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Department ofBotany

No. 204
December 2001

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In This Issue

Biology Enters the Twenty-First Century

In the twentieth century, scientists in the relatively new field of biology played an important role in exposing the threats of environmental degradation, loss of species diversity, habitat fragmentation, scarce energy resources, and human population growth. In the new book, A New Century of Biology, published by Smithsonian Institution Press, a group of world-renowned biologists consider how their discipline must address these problems in the twenty-first century.

Biology: Challenges for the New Millennium

A New Century of Biology, edited by W. John Kress and Gary W. Barrett, contains eleven essays derived from invited lectures delivered at an international symposium, "Biology: Challenges for the New Millennium," convened by the American Institute of Biological Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution from March 22 through March 24, 2000, at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. Contributors include Ernst Mayr, Gene Likens, Gordon Orians, Marvalee Wake, Lynn Margulis, Daniel Janzen, Thomas Lovejoy, Ghillean Prance, Edward O. Wilson, as well as Barrett and Kress.

The next one hundred years, the contributors argue, will likely be dominated by breakthroughs in evolutionary biology and systems ecology, by an increased need for scientists to integrate research, teaching, and service missions, and by problem-solving ventures on greater spatial and temporal scales. Because human activity and increased population will continue to have a profound effect on the environment, biologists must define an effective strategy for integrating the biological sciences with global economics and human social structure.

To purchase A New Century of Biology contact the Smithsonian Institution Press at 1-800-782-4612. Hardcover books are available at US$35.00 (ISBN 1-56098-984-X), and paperback books are US$17.95 (ISBN 1-56098-945-9).

Inventory of Endangered Plants Shows Continued Decline of California's Flora

The new sixth edition of the Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California, published by the California Native Plant Society, lists 2,073 types of California's native plants that are now rare, endangered, or uncommon in California. This number represents nearly 33% of the state's estimated 6,300 native plants.

The California flora is the largest and perhaps most spectacular assemblage of North America. More than one-third of the state's native plants are found nowhere else on Earth, and nearly one-fourth of all the North American vascular plants occur here.

The new Inventory lists 1,021 species, subspecies, and varieties that are "rare, threatened, or endangered in California and elsewhere," over 16% of the flora. This is an increase of 164 plants since the fifth edition of the Inventory was published in 1994. An additional 417 plants are "rare, threatened, or endangered in California, but more common elsewhere." Counting other plants which are not yet considered threatened, but whose declining populations are of concern, a total of 2,073 native plants are included in the 2001 Inventory. The book also lists 29 native plants that are now extinct in California. Since publication of the 1994 edition, however, eight plants thought to be extinct in California have been rediscovered.

Habitats in California that contain the highest numbers of the state's rarest plants are chaparral, valley and foothill grassland, lower montane coniferous forest, cismontane woodland, and coastal scrub. These biologically rich lowlands are among the most poorly protected in California.

The sixth edition has been entirely revised and updated. Useful features include: status and distribution information for 2,073 plants, county data, elevational ranges, topographic quad data for over 1,500 plants, and cross-reference to The Jepson Manual. Non-vascular taxa of mosses and liverworts have also been included for the first time. Land resource managers, conservationists, field biologists, consultants, and botanical researchers will find the new Inventory an indispensable reference for identifying, managing, and protecting California's rarest botanical resources.

The California Native Plant Society is an organization of laypersons and professionals united by an interest in California botany. The Society is committed to the dissemination of accurate biological information to facilitate plant conservation in California. The Society was founded in 1965 and has over 10,000 members in 32 chapters throughout the state. The sixth edition of the Inventory was created under the auspices and direction of the CNPS Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, with CNPS Rare Plant Botanist David P. Tibor serving as convening editor.

To purchase the Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California contact CNPS, 1722 J Street, Suite 17, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel: 916-447-2677; Fax: 916-447-2727; Email: The book is available for US$29.95 plus $5.00 shipping and handling in the U.S. California residents must add state sales tax.

Job Opportunities

Union of Concerned Scientists, a nonprofit environmental group at the center of today's important policy debates, seeks a Biodiversity Outreach Specialist to recruit and work with scientists, media, and policymakers on invasive species, forests, biodiversity, and climate change. Requirements include sophisticated knowledge of outreach planning and implementation; four to five years' experience in environmental or science organization; master's degree or equivalent; working knowledge of biodiversity science and policy; and strong communication and computer skills. Training in environmental science and familiarity with invasive species preferred. Details are available at <>. The position will be located in the Washington, D.C., office, with an expected start date by the end of January. Review of applications begins December 10. Send letter, resume, names of three references to: Global Environment Program, UCS, 1707 H Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC, 20006 or to No phone calls or visits, please. UCS is an equal opportunity employer continually seeking to diversify its staff.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The World Biodiversity Database <>, provided by the Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification (ETI), seeks to "document all presently known species (about 1.7 million) and to make this important biological information worldwide accessible." This continually growing database "provides taxonomic information, species names, synonyms, descriptions, illustrations and literature references when available" on 200,000 taxa. The searchable database can be explored using an expandable tree of the five taxonomic kingdoms or by typing in a common or scientific name. Both educators and students should find this site easy to navigate, informative, and useful.

- from The Scout Report,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

Current Literature

Abbitt, R.J.F., and Scott, J.M. 2001. Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered species. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1274-1284.

Aguiar, F.C., Ferreira, M.T., and Moreira, I. 2001. Exotic and native vegetation establishment following channelization of a western Iberian river. Reg. Rivers Res. Manag. 17(4-5):509-526.

Akimov, I., Kozak, I., Kryzanovskij, V., and Perzanowski, K. 2001. Long-term population records - a crucial factor for the success of the re-establishment of European bison (Bison bonasus) population in Ukraine. Ekol. Bratislava 20:57-62.

Allendorf, F.W., Leary, R.F., Spruell, P., and Wenburg, J.K. 2001. The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines. TREE 16(11):613-622.

Andreone, F., Vences, M., and Randrianirina, J.E. 2001. Patterns of amphibian and reptile diversity at Berara Forest (Sahamalaza Peninsula), NW Madagascar. Italian J. Zool. 68(3):235-241.

Anthony, J.L., and Downing, J.A. 2001. Exploitation trajectory of a declining fauna: a century of freshwater mussel fisheries in North America. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(10):2071-2090.

Artman, V.L., Sutherland, E.K., and Downhower, J.F. 2001. Prescribed burning to restore mixed-oak communities in southern Ohio: effects on breeding-bird populations. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1423-1434.

Barbosa, A. 2001. Hunting impact on waders in Spain: effects of species protection measures. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1703-1709.

Basset, Y., Charles, E., Hammond, D.S., and Brown, V.K. 2001. Short-term effects of canopy openness on insect herbivores in a rain forest in Guyana. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(5):1045-1058.

Batty, A.L., Dixon, K.W., Brundrett, M., and Sivasithamparam, K. 2001. Long-term storage of mycorrhizal fungi and seed as a tool for the conservation of endangered Western Australian terrestrial orchids. Aust. J. Bot. 49(5):619-628.

Bax, N., Carlton, J.T., Mathews-Amos, A., Haedrich, R.L., Howarth, F.G., Purcell, J.E., Rieser, A., and Gray, A. 2001. The control of biological invasions in the world's oceans. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1234-1246.

Belnap, J., and Phillips, S.L. 2001. Soil biota in an ungrazed grassland: response to annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1261-1275.

Beres, D.L., and Starfield, A.M. 2001. "Demography of the California Condor" and management decisions based on modeling: reply. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1445-1448.

Bergman, K.O., and Landin, J. 2001. Distribution of occupied and vacant sites and migration of Lopinga achine (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) in a fragmented landscape. Biol. Conserv. 102(2):183-190.

Berkson, J., and Harrison, A.L. 2001. An integrative capstone course for the conservation biology curriculum. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1461-1463.

Bishop, K.D., and Jones, D.N. 2001. The montane avifauna of West New Britain, with special reference to the Nakanai Mountains. Emu 101(3):205-220.

Blackwell, B.F., and Dolbeer, R.A. 2001. Decline of the red-winged blackbird population in Ohio correlated to changes in agriculture (1965-1996). J. Wildlife Manag. 65(4):661-667.

Blossey, B., Skinner, L.C., and Taylor, J. 2001. Impact and management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1787-1807.

Boag, B., and Yeates, G.W. 2001. The potential impact of the New Zealand flatworm, a predator of earthworms, in western Europe. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1276-1286.

Bolger, D.T., Scott, T.A., and Rotenberry, J.T. 2001. Use of corridor-like landscape structures by bird and small mammal species. Biol. Conserv. 102(2):213-224.

Bornette, G., Piegay, H., Citterio, A., Amoros, C., and Godreau, V. 2001. Aquatic plant diversity in four river floodplains: a comparison at two hierarchical levels. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1683-1701.

Brewer, C. 2001. Cultivating conservation literacy: "trickle-down" education is not enough. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1203-1205.

Broome, L.S. 2001. Intersite differences in population demography of Mountain Pygmy-possums Burramys parvus Broom (1986-1998): implications for metapopulation conservation and ski resorts in Koskiuszko National Park, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):309-323.

Brugiere, D., and Sakom, D. 2001. Population density and nesting, behaviour of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Ngotto forest, Central African Republic. J. Zool. 255:251-259.

Burrow, A.L., Kazmaier, R.T., Hellgren, E.C., and Ruthven, D.C. 2001. Microhabitat selection by Texas horned lizards in southern Texas. J. Wildlife Manag. 65(4):645-652.

Butaye, J., Jacquemyn, H., and Hermy, M. 2001. Differential colonization causing non-random forest plant community structure in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Ecography 24(4):369-380.

Cardillo, M., and Bromham, L. 2001. Body size and risk of extinction in Australian mammals. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1435-1440.

Carlsson, A., and Kindvall, O. 2001. Spatial dynamics in a metapopulation network: recovery of a rare grasshopper Stauroderus scalaris from population refuges. Ecography 24(4):452-460.

Chaloupka, M., and Limpus, C. 2001. Trends in the abundance of sea turtles resident in southern Great Barrier Reef waters. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):235-249.

Chovanec, A., and Waringer, J. 2001. Ecological integrity of river-floodplain systems-assessment by dragonfly surveys (Insecta: Odonata). Reg. Rivers Res. Manag. 17(4-5):493-507.

Christian, C.E. 2001. Consequences of a biological invasion reveal the importance of mutualism for plant communities. Nature 413(6856):635-639.

Clausnitzer, V., and Kityo, R. 2001. Altitudinal distribution of rodents (Muridae and Gliridae) on Mt. Elgon, Uganda. Trop. Zool. 14(1):95-118.

Clergeau, P., Jokimäki, J., and Savard, J.P.L. 2001. Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes? J. Appl. Ecol. 38(5):1122-1134.

CNPS. 2001. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California (sixth edition). Rare Plant Scientific Advisory Committee, Tibor, D.P., Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. 388 pp.

Cornelius, C., Navarrete, S.A., and Marquet, P.A. 2001. Effects of human activity on the structure of coastal marine bird assemblages in central Chile. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1396-1404.

Cousins, S.A.O., and Eriksson, O. 2001. Plant species occurrences in a rural hemiboreal landscape: effects of remnant habitats, site history, topography and soil. Ecography 24(4):461-469.

Crete, M., Ouellet, J.P., Tremblay, J.P., and Arsenault, R. 2001. Suitability of the forest landscape for coyotes in northeastern North America and its implications for coexistence with other carnivores. Ecoscience 8(3):311-319.

Cross, P.C., and Beissinger, S.R. 2001. Using logistic regression to analyze the sensitivity of PVA models: a comparison of methods based on African wild dog models. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1335-1346.

Danielopol, D.L., and Pospisil, P. 2001. Hidden biodiversity in the groundwater of the Danube Flood Plain National Park (Austria). Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1711-1721.

Dargan, J.S., and Sarma, T.A. 2001. Plant biodiversity and its conservation. Curr. Sci. 81(6):637-638.

Davison, A., Birks, J.D.S., Brookes, R.C., Messenger, J.E., and Griffiths, H.I. 2001. Mitochondrial phylogeography and population history of pine martens Martes martes compared with polecats Mustela putorius. Mol. Ecol. 10(10):2479-2488.

Dayton, P.K., and Sala, E. 2001. Natural history: the sense of wonder, creativity and progress in ecology. Sci. Mar. 65:199-206.

De Silva, H.G., and Medellín, R.A. 2001. Evaluating completeness of species lists for conservation and macroecology: a case study of Mexican land birds. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1384-1395.

Deem, S.L., Karesh, W.B., and Weisman, W. 2001. Putting theory into practice: wildlife health in conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1224-1233.

Deiller, A.F., Walter, J.M.N., and Tremolieres, M. 2001. Effects of flood interruption on species richness, diversity and floristic composition of woody regeneration in the Upper Rhine alluvial hardwood forest. Reg. Rivers Res. Manag. 17(4-5):393-405.

Deshpande, A.U., Apte, G.S., Bahulikar, R.A., Lagu, M.D., Kulkarni, B.G., Suresh, H.S., Singh, N.P., Rao, M.K.V., Gupta, V.S., Pant, A., and Ranjekar, P.K. 2001. Genetic diversity across natural populations of three montane plant species from the Western Ghats, India revealed by intersimple sequence repeats. Mol. Ecol. 10(10):2397-2408.

Develey, P.F., and Stouffer, P.C. 2001. Effects of roads on movements by understory birds in mixed-species flocks in central Amazonian Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1416-1422.

Diaz, S., and Cabido, M. 2001. Vive la difference: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. TREE 16(11):646-655.

Donaldson, T.J., and Sadovy, Y. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Cheilinus undulatus Ruppell, 1835 (Labridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(4):428.

Doremus, H., and Pagel, J.E. 2001. Why listing may be forever: perspectives on delisting under the US Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1258-1268.

Duguay, J.P., Wood, P.B., and Nichols, J.V. 2001. Songbird abundance and avian nest survival rates in forests fragmented by different silvicultural treatments. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1405-1415.

Dyduch-Falniowska, A., Makomaska-Juchiewicz, M., Perzanowska-Sucharska, J., Tworek, S., and Zajac, K. 2001. Roman snail (Helix pomatia L.) - conservation and management in the Malopolska region (southern Poland). Ekol. Bratislava 20(3):265-283.

Ehrenfeld, J.G., Kourtev, P., and Huang, W.Z. 2001. Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1287-1300.

Ehrenfeld, J.G., and Scott, N. 2001. Invasive species and the soil: effects on organisms and ecosystem processes. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1259-1260.

Eldridge, M.D.B., Browning, T.L., and Close, R.L. 2001. Provenance of a New Zealand brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) population determined by mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Mol. Ecol. 10(10):2561-2567.

Ellison, A.M., and Gotelli, N.J. 2001. Evolutionary ecology of carnivorous plants. TREE 16(11):623-629.

Elphick, C.S., Reed, J.M., and Bonta, J.M. 2001. Correlates of population recovery goals in endangered birds. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1285-1291.

Engel, V.L., and Parrotta, J.A. 2001. An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in central São Paulo state, Brazil. Forest Ecol. Manag. 152(1-3):169-181.

Esteban, G.F., Finlay, B.J., Charubhun, N., and Charubhun, B. 2001. On the geographic distribution, of Loxodes rex (Protozoa, Ciliophora) and other alleged endemic species of ciliates. J. Zool. 255:139-143.

Evans, R.D., Rimer, R., Sperry, L., and Belnap, J. 2001. Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1301-1310.

Fabiszewski, J., and Wojtun, B. 2001. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 70(3):237-245.

Farnsworth, E.J., Holsinger, K.E., Mehrhoff, L.J., Murray, N., Preston, J., and Silander, J.A. 2001. The real team: a cooperative student training program in rapid ecological assessment. BioScience 51(10):874-879.

Fausch, K.D., Taniguchi, Y., Nakano, S., Grossman, G.D., and Townsend, C.R. 2001. Flood disturbance regimes influence rainbow trout invasion success among five holarctic regions. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1438-1455.

Ferdy, J.B., Loriot, S., Sandmeier, M., Lefranc, M., and Raquin, C. 2001. Inbreeding depression in a rare deceptive orchid. Can. J. Bot. 79(10):1181-1188.

Findlay, C.S., Lenton, J., and Zheng, L.G. 2001. Land-use correlates of anuran community richness and composition in southeastern Ontario wetlands. Ecoscience 8(3):336-343.

Fleischer, P. 2001. Long-term ecological research on forest ecosystems in the Tatra National Park. Ekol. Bratislava 20:78-84.

Fleischer, R.C., Perry, E.A., Muralidharan, K., Stevens, E.E., and Wemmer, C.M. 2001. Phylogeography of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) based on mitochondrial DNA. Evolution 55(9):1882-1892.

Fleishman, E., Blair, R.B., and Murphy, D.D. 2001. Empirical validation of a method for umbrella species selection. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1489-1501.

Freeman, R.E., and Ray, R.O. 2001. Landscape ecology practice by small scale river conservation groups. Landscape Urban Plan. 56(3-4):171-184.

Fule, P.Z., Waltz, A.E.M., Covington, W.W., and Heinlein, T.A. 2001. Measuring forest restoration effectiveness in reducing hazardous fuels. J. Forestry 99(11):24-29.

Gabriel, A.G.A., Chown, S.L., Barendse, J., Marshall, D.J., Mercer, R.D., Pugh, P.J.A., and Smith, V.R. 2001. Biological invasions of Southern Ocean islands: the Collembola of Marion Island as a test of generalities. Ecography 24(4):421-430.

Gandhi, K.J.K., Spence, J.R., Langor, D.W., and Morgantini, L.E. 2001. Fire residuals as habitat reserves for epigaeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae). Biol. Conserv. 102(2):131-141.

Gärdenfors, U., Hilton-Taylor, C., Mace, G.M., and Rodríguez, J.P. 2001. The application of IUCN Red List criteria at regional levels. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1206-1212.

Gerber, L.R., and Schultz, C.B. 2001. Authorship and the use of biological information in endangered species recovery plans. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1308-1314.

Gerber, L.R., and VanBlaricom, G.R. 2001. Implications of three viability models, for the conservation status of the western population of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Biol. Conserv. 102(3):261-269.

Gonzalez, P. 2001. Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel. Climate Res. 17(2):217-228.

Gore, J.A., Layzer, J.B., and Mead, J. 2001. Macroinvertebrate instream flow studies after 20 years: a role in stream management and restoration. Reg. Rivers Res. Manag. 17(4-5):527-542.

Gouin, N., Grandjean, F., Bouchon, D., Reynolds, J.D., and Souty-Grosset, C. 2001. Population genetic structure of the endangered freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes, assessed using RAPD markers. Heredity 87:80-87.

Gray, J.S. 2001. Marine diversity: the paradigms in patterns of species richness examined. Sci. Mar. 65:41-56.

Gurd, D.B., Nudds, T.D., and Rivard, D.H. 2001. Conservation of mammals in eastern North American wildlife reserves: how small is too small? Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1355-1363.

Gutzwiller, K.J., and Barrow, W.C. 2001. Bird-landscape relations in the Chihuahuan Desert: coping with uncertainties about predictive models. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1517-1532.

Halada, L., Ruzickova, H., and David, S. 2001. Monitoring of the grassland communities in the East Carpathians Biosphere Reserve - Basis for the future ILTER site? Ekol. Bratislava 20:107-114.

Harms, J., and Sylvia, G. 2001. A comparison of conservation perspectives between scientists, managers, and industry in the West Coast groundfish fishery. Fisheries 26(10):6-15.

Hazell, D., Cunnningham, R., Lindenmayer, D., Mackey, B., and Osborne, W. 2001. Use of farm dams as frog habitat in an Australian agricultural landscape: factors affecting species richness and distribution. Biol. Conserv. 102(2):155-169.

Hecht, A., and Parkin, M.J. 2001. Improving peer review of listings and recovery plans under the Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1269-1273.

Hedrick, P.W. 2001. Conservation genetics: where are we now? TREE 16(11):629-636.

Hilmo, O., and Såstad, S.M. 2001. Colonization of old-forest lichens in a young and an old boreal Picea abies forest: an experimental approach. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):251-259.

Hobson, K.A., and Wassenaar, L.I. 2001. Isotopic delineation of North American migratory wildlife populations: loggerhead shrikes. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1545-1553.

Honda, M., Ota, H., Hikida, T., and Darevsky, I.S. 2001. A new species of the worm-like lizard, Dibamus Dumeril & Bibron 1839 (Squamata Dibamidae), from Vietnam. Trop. Zool. 14(1):119-125.

Huber, O. 2001. Conservation and environmental concerns in the Venezuelan Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1627-1643.

Jackson, J.B.C., and Sala, E. 2001. Unnatural oceans. Sci. Mar. 65:273-281.

Jacquemyn, H., Butaye, J., and Hermy, M. 2001. Forest plant species richness in small, fragmented mixed deciduous forest patches: the role of area, time and dispersal limitation. J. Biogeogr. 28(6):801-812.

Jelinkova, E., and Straskrabova, V. 2001. Long-term ecological research in the Czech Republic - case study with a 3-year project. Ekol. Bratislava 20:50-56.

Justice, C., Wilkie, D., Zhang, Q.F., Brunner, J., and Donoghue, C. 2001. Central African forests, carbon and climate change. Climate Res. 17(2):229-246.

Kanka, R. 2001. Evaluation of the chosen ecological factors of the thermophilous oak forests with Quercus pubescens agg. in the Male Karpaty Mountains, Slovakia. Ekol. Bratislava 20(3):319-328.

Kaye, T.N., Pendergrass, K.L., Finley, K., and Kauffman, J.B. 2001. The effect of fire on the population viability of an endangered prairie plant. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1366-1380.

Kazmaier, R.T., Hellgren, E.C., and Ruthven, D.C. 2001. Habitat selection by the Texas tortoise in a managed thornscrub ecosystem. J. Wildlife Manag. 65(4):653-660.

Kimmerer, R.W., and Lake, F.K. 2001. Maintaining the mosaic - the role of indigenous burning in land management. J. Forestry 99(11):36-41.

Kinnaird, M.F., and O'Brien, T.G. 2001. Who's scratching whom? Reply. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1459-1460.

Kleijn, D., Berendse, F., Smit, R., and Gilissen, N. 2001. Agri-environment schemes do not effectively protect biodiversity in Dutch agricultural landscapes. Nature 413(6857):723-725.

Kress, W.J., and Barrett, G.W. (Eds.). 2001. A New Century of Biology. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington and London. 208 pp.

Lawler, A. 2001. Up for the count? Science 294(5543):769-770.

Lehman, R.N. 2001. Raptor electrocution on power lines: current issues and outlook. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):804-813.

Leimgruber, P., McShea, W.J., Brookes, C.J., Bolor-Erdene, L., Wemmer, C., and Larson, C. 2001. Spatial patterns in relative primary productivity and gazelle migration in the Eastern Steppes of Mongolia. Biol. Conserv. 102(2):205-212.

Lenz, L., and Taylor, J.A. 2001. The influence of an invasive tree species (Myrica faya) on the abundance of an alien insect (Sophonia rufofascia) in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):301-307.

Leppakoski, E., and Olenin, S. 2001. The meltdown of biogeographical peculiarities of the Baltic Sea: the interaction of natural and man-made processes. Ambio 30(4-5):202-209.

Levin, S.A., Dushoff, J., and Keymer, J.E. 2001. Community assembly and the emergence of ecosystem pattern. Sci. Mar. 65:171-179.

Lindholm, J., and Barr, B. 2001. Comparison of marine and terrestrial protected areas under federal jurisdiction in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1441-1444.

Loi, P., Ptak, G., Barboni, B., Fulka, J., Cappai, P., and Clinton, M. 2001. Genetic rescue of an endangered mammal by cross-species nuclear transfer using post-mortem somatic cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 19(10):962-964.

Lombard, A.T., Johnson, C.F., Cowling, R.M., and Pressey, R.L. 2001. Protecting plants from elephants: botanical reserve scenarios within the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 102(2):191-203.

Loreau, M., Naeem, S., Inchausti, P., Bengtsson, J., Grime, J.P., Hector, A., Hooper, D.U., Huston, M.A., Raffaelli, D., Schmid, B., Tilman, D., and Wardle, D.A. 2001. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294(5543):804-808.

Mack, M.C., D'Antonio, C.M., and Ley, R.E. 2001. Alteration of ecosystem nitrogen dynamics by exotic plants: a case study of C4 grasses in Hawaii. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1323-1335.

Magnusson, W.E. 2001. Catchments as basic units of management in conservation biology courses. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1464-1465.

Manosa, S., and Real, J. 2001. Potential negative effects of collisions with transmission lines on a Bonelli's eagle population. J. Raptor Res. 35(3):247-252.

McCoy, T.D., Kurzejeski, E.W., Burger, L.W., and Ryan, M.R. 2001. Effects of conservation practice, mowing, and temporal changes on vegetation structure on CRP fields in northern Missouri. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):979-987.

McIver, J., and Starr, L. 2001. Restoration of degraded lands in the interior Columbia River basin: passive vs. active approaches. Forest Ecol. Manag. 153(1-3):15-28.

McKone, M., McLauchlan, K.K., Lebrun, E.G., and McCall, A.C. 2001. An edge effect caused by adult corn-rootworm beetles on sunflowers in tallgrass prairie remnants. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1315-1324.

Meekins, J.F., and McCarthy, B.C. 2001. Effect of environmental variation on the invasive success of a nonindigenous forest herb. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1336-1348.

Meretsky, V., Snyder, N.F.R., Beissinger, S.R., Clendenen, D.A., and Wiley, J.W. 2001. Quantity versus quality in California condor reintroduction: reply. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1449-1451.

Minnis, D.L. 2001. Issue management: part and parcel of wildlife management. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):988-994.

Mitchell, D. 2001. Spring and fall diet of the endangered West Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus). Am. Midl. Nat. 146(2):439-443.

Mock, K.E., Theimer, T.C., Wakeling, B.F., Rhodes, O.E., Greenberg, D.L., and Keim, P. 2001. Verifying the origins of a reintroduced population of Gould's wild turkey. J. Wildlife Manag. 65(4):871-879.

Morena, D., Aguilera, P.A., and Castro, H. 2001. Assessment of the conservation status of seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows: implications for monitoring strategy and the decision-making process. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):325-332.

Murphy, M.T., Pierce, A., Shoen, J., Murphy, K.L., Campbell, J.A., and Hamilton, D.A. 2001. Population structure and habitat use by overwintering neotropical migrants on a remote oceanic island. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):333-345.

Musacchio, L.R., and Coulson, R.N. 2001. Landscape ecological planning process for wetland, waterfowl, and farmland conservation. Landscape Urban Plan. 56(3-4):125-147.

Noss, R., and Hunter, M. 2001. From assemblage to community. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1201-1202.

Novakova, E., and Schwarz, O. 2001. Passports of forest ecosystems - their application and telling capacities in the planning of the sustainable development of the National Park Krkonose (KRNAP). Ekol. Bratislava 20(3):329-335.

Ough, K. 2001. Regeneration of wet forest flora a decade after clear-felling or wildfire - Is there a difference? Aust. J. Bot. 49(5):645-664.

Pearson, H.L., and Vitousek, P.M. 2001. Stand dynamics, nitrogen accumulation, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in regenerating stands of Acacia koa. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1381-1394.

Piersma, T., Koolhaas, A., Dekinga, A., Beukema, J.J., Dekker, R., and Essink, K. 2001. Long-term indirect effects of mechanical cockle-dredging on intertidal bivalve stocks in the Wadden Sea. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(5):976-990.

Pople, A.R., Lowry, J., Lundie-Jenkins, G., Clancy, T.F., McCallum, H.I., Sigg, D., Hoolihan, D., and Hamilton, S. 2001. Demography of bridled nailtail wallabies translocated to the edge of their former range from captive and wild stock. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):285-299.

Portela, R., and Rademacher, I. 2001. A dynamic model of patterns of deforestation and their effect on the ability of the Brazilian Amazonia to provide ecosystem services. Ecol. Model. 143(1-2):115-146.

Posadas, P., Esquivel, D.R.M., and Crisci, J.V. 2001. Using phylogenetic diversity measures to set priorities in conservation: an example from southern South America. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1325-1334.

Prenda, J., Lopez-Nieves, P., and Bravo, R. 2001. Conservation of otter (Lutra lutra) in a Mediterranean area: the importance of habitat quality and temporal variation in water availability. Aquat. Conserv. 11(5):343-355.

Raesly, E.J. 2001. Progress and status of river otter reintroduction projects in the United States. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):856-862.

Raphael, M.G., Wisdom, M.J., Rowland, M.M., Holthausen, R.S., Wales, B.C., Marcot, B.G., and Rich, T.D. 2001. Status and trends of habitats of terrestrial vertebrates in relation to land management in the interior Columbia river basin. Forest Ecol. Manag. 153(1-3):63-88.

Ratti, J.T., Rocklage, A.M., Giudice, J.H., Garton, E.O., and Golner, D.P. 2001. Comparison of avian communities on restored and natural wetlands in North and South Dakota. J. Wildlife Manag. 65(4):676-684.

Restani, M., and Marzluff, J.M. 2001. Avian conservation under the Endangered Species Act: expenditures versus recovery priorities. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1292-1299.

Reynolds, R.E., Shaffer, T.L., Renner, R.W., Newton, W.E., and Batt, B.D.J. 2001. Impact of the Conservation Reserve Program on duck recruitment in the US Prairie Pothole Region. J. Wildlife Manag. 65(4):765-780.

Ripple, W.J., Larsen, E.J., Renkin, R.A., and Smith, D.W. 2001. Trophic cascades among wolves, elk and aspen on Yellowstone National Park's northern range. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):227-234.

Robinson, R.A., Wilson, J.D., and Crick, H.Q.P. 2001. The importance of arable habitat for farmland birds in grassland landscapes. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(5):1059-1069.

Rubinoff, D. 2001. Evaluating the California gnatcatcher as an umbrella species for conservation of southern California coastal sage scrub. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1374-1383.

Saenz, D., Conner, R.N., Rudolph, D.C., and Engstrom, R.T. 2001. Is a "hands-off" approach appropriate for red-cockaded woodpecker conservation in twenty-first-century landscapes? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):956-966.

Sala, E., Ballesteros, E., and Starr, R.M. 2001. Rapid decline of Nassau grouper spawning aggregations in Belize: fishery management and conservation needs. Fisheries 26(10):23-30.

Salomon, A.K., Ruesink, J.L., Semmens, B.X., and Paine, R.T. 2001. Incorporating human and ecological communities in marine conservation: an alternative to Zacharias and Roff. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1452-1455.

Samson, F.B., and Knopf, F.L. 2001. Archaic agencies, muddled missions, and conservation in the 21st century. BioScience 51(10):869-873.

Sanchez-Azofeifa, G., Harriss, R.C., and Skole, D.L. 2001. Deforestation in Costa Rica: a quantitative analysis using remote sensing imagery. Biotropica 33(3):378-384.

Schabel, H.G. 2001. Deer and Dauerwald in Germany: any progress? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):888-898.

Schultz, C.B. 2001. Restoring resources for an endangered butterfly. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(5):1007-1019.

Schwartz, M.W., Iverson, L.R., and Prasad, A.M. 2001. Predicting the potential future distribution of four tree species in Ohio using current habitat availability and climatic forcing. Ecosystems 4(6):568-581.

Scott, N.A., Saggar, S., and McIntosh, P.D. 2001. Biogeochemical impact of Hieracium invasion in New Zealand's grazed tussock grasslands: sustainability implications. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1311-1322.

Shankar, U. 2001. A case of high tree diversity in a sal (Shorea robusta)-dominated lowland forest of Eastern Himalaya: floristic composition, regeneration and conservation. Curr. Sci. 81(7):776-786.

Shelden, K.E.W., Demaster, D.P., Rugh, D.J., and Olson, A.M. 2001. Developing classification criteria under the US Endangered Species Act: bowhead whales as a case study. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1300-1307.

Shine, R., and Koenig, J. 2001. Snakes in the garden: an analysis of reptiles "rescued" by community-based wildlife carers. Biol. Conserv. 102(3):271-283.

Singer, F.J., Zeigenfuss, L.C., and Spicer, L. 2001. Role of patch size, disease, and movement in rapid extinction of bighorn sheep. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1347-1354.

Soto, B., Munthali, S.M., and Breen, C. 2001. Perceptions of the forestry and wildlife policy by the local communities living in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1723-1738.

Spence, J.R. 2001. The new boreal forestry: adjusting timber management to accommodate biodiversity. TREE 16(11):591-593.

Strauss, S.Y. 2001. Benefits and risks of biotic exchange between Eucalyptus plantations and native Australian forests. Austral Ecol. 26(5):447-457.

Swengel, A.B., and Swengel, S.R. 2001. Effects of prairie and barrens management on butterfly faunal composition. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1757-1785.

Thomson, J.R., Taylor, M.P., Fryirs, K.A., and Brierley, G.J. 2001. A geomorphological framework for river characterization and habitat assessment. Aquat. Conserv. 11(5):373-389.

Tilman, D., Reich, P.B., Knops, J., Wedin, D., Mielke, T., and Lehman, C. 2001. Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment. Science 294(5543):843-845.

Trudgill, S. 2001. Psychobiogeography: meanings of nature and motivations for a democratized conservation ethic. J. Biogeogr. 28(6):677-698.

Truett, J.C., Dullam, J.L.D., Matchell, M.R., Owens, E., and Seery, D. 2001. Translocating prairie dogs: a review. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):863-872.

Tucker, A.D., Limpus, C.J., Priest, T.E., Cay, J., Glen, C., and Guarino, E. 2001. Home ranges of Fitzroy River turtles (Rheodytes leukops) overlap riffle zones: potential concerns related to river regulation. Biol. Conserv. 102(2):171-181.

Tutin, C.E.G., Ancrenaz, M., Paredes, J., Vacher-Vallas, M., Vidal, C., Goossens, B., Bruford, M.W., and Jamart, A. 2001. Conservation biology framework for the release of wild-born orphaned chimpanzees into the Conkouati Reserve, Congo. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1247-1257.

Valiela, I., Bowen, J.L., and York, J.K. 2001. Mangrove forests: one of the world's threatened major tropical environments. BioScience 51(10):807-815.

van Andel, T. 2001. Floristic composition and diversity of mixed primary and secondary forests in northwest Guyana. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1645-1682.

Vieira, F., and Alves, B.M. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Henochilus wheatlandii Garman, 1890 (Characidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 62(4):414.

Vonesh, J.R. 2001. Patterns of richness and abundance in a tropical African leaf-litter herpetofauna. Biotropica 33(3):502-510.

Vuorisalo, T., Lahtinen, R., and Laaksonen, H. 2001. Urban biodiversity in local newspapers: a historical perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1739-1756.

Waddington, J.M., and Warner, K.D. 2001. Atmospheric CO2 sequestration in restored mined peatlands. Ecoscience 8(3):359-368.

Waldman, P. 2001. Additive and non-additive genetic architecture of two different-sized populations of Scabiosa canescens. Heredity 86:648-657.

Warrick, G.D., and Harris, C.E. 2001. Evaluation of spotlight and scent-station surveys to monitor kit fox abundance. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 29(3):827-832.

Wasson, K., Zabin, C.J., Bedinger, L., Diaz, M.C., and Pearse, J.S. 2001. Biological invasions of estuaries without international shipping: the importance of intraregional transport. Biol. Conserv. 102(2):143-153.

Watson, J., Freudenberger, D., and Paull, D. 2001. An assessment of the focal-species approach for conserving birds in variegated landscapes in southeastern Australia. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1364-1373.

Watson, M., and Asoyama, S. 2001. Dispersion, habitat use, hunting behavior, vocalizations, and conservation status of the New Guinea Harpy Eagle (Harpyopsis novaeguineae). J. Raptor Res. 35(3):235-239.

Wendt, T., Canela, M.B.F., De Faria, A.P.G., and Rios, R.I. 2001. Reproductive biology and natural hybridization between two endemic species of Pitcairnia (Bromeliaceae). Am. J. Bot. 88(10):1760-1767.

Williams, A.E., and Moss, B. 2001. Angling and conservation at sites of special scientific interest in England: economics, attitudes and impacts. Aquat. Conserv. 11(5):357-372.

Williams, M.R., Abbott, I., Liddelow, G.L., Vellios, C., Wheeler, I.B., and Mellican, A.E. 2001. Recovery of bird populations after clearfelling of tall open eucalypt forest in Western Australia. J. Appl. Ecol. 38(5):910-920.

Williams, S.L. 2001. Reduced genetic diversity in eelgrass transplantations affects both population growth and individual fitness. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1472-1488.

Young, B.E., Lips, K.R., Reaser, J.K., Ibáñez, R., Salas, A.W., Cedeño, J.R., Coloma, L.A., Ron, S., La Marca, E., Meyer, J.R., Muñoz, A., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., and Romo, D. 2001. Population declines and priorities for amphibian conservation in Latin America. Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1213-1223.

Zacharias, M.A., and Roff, J.C. 2001. Zacharias and Roff vs. Salomon et al.: who adds more value to marine conservation efforts? Conserv. Biol. 15(5):1456-1458.

Zawko, G., Krauss, S.L., Dixon, K.W., and Sivasithamparam, K. 2001. Conservation genetics of the rare and endangered Leucopogon obtectus (Ericaceae). Mol. Ecol. 10(10):2389-2396.

Zechmeister, H.G., and Moser, D. 2001. The influence of agricultural land-use intensity on bryophyte species richness. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(10):1609-1625.

Zhou, G., Baumgartner, J., and Overholt, W.A. 2001. Impact assessment of an exotic parasitoid on stemborer (Lepidoptera) population dynamics in Kenya. Ecol. Appl. 11(5):1554-1562.

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