Dillwynia juniperina (Fabaceae) in a fragmented ecosystem. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):89-95.

Hale, M.L., Lurz, P.W.W., Shirley, M.D.F., Rushton, S., Fuller, R.M., and Wolff, K. 2001. Impact of landscape management on the genetic structure of red squirrel populations. Science 293(5538):2246-2248.

Hansen, A.J., Neilson, R.R., Dale, V.H., Flather, C.H., Iverson, L.R., Currie, D.J., Shafer, S., Cook, R., and Bartlein, P.J. 2001. Global change in forests: responses of species, communities, and biomes. BioScience 51(9):765-779.

Harmer, R., Peterken, G., Kerr, G., and Poulton, P. 2001. Vegetation changes during 100 years of development of two secondary woodlands on abandoned arable land. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):291-304.

Heath, D.D., Pollard, S., and Herbinger, C. 2001. Genetic structure and relationships among steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in British Columbia. Heredity 86:618-627.

Heinen, J.T., and Singh, G.R. 2001. A census and some management implications for wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Nepal. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):391-394.

Hendrickson, D.A., Krejca, J.K., and Martinez, J.M.R. 2001. Mexican blindcats genus Prietella (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae): an overview of recent explorations. Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):315-337.

Herron, G.J., Sheley, R.L., Maxwell, B.D., and Jacobsen, J.S. 2001. Influence of nutrient availability on the interaction between spotted knapweed and bluebunch wheatgrass. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):326-331.

Hinojosa-Huerta, O., DeStefano, S., and Shaw, W.W. 2001. Distribution and abundance of the Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris yumanensis) in the Colorado River delta, Mexico. J. Arid Environ. 49(1):171-182.

Horváth, R., Magura, T., and Szinetár, C. 2001. Effects of immission load on spiders living on black pine. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1531-1542.

Humphreys, W.F. 2001. Milyeringa veritas (Eleotridae), a remarkably versatile cave fish from the arid tropics of northwestern Australia. Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):297-313.

Huston, M.A. 2001. People and biodiversity in Africa. Science 293(5535):1591.

Irland, L.C., Adams, D., Alig, R., Betz, C.J., Chen, C.C., Hutchins, M., McCarl, B.A., Skog, K., and Sohngen, B.L. 2001. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of climate change on US forests, wood-product markets, and forest recreation. BioScience 51(9):753-764.

Jensen-Seaman, M.I., and Kidd, K.K. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA variation and biogeography of eastern gorillas. Mol. Ecol. 10(9):2241-2247.

Johnston, F.M., and Pickering, C.M. 2001. Alien plants in the Australian Alps. Mtn. Res. Dev. 21(3):284-291.

Jourdan, H., Sadlier, R.A., and Bauer, A.M. 2001. Little fire ant invasion (Wasmannia auropunctata) as a threat to New Caledonian lizards: evidences from a sclerophyll forest (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 38(3A):283-301.

Kaiser, J. 2001. Bold corridor project confronts political reality. Science 293(5538):2196-2199.

Kalko, E.K.V., and Handley, C.O. 2001. Neotropical bats in the canopy: diversity, community structure, and implications for conservation. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):319-333.

Kazmaier, R.T., Hellgren, E.C., Synatzske, D.R., and Rutledge, J.C. 2001. Mark-recapture analysis of population parameters in a Texas tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) population in southern Texas. J. Herpetol. 35(3):410-417.

Kessler, M. 2001. Pteridophyte species richness in Andean forests in Bolivia. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1473-1495.

Kier, G., and Barthlott, W. 2001. Measuring and mapping endemism and species richness: a new methodological approach and its application on the flora of Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1513-1529.

Kolar, C.S., and Lodge, D.M. 2001. Predicting invaders - response. TREE 16(10):546.

Kuhajda, B.R., and Mayden, R.L. 2001. Status of the federally endangered Alabama cavefish, Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni (Amblyopsidae), in key cave and surrounding caves, Alabama. Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):215-222.

Lafferty, K.D. 2001. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):315-325.

Laurance, W.F. 2001. Future shock: forecasting a grim fate for the Earth. TREE 16(10):531-533.

Leader-Williams, N., Smith, R.J., and Walpole, M.J. 2001. Elephant hunting and conservation. Science 293(5538):2203.

Leimbeck, R.M., and Balslev, H. 2001. Species richness and abundance of epiphytic Araceae on adjacent floodplain and upland forest in Amazonian Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1579-1593.

Liberatori, F., and Penteriani, V. 2001. A long-term analysis of the declining population of the Egyptian vulture in the Italian peninsula: distribution, habitat preference, productivity and conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):381-389.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and McCarthy, M.A. 2001. The spatial distribution of non-native plant invaders in a pine-eucalypt landscape mosaic in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):77-87.

Lowman, M.D. 2001. Plants in the forest canopy: some reflections on current research and future direction. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):39-50.

Ludsin, S.A., and Wolfe, A.D. 2001. Biological invasion theory: Darwin's contributions from The Origin of Species. BioScience 51(9):780-789.

Lurz, P.W.W., Rushton, S.P., Wauters, L.A., Bertolino, S., Currado, I., Mazzoglio, P., and Shirley, M.D.F. 2001. Predicting grey squirrel expansion in north Italy: a spatially explicit modelling approach. Landscape Ecol. 16(5):407-420.

Machon, N., Guillon, J.M., Dobigny, G., Le Cadre, S., and Moret, J. 2001. Genetic variation in the horsetail Equisetum variegatum Schleich., an endangered species in the Parisian region. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1543-1554.

MacNeil, C., Dick, J.T.A., Elwood, R.W., and Montgomery, W.I. 2001. Coexistence among native and introduced freshwater amphipods (Crustacea); habitat utilization patterns in littoral habitats. Arch. Hydrobiol. 151(4):591-607.

Major, R.E., Christie, F.J., and Gowing, G. 2001. Influence of remnant and landscape attributes on Australian woodland bird communities. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):47-66.

Mallon, D.P., and Kingswood, S.C. (Compilers). 2001. Antelopes, Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 260 pp.

Marsh, D.M. 2001. Fluctuations in amphibian populations: a meta-analysis. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):327-335.

Marzluff, J.M., and Ewing, K. 2001. Restoration of fragmented landscapes for the conservation of birds: a general framework and specific recommendations for urbanizing landscapes. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):280-292.

Masters, R.A., and Sheley, R.L. 2001. Principles and practices for managing rangeland invasive plants. J. Range Manag. 54(5):502-517.

McComb, K., Moss, C., and Durant, S. 2001. Elephant hunting and conservation - response. Science 293(5538):2203-2204.

McIntyre, N.E., and Hostetler, M.E. 2001. Effects of urban land use on pollinator (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) communities in a desert metropolis. Basic Appl. Ecol. 2(3):209-218.

Medina-González, R., Proudlove, G., Chumba-Segura, L., and Iliffe, T. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Ophisternon infernale (Hubbs, 1938) (Synbranchidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):170.

Milam, J.C., and Melvin, S.M. 2001. Density, habitat use, movements, and conservation of spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata) in Massachusetts. J. Herpetol. 35(3):418-427.

Mills, C.E. 2001. Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451(1-3):55-68.

Milton, D.A. 2001. Assessing the susceptibility to fishing of populations of rare trawl bycatch: sea snakes caught by Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):281-290.

Mitchell, A. 2001. Canopy science: time to shape up. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):5-11.

Mittelbach, G.G., Steiner, C.F., Scheiner, S.M., Gross, K.L., Reynolds, H.L., Waide, R.B., Willig, M.R., Dodson, S.I., and Gough, L. 2001. What is the observed relationship between species richness and productivity? Ecology 82(9):2381-2396.

Montoya-Ospina, R.A., Caicedo-Herrera, D., Millán-Sánchez, S.L., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., and Lefebvre, L.W. 2001. Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):117-129.

Mori, M., Katsukawa, T., and Matsuda, H. 2001. Recovery plan for an exploited species, southern bluefin tuna. Pop. Ecol. 43(2):125-132.

Morrison, M.L. 2001. Introduction: concepts of wildlife and wildlife habitat for ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):251-252.

Moseley, W.G. 2001. African evidence on the relation of poverty, time preference and the environment. Ecol. Econ. 38(3):317-326.

Nadkarni, N.M. 2001. Enhancement of forest canopy research, education, and conservation in the new millennium. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):361-367.

Nash, S. 2001. New tools, moon tigers, and the extinction crisis. BioScience 51(9):702-707.

Nellemann, C., Vistnes, I., Jordhøy, P., and Strand, O. 2001. Winter distribution of wild reindeer in relation to power lines, roads and resorts. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):351-360.

Nieder, J., Prosperi, J., and Michaloud, G. 2001. Epiphytes and their contribution to canopy diversity. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):51-63.

Noltie, D.B., and Wicks, C.M. 2001. How hydrogeology has shaped the ecology of Missouri's Ozark cavefish, Amblyopsis rosae, and southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus: insights on the sightless from understanding the underground. Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):171-194.

Norton, D.A. 2001. Is the amount and focus of ecological research in New Zealand sufficient to sustain indigenous biodiversity on private land? New Zeal. J. Ecol. 25(2):77-82.

Oindo, B.O., de By, R.A., and Skidmore, A.K. 2001. Environmental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(3):295-302.

Peach, W.J., Lovett, L.J., Wotton, S.R., and Jeffs, C. 2001. Countryside stewardship delivers cirl buntings (Emberiza cirlus) in Devon, UK. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):361-373.

Pejchar, L., and Warner, K. 2001. A river might run through it again: criteria for consideration of dam removal and interim lessons from California. Environ. Manage. 28(5):561-575.

Perelman, S.B., León, R.J.C., and Oesterheld, M. 2001. Cross-scale vegetation patterns of Flooding Pampa grasslands. J. Ecology 89(4):562-577.

Perez-Farrera, M.A., Vovides, A.P., and Iglesias, C. 2001. The cycad Ceratozamia norstogii D.W. Stev. (Zamiaceae) from southern Mexico: new information on distribution, habitat and vegetative morphology. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 137(1):71-76.

Phillips, J.A. 2001. Marine macroalgal biodiversity hotspots: why is there high species richness and endemism in southern Australian marine benthic flora? Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1555-1577.

Pimm, S.L., Ayres, M., Balmford, A., Branch, G., Brandon, K., Brooks, T., Bustamante, R., Costanza, R., Cowling, R., Curran, L.M., Dobson, A., Farber, S., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gascon, C., Kitching, R., McNeely, J., Lovejoy, T., Mittermeier, R.A., Myers, N., Patz, J.A., Raffle, B., Rapport, D., Raven, P., Roberts, C., Rodríguez, J.P., Rylands, A.B., Tucker, C., Safina, C., Samper, C., Stiassny, M.L.J., Supriatna, J., Hall, D.H., and Wilcove, D. 2001. Can we defy nature's end? Science 293(5538):2207-2208.

Pister, E.P. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Cyprinodon radiosus Miller, 1948 (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 61(4):370.

Pitt, J. 2001. Can we restore the Colorado River delta? J. Arid Environ. 49(1):211-220.

Prendini, L. 2001. Two new species of Hadogenes (Scorpiones, Ischnuridae) from South Africa, with a redescription of Hadogenes bicolor and a discussion on the phylogenetic position of Hadogenes. J. Archnol. 29(2):146-172.

Procaccini, G., and Piazzi, L. 2001. Genetic polymorphism and transplantation success in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):332-338.

Proudlove, G., Medina-González, R., Chumba-Segura, L., and Iliffe, T. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Ogilbia pearsei (Hubbs, 1938) (Bythitidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):214.

Proudlove, G.S. 2001. The conservation status of hypogean fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):201-213.

Proudlove, G.S., and Romero, A. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Caecobarbus geertsii Boulenger, 1921 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(1-3):238.

Purohit, A., Maikhuri, R.K., Rao, K.S., and Nautiyal, S. 2001. Impact of bark removal on survival of Taxus baccata L. (Himalayan yew) in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Curr. Sci. 81(5):586-590.

Rejmanek, M., and Reichard, S. 2001. Predicting invaders - comment. TREE 16(10):545-546.

Ries, L., and Debinski, D.M. 2001. Butterfly responses to habitat edges in the highly fragmented prairies of central Iowa. J. Anim. Ecol. 70(5):840-852.

Rocha, O.J., and Aguilar, G. 2001. Reproductive biology of the dry forest tree Enterolobium cyclocarpum (guanacaste) in Costa Rica: a comparison between trees left in pastures and trees in continuous forest. Am. J. Bot. 88(9):1607-1614.

Rocha, O.J., and Aguilar, G. 2001. Variation in the breeding behavior of the dry forest tree Enterolobium cyclocarpum (guanacaste) in Costa Rica. Am. J. Bot. 88(9):1600-1606.

Roe, K.J., Hartfield, P.D., and Lydeard, C. 2001. Phylogeographic analysis of the threatened and endangered superconglutinate-producing mussels of the genus Lampsilis (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Mol. Ecol. 10(9):2225-2234.

Rogo, L., and Odulaja, A. 2001. Butterfly populations in two forest fragments at the Kenya coast. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(3):266-275.

Roth, L.C. 2001. Enemies of the trees? Subsistence farmers and perverse protection of tropical dry forest. J. Forestry 99(10):20-27.

Rumbold, D.G., Davis, P.W., and Perretta, C. 2001. Estimating the effect of beach nourishment on Caretta caretta (loggerhead sea turtle) nesting. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):304-310.

Saïd, S., Gamisans, J., Bédecarrats, A., Delcros, P., and Rameau, J.C. 2001. Secondary succession in the Zicavo region of Corsica (Mediterranean island): climate effect. Ann. Forest Sci. 58(6):615-624.

Sarakinos, H., Nicholls, A.O., Tubert, A., Aggarwal, A., Margules, C.R., and Sarkar, S. 2001. Area prioritization for biodiversity conservation in Québec on the basis of species distributions: a preliminary analysis. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(9):1419-1472.

Sawkins, M.C., Maass, B.L., Pengelly, B.C., Newbury, H.J., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Maxted, N., and Smith, R. 2001. Geographical patterns of genetic variation in two species of Stylosanthes Sw. using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Mol. Ecol. 10(8):1947-1958.

Schulze, C.H., Linsenmair, K.E., and Fiedler, K. 2001. Understorey versus canopy: patterns of vertical stratification and diversity among Lepidoptera in a Bornean rain forest. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):133-152.

Scott, T.A., Wehtje, W., and Wehtje, M. 2001. The need for strategic planning in passive restoration of wildlife populations. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):262-271.

Selmi, S., and Boulinier, T. 2001. Ecological biogeography of Southern Ocean islands: the importance of considering spatial issues. Am. Nat. 158(4):426-437.

Simon, U., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2001. Arthropods in tropical oaks: differences in their spatial distributions within tree crowns. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):179-191.

Smallwood, K.S. 2001. Linking habitat restoration to meaningful units of animal demography. Restor. Ecol. 9(3):253-261.

Sol, D. 2001. Predicting invaders - comment. TREE 16(10):544.

Stork, N.E. 2001. The management implications of canopy research. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):313-317.

Stromberg, J.C. 2001. Restoration of riparian vegetation in the south-western United States: importance of flow regimes and fluvial dynamism. J. Arid Environ. 49(1):17-34.

Sullivan, W., and Wilson, K.J. 2001. Differences in habitat selection between Chatham petrels (Pterodroma axillaris) and broad-billed prions (Pachyptila vittata): implications for management of burrow competition. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 25(2):65-69.

Sullivan, W., and Wilson, K.J. 2001. Use of burrow entrance flaps to minimise interference to Chatham petrel (Pterodroma axillaris) chicks by broad-billed prions (Pachyptila vittata). New Zeal. J. Ecol. 25(2):71-75.

Sutton, S.L. 2001. Alice grows up: canopy science in transition from Wonderland to Reality. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):13-21.

Thysell, D.R., and Carey, A.B. 2001. Manipulation of density of Pseudotsuga menziesii canopies: preliminary effects on understory vegetation. Can. J. Forest Res. 31(9):1513-1525.

Toft, R.J., Harris, R.J., and Williams, P.A. 2001. Impacts of the weed Tradescantia fluminensis on insect communities in fragmented forests in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):31-46.

Tratalos, J.A., and Austin, T.J. 2001. Impacts of recreational SCUBA diving on coral communities of the Caribbean island of Grand Cayman. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):67-75.

Trichon, V. 2001. Crown typology and the identification of rain forest trees on large-scale aerial photographs. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):301-312.

Vanderpoorten, A., Sotiaux, A., and Sotiaux, O. 2001. Integrating bryophytes into a forest management plan: lessons from grid-mapping in the forest of Soignes (Belgium). Cryptogamie Bryol. 22(3):217-230.

Varady, R.G., Hankins, K.B., Kaus, A., Young, E., and Merideth, R. 2001. ... To the Sea of Cortés: Nature, water, culture, and livelihood in the Lower Colorado River Basin and Delta - an overview of issues, policies, and approaches to environmental restoration. J. Arid Environ. 49(1):195-209.

Vasseur, L. 2001. Allozymic diversity of Allium tricoccum (Ait.) Solander var. burdickii Hanes in isolated populations of Nova Scotia (Canada). Plant Syst. Evol. 228(1-2):71-79.

Verhulst, S., Oosterbeek, K., and Ens, B.J. 2001. Experimental evidence for effects of human disturbance on foraging and parental care in oystercatchers. Biol. Conserv. 101(3):375-380.

Wagner, T. 2001. Seasonal changes in the canopy arthropod fauna in Rinorea beniensis in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):169-178.

Walser, J.C., Zoller, S., Büchler, U., and Scheidegger, C. 2001. Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover. Mol. Ecol. 10(9):2129-2138.

Whitehouse, A.M., and Harley, E.H. 2001. Post-bottleneck genetic diversity of elephant populations in South Africa, revealed using microsatellite analysis. Mol. Ecol. 10(9):2139-2149.

Winkler, H., and Preleuthner, M. 2001. Behaviour and ecology of birds in tropical rain forest canopies. Plant Ecol. 153(1-2):193-202.

Wiser, S.K., Bellingham, P.J., and Burrows, L.E. 2001. Managing biodiversity information: development of New Zealand's National Vegetation Survey databank. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 25(2):1-17.

Wolken, P.M., Sieg, C.H., and Williams, S.E. 2001. Quantifying suitable habitat of the threatened western prairie fringed orchid. J. Range Manag. 54(5):611-616.

Wood, P.J., Greenwood, M.T., Barker, S.A., and Gunn, J. 2001. The effects of amenity management for angling on the conservation value of aquatic invertebrate communities in old industrial ponds. Biol. Conserv. 102(1):17-29.

Zambrano, L., Scheffer, M., and Martinez-Ramos, M. 2001. Catastrophic response of lakes to benthivorous fish introduction. Oikos 94(2):344-350.

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