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Department ofBotany



No. 205
January 2002


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In This Issue


New Books from Smithsonian Institution Press


Great Apes and Humans: The Ethics of Coexistence

Great Apes and Humans: The Ethics of Coexistence, edited by Benjamin B. Beck, Tara S. Stoinski, et al., foreword by Jane Goodall, is the first book to present a spectrum of viewpoints on human responsibilities toward great apes. A variety of field biologists, academic scientists, zoo professionals, psychologists, sociologists, ethicists, and legal scholars consider apes in both the wild and captivity. They present sobering statistics on the declining numbers of wild apes, specifically discussing the decimation of great ape populations due to wild game consumption. They explore the role of apes in the educational mission of zoos as well as the need for sanctuaries for wild ape orphans and former research subjects. After examining the social division between apes and humans from the historical, evolutionary, and cognitive perspectives, they conclude by reviewing the current moral and legal status of great apes as well as how apes' cognitive skills inform these issues. Published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Tel: 1-800-782-4612. Available in hardcover: ISBN 1-56098-969-6, $34.95. 4 b&w illustrations, 5 tables. 384 pp.

North American Tree Squirrels

North American Tree Squirrels, by Michael A. Steele and John L. Koprowski, illuminates the everyday lives of gray and fox squirrels, the two most dominant types of tree squirrels in the eastern United States. The authors detail the behavior, reproduction, diet, physiology, and habitat use of these engaging rodents, as well as their complex interdependent relationships with seed-producing trees. Published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Tel: 1-800-782-4612. Available in hardcover: ISBN 1-56098-986-6, $24.95. 22 b&w photographs, 5 line illustrations. 224 pp.

Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World

Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World, by Ann Moyal, tells the spirited story of how this secretive little animal became a key player in the great theoretical and philosophical debates that ushered in a new era of biological research. Using the evolution of species classification as a framework, Moyal recounts how the leading zoologists and comparative anatomists of Britain and Europe fiercely debated what kind of animal the platypus was and how it reproduced. Published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Tel: 1-800-782-4612. Available in hardcover: ISBN 1-56098-977-7, $21.95. 8 color and 28 b&w illustrations. 240 pp.

Ecology of the Marine Fishes of Cuba

Originally published in Spanish in 1994, Ecology of the Marine Fishes of Cuba, edited by Rodolfo Claro, Kenyon Lindeman, and Lynne R. Parenti, has been completely updated and revised for this English edition. The book collects and expands on the findings of more than 20 years of work by an international team of ichthyologists and marine biologists studying the coastal fishes and habitats of Cuba. In chapters arranged topically, the thirteen contributors detail the physical characteristics of the Cuban coast; document the physiology, behavior, reproduction, feeding patterns, and growth patterns of the regions fishes; and survey Cuba's fisheries management programs. Published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Tel: 1-800-782-4612. Available in hardcover: ISBN 1-56098-985-8, $55.00. 83 b&w drawings, 31 b&w photographs, 38 tables. 208 pp.


Information Highway Hi-Lites


The Wildlife Interest Group of the American Society of International Law has a searchable bibliography <http://eelink.net/~asilwildlife/bib.shtml> on the Impacts of Climate Change on flora and fauna species, ecosystems and agricultural resources. Since the release of the last incarnation, 340 citations have been added to the bibliography. The bibliography now has more than 3,300 citations, encompassing peer reviewed and gray literature, including hundreds of online resources. Suggestions for corrections or additions to the site is encouraged and appreciated. Viewers can also join an announcement list to receive notifications of updates to this resource and others on the site.

Native Plants Online <http://wildflower.avatartech.com/Plants_Online/index2.html> is the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center's national portal for native plant information. This online resource is packed with free native plant information, such as an online database of more than 1,000 native plant species, a national directory of more than 2,000 landscapers with experience using native plants, a national directory of native plant and seed suppliers, and downloadable fact sheets from the Wildflower Center's Clearinghouse. These fact sheets include regional recommended species lists, native plant bibliographies, and native plant organizations lists. The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center seeks to inspire people of all ages to reconnect themselves to the land by providing them with the tools and resources they need to understand their ecological heritage, become better ecological citizens, and secure a sound ecological future.

Carnivore Conservation <http://www.carnivoreconservation.org> provides information on carnivore ecology and conservation. News headlines are updated daily, and information on forthcoming meetings and job opportunities are provided. An extensive database of carnivore literature is also available. Searching for links on carnivores is easy as most sections are separated into the cat, canid, bear, and mustelid families. Subscribers to the Carnivore Discussion List receive weekly news in digest form.


Current Literature


Adams, H.R., Sleeman, J.M., Rwego, I., and New, J.C. 2001. Self-reported medical history survey of humans as a measure of health risk to the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Oryx 35(4):308-312.

Adams, J. 2001. ConserveOnline, a new online resource for conservation. Oryx 35(4):356-357.

Alberto, F., Mata, L., and Santos, R. 2001. Genetic homogeneity in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa at its northern Atlantic limit revealed through RAPD. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 221:299-301.

Alibhai, S.K., and Jewell, Z.C. 2001. Hot under the collar: the failure of radio-collars on black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis. Oryx 35(4):284-288.

Alibhai, S.K., and Jewell, Z.C. 2001. Reply to Raoul du Toit. Oryx 35(4):291.

Allen, W. 2001. Green Phoenix: Restoring the Tropical Forests of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Oxford University Press. New York. 310 pp.

Amoros, C. 2001. The concept of habitat diversity between and within ecosystems applied to river side-arm restoration. Environ. Manage. 28(6):805-817.

Amos, W., and Balmford, A. 2001. When does conservation genetics matter? Heredity 87:257-265.

Anderson, J.E., and Inouye, R.S. 2001. Landscape-scale changes in plant species abundance and biodiversity of a sagebrush steppe over 45 years. Ecol. Monogr. 71(4):531-556.

Archer, A.L. 2001. Control of the Indian house crow Corvus splendens in eastern Africa. Ostrich July(Suppl.):147-152.

Ashton, M.S., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Singhakumara, B.M.P., and Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. 2001. Restoration pathways for rain forest in southwest Sri Lanka: a review of concepts and models. Forest Ecol. Manag. 154(3):409-430.

Austen, M.J.W., Francis, C.M., Burke, D.M., and Bradstreet, M.S.W. 2001. Landscape context and fragmentation effects on forest birds in southern Ontario. Condor 103(4):701-714.

Azevedo-Rams, C., and Galatti, U. 2002. Patterns of amphibian diversity in Brazilian Amazonia: conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):103-111.

Barrat-Segretain, M.H. 2001. Invasive species in the Rhone River floodplain (France): replacement of Elodea canadensis Michaux by E. nuttalli St. John in two former river channels. Arch. Hydrobiol. 152(2):237-251.

Batty, A.L., Dixon, K.W., Brundrett, M., and Sivasithamparam, K. 2001. Constraints to symbiotic germination of terrestrial orchid seed in a Mediterranean bushland. New Phytol. 152(3):511-520.

Bell, J.R., Wheater, C.P., and Cullen, W.R. 2001. The implications of grassland and heathland management for the conservation of spider communities: a review. J. Zool. 255:377-387.

Bevilacqua, M., and Ochoa, J. 2001. Conservation of the lastfrontier forests of the Venezuelan Guayana: guidelines proposal for the Caura River watershed. Interciencia 26(10):491-497.

Bezuijen, M.R., Webb, G.J.W., Hartoyo, P., and Samedi. 2001. Peat swamp forest and the false gharial Tomistoma schlegelii (Crocodilia, Reptilia) in the Merang River, eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 35(4):301-307.

Bidlack, A.L., and Cook, J.A. 2001. Reduced genetic variation in insular northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) along the Sorth Pacific Coast. Anim. Conserv. 4:283-290.

Biggins, D.E., and Kosoy, M.Y. 2001. Influences of introduced plague on North American mammals: implications from ecology of plague in Asia. J. Mammal. 82(4):906-916.

Blakesley, J.A., Noon, B.R., and Shaw, D.W.H. 2001. Demography of the California spotted owl in northeastern California. Condor 103(4):667-677.

Bober, S.O., Herremans, M., Louette, M., Peterhans, J.C.K., and Bates, J.M. 2001. Geographical and altitudinal distribution of birds endemic to the Albertine Rift. Ostrich July(Suppl.):189-196.

Bobo, S.K., Njabo, K.Y., Anye, D.N., and Languy, M. 2001. Status and distribution of the Bamenda Apalis Apalis bamendae in Cameroon, Central Africa. Ostrich July(Suppl.):110-113.

Boscaiu, M., and Guemes, J. 2001. Breeding system and conservation strategy of the extremely endangered Cistus carthaginensis Pau (Cistaceae) of Spain. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 49(3):213-220.

Briers, R.A. 2002. Incorporating connectivity into reserve selection procedures. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):77-83.

Brooks, T., Balmford, A., Burgess, N., Hansen, L.A., Moore, J., Rahbek, C., Williams, P., Bennun, L.A., Byaruhanga, A., Kasoma, P., Njoroge, P., Pomeroy, D., and Wondafrash, M. 2001. Conservation priorities for birds and biodiversity: do East African Important Bird Areas represent species diversity in other terrestrial vertebrate groups? Ostrich July(Suppl.):3-12.

Brouwer, J. 2001. SYSTANAL: a checklist for analysing ecosystems for the conservation of biological diversity. Ostrich July(Suppl.):178-182.

Buck, L.E., Geisler, C.C., Schelhas, J., and Wollenberg, E. (Eds.). 2001. Biological Diversity: Balancing Interests Through Adaptive Collaborative Management. CRC Press Inc. Boca Raton. 504 pp.

Bulte, E.H. 2001. Minimum viable populations and sluggish management. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):191-193.

Cairns, J. 2001. Healing the world's ecological wounds. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 8(3):185-189.

Carvell, C. 2002. Habitat use and conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) under different grassland management regimes. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):33-49.

Cascante, A., and Estrada, A. 2001. Floristic composition and structure of the premontane moist forest in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 49(1):213-225.

Chapman, R.E., and Bourke, A.F.G. 2001. The influence of sociality on the conservation biology of social insects. Ecol. Lett. 4(6):650-662.

Chuine, I., and Beaubien, E.G. 2001. Phenology is a major determinant of tree species range. Ecol. Lett. 4(5):500-510.

Cleavitt, N.L., Andrus, R.E., Sperduto, D.D., Nichols, W.F., and Town, W.R. 2001. Checklist of Sphagnum in New Hampshire. Rhodora 103(915):245-262.

Colwell, R.R. 2001. "World Enough, and Time": A global investment for the environment. BioScience 51(11):908-914.

Conde, J.E., Cuenca, G., Lampo, M., Pieters, A., and Olivares, E. 2001. Tropical ecology for the 21st century - biodiversity, global change and ecosystem restoration. Interciencia 26(10):425-426.

Crook, C., and Clapp, R.A. 2001. Ecosystem structure, economic cycles and market-oriented conservation. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):194-198.

Davenport, J., Hills, J., Glasspool, A., and Ward, J. 2001. Threats to the Critically Endangered endemic Bermudian skink Eumeces longirostris. Oryx 35(4):332-339.

Davis, A.L.V., Scholtz, C.H., and Harrison, J.D. 2001. Cladistic, phenetic and biogeographical analysis of the flightless dung beetle genus, Gyronotus Van Lansberge (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), in threatened eastern Afrotropical forests. J. Nat. Hist. 35(11):1607-1625.

Dearborn, D.C., and Sanchez, L.L. 2001. Do golden-cheeked warblers select nest locations on the basis of patch vegetation? Auk 118(4):1052-1057.

Despain, D.G., Weaver, T., and Aspinall, R.J. 2001. A rule-based model for mapping potential exotic plant distribution. West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(4):428-433.

du Toit, R. 2001. Rationale for ongoing radio-collaring of black rhinos - a response to Alibhai and Jewell. Oryx 35(4):289-290.

Engeman, R.M., Constantin, B., Nelson, M., Woolard, J., and Bourassa, J. 2001. Monitoring changes in feral swine abundance and spatial distribution. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):235-240.

Entwistle, A. 2001. Community-based protection successful for the Pemba flying fox. Oryx 35(4):355-356.

Entwistle, A., Appleton, M., and Karpowicz, Z. 2001. Biodiversity conservation management project underway in Romania. Oryx 35(4):353-354.

Farrell, T.A., and Marion, J.L. 2001. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at eight protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):215-225.

Fearnside, P.M. 2001. Saving tropical forests as a global warming countermeasure: an issue that divides the environmental movement. Ecol. Econ. 39(2):167-184.

Fedigan, L.M., and Jack, K. 2001. Neotropical primates in a regenerating Costa Rican dry forest: a comparison of howler and capuchin population patterns. Int. J. Primatol. 22(5):689-713.

Felder, D.L. 2001. Diversity and ecological significance of deep-burrowing macrocrustaceans in coastal tropical waters of the Americas (Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Interciencia 26(10):440-449.

Feng, Q., Endo, K.N., and Cheng, G.D. 2001. Towards sustainable development of the environmentally degraded arid rivers of China - a case study from Tarim River. Environ. Geol. 41(1-2):229-238.

Fermon, H., Schulze, C.H., Waltert, M., and Muhlenberg, M. 2001. The butterfly fauna of the Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Republic of Benin), with notes on its ecological composition and geographic distribution. Afr. Entomol. 9(2):177-185.

Fernandez-Juricic, E., Jimenez, M.D., and Lucas, E. 2001. Alert distance as an alternative measure of bird tolerance to human disturbance: implications for park design. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):263-269.

Fishpool, L.D.C. 2001. The Important Bird Areas in Africa Programme - a preliminary synthesis. Ostrich July(Suppl.):167-170.

Flannery, T.F., and Schouten, P. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Atlantic Monthly Press. New York. 184 pp.

Floren, A., Freking, A., Biehl, M., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2001. Anthropogenic disturbance changes the structure of arboreal tropical ant communities. Ecography 24(5):547-554.

Forboseh, P.F., and Ikfuingei, R.N. 2001. Estimating the population densities of Tauraco bannermani in the Kilum-Ijim Forest, northwestern Cameroon. Ostrich July(Suppl.):114-118.

Fujiwara, M., and Caswell, H. 2001. Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Nature 414(6863):537-541.

Fukami, T., and Wardle, D.A. 2001. On similarity among local communities in biodiversity experiments. Oikos 95(2):340-348.

Ganzhorn, J.U., Lowry, P.P., Schatz, G.E., and Sommer, S. 2001. The biodiversity of Madagascar: one of the world's hottest hotspots on its way out. Oryx 35(4):346-348.

Gerlach, J., and Canning, L. 2001. Range contractions in the Critically Endangered Seychelles terrapins (Pelusios spp.). Oryx 35(4):313-321.

Gherardi, F., Acquistapace, P., and Santini, G. 2001. Foraging by a threatened species - the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes. Arch. Hydrobiol. 152(2):339-351.

Gibbons, P., Lindenmayer, D.B., Barry, S.C., and Tanton, M.T. 2002. Hollow selection by vertebrate fauna in forests of southeastern Australia and implications for forest management. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):1-12.

Gichuki, N., and Terer, T. 2001. Significance of indigenous knowledge and values of birds in promoting biodiversity conservation in Kenya. Ostrich July(Suppl.):153-157.

Gillings, S., and Fuller, R.J. 2001. Habitat selection by skylarks Alauda arvensis wintering in Britain in 1997/98. Bird Study 48:293-307.

Glain, D., Kotomatas, S., and Adamantopoulou, S. 2001. Fishermen and seal conservation: survey of attitudes towards monk seals in Greece and grey seals in Cornwall. Mammalia 65(3):309-317.

Gutman, M., Noy-Meir, I., Pluda, D., Seligman, N.A., Rothman, S., and Sternberg, M. 2001. Biomass partitioning following defoliation of annual and perennial Mediterranean grasses. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 5(2):1. <http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art1>

Guzman, H.M., and Guevara, C.A. 2001. Coral reefs of Bocas del Toro, Panama: IV. Distribution, structure and conservation status of continental reefs in Valiente Peninsula. Rev. Biol. Trop. 49(1):53-66.

Hall, T.E., and Farrell, T.A. 2001. Fuelwood depletion at wilderness campsites: extent and potential ecological significance. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):241-247.

Heads, M. 2001. Birds of paradise (Paradisaeidae) and bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae): regional levels of biodiversity and terrane tectonics in New Guinea. J. Zool. 255:331-339.

Heenan, P.B., and de Lange, P.J. 2001. A new, dodecaploid species of Uncinia (Cyperaceae) from ultramafic rocks, Surville Cliffs, Northland, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 39(3):373-380.

Hill, N.M. 2001. Cyperus diandrus: another Nova Scotian rare plant from a rare lake type. Rhodora 103(915):332-334.

Holland, B.S. 2001. Invasion without a bottleneck: microsatellite variation in natural and invasive populations of the brown mussel Perna perna (L). Mar. Biotechnol. 3(5):407-415.

Iragorry, A.A. 2001. From daily heritage through lost treasure: new challenges in environmental education for biodiversity Conservation. Interciencia 26(10):429-433.

Jeffries, D.S., and Brunton, D.H. 2001. Attracting endangered species to 'safe' habitats: responses of fairy terns to decoys. Anim. Conserv. 4:301-305.

Jennings, S.B., Brown, N.D., Boshier, D.H., Whitmore, T.C., and Lopes, J.D.A. 2001. Ecology provides a pragmatic solution to the maintenance of genetic diversity in sustainably managed tropical rain forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 154(1-2):1-10.

Kaiser, J. 2001. When is a coho salmon not a coho salmon? Science 294(5548):1806-1807.

Kalinowski, S.T., and Hedrick, P.W. 2001. Inbreeding depression in captive bighorn sheep. Anim. Conserv. 4:319-324.

Kass, R.J. 2001. Mortality of the endangered wright fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus wrightiae) by an Opuntia-borer beetle (Cerambycidae: Moneilema semipunctatum). West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(4):495-497.

Kayanja, F.I.B., and Byarugaba, D. 2001. Disappearing forests of Uganda: the way forward. Curr. Sci. 81(8):936-947.

Kelly, C.K., Smith, H.B., Buckley, Y.M., Carter, R., Franco, M., Johnson, W., Jones, T., May, B., Ishiwara, R.P., Perez-Jimenez, A., Magallanes, A.S., Steers, H., and Waterman, C. 2001. Investigations in commonness and rarity: a comparative analysis of co-occurring, congeneric Mexican trees. Ecol. Lett. 4(6):618-627.

Kemp, A.C. 2001. The role of species limits and biology in the conservation of African hornbills. Ostrich July(Suppl.):200-204.

Knisley, C.B., and Hill, J.M. 2001. Biology and conservation of the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, Cicindela limbata albissima Rumpp. West. N. Am. Naturalist 61(4):381-394.

Kociolek, J.P., and Stoermer, E.F. 2001. Taxonomy and ecology: a marriage of necessity. Diatom Res. 16(2):433-442.

Kondolf, G.M., Smeltzer, M.W., and Railsback, S.F. 2001. Design and performance of a channel reconstruction project in a coastal California gravel-bed stream. Environ. Manage. 28(6):761-776.

Landergott, U., Holderegger, R., Kozlowski, G., and Schneller, J.J. 2001. Historical bottlenecks, decrease genetic diversity in natural populations of Dryopteris cristata. Heredity 87:344-355.

Leathwick, J.R. 2001. New Zealand's potential forest pattern as predicted from current species-environment relationships. New Zeal. J. Bot. 39(3):447-464.

Ledig, F.T., Capó-Arteaga, M.A., Hodgskiss, P.D., Sbay, H., Flores-López, C., Conkle, M.T., and Bermejo-Velázquez, B. 2001. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae). Am. J. Bot. 88(11):1977-1987.

Lens, L., and Van Dongen, S. 2001. Fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of stress: paradigm or conservation tool? Ostrich July(Suppl.):44-47.

Levin, P.S., and Tolimieri, N. 2001. Differences in the impacts of dams on the dynamics of salmon populations. Anim. Conserv. 4:291-299.

Lienert, J., Fischer, M., and Diemer, M. 2002. Local extinctions of the wetland specialist Swertia perennis L. (Gentianaceae) in Switzerland: a revisitation study based on herbarium records. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):65-76.

Linnell, J.D.C., Swenson, J.E., and Andersen, R. 2001. Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable. Anim. Conserv. 4:345-349.

Lode, T., Cormier, J.P., and Le Jacques, D. 2001. Decline in endangered species as an indication of anthropic pressures: the case of European mink Mustela lutreola western population. Environ. Manage. 28(6):727-735.

Lomolino, M.V., and Smith, G.A. 2001. Dynamic biogeography of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) towns near the edge of their range. J. Mammal. 82(4):937-945.

Loucks, C.J., Lu, Z., Dinerstein, E., Wang, H., Olson, D.M., Zhu, C.Q., and Wang, D.J. 2001. Giant pandas in a changing landscape. Science 294(5546):1465.

Lu, S.S., and Samways, M.J. 2001. Life history of the threatened Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Afr. Entomol. 9(2):137-151.

Lugo, A.E. 2001. Biodiversity management in the 21st century. Interciencia 26(10):484-490.

Lunney, D., and Matthews, A. 2001. The contribution of the community to defining the distribution of a vulnerable species, the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus. Wildlife Res. 28(5):537-545.

Luoto, M., Kuussaari, M., Rita, H., Salminen, J., and von Bonsdorff, T. 2001. Determinants of distribution and abundance in the clouded apollo butterfly: a landscape ecological approach. Ecography 24(5):601-617.

Magin, G. 2001. Wasting the woods. Oryx 35(4):355.

Maisels, F., Keming, E., Kemei, M., and Toh, C. 2001. The extirpation of large mammals and implications for montane forest conservation: the case of the Kilum-Ijim Forest, North-West Province, Cameroon. Oryx 35(4):322-331.

Maki, S., Kalliola, R., and Vuorinen, K. 2001. Road construction in the Peruvian Amazon: process, causes and consequences. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):199-214.

Malakoff, D. 2001. Reserves found to aid fisheries. Science 294(5548):1807-1809.

Manu, S. 2001. Possible factors influencing the decline of Nigeria's rarest endemic bird, the Ibadan Malimbe Malimbus ibadanensis. Ostrich July(Suppl.):119-121.

Mateo, R., Green, A.J., Jeske, C.W., Urios, V., and Gerique, C. 2001. Lead poisoning in the globally threatened marbled teal and white-headed duck in Spain. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20(12):2860-2868.

McCann, K.I. 2001. Population status of South Africa's three crane species as of the end of 1999 based on a National Crane Census and regional Aerial Surveys. Ostrich July(Suppl.):126-129.

McCann, K.I., Shaw, K., Anderson, M.D., and Morrison, K. 2001. Techniques for determining movement patterns of blue and wattled cranes in South Africa - colour-ringing versus satellite telemetry. Ostrich July(Suppl.):104-108.

McCarthy, M.A., and Thompson, C. 2001. Expected minimum population size as a measure of threat. Anim. Conserv. 4:351-355.

McKenna, S., and Rylands, A. 2001. Unparalleled species richness found on the coral reefs of Raja Ampat Islands. Oryx 35(4):355.

Médail, F., Quézel, P., Besnard, G., and Khadari, B. 2001. Systematics, ecology and phylogeographic significance of Olea europaea L. ssp. maroccana (Greuter & Burdet) P. Vargas et al., a relictual olive tree in south-west Morocco. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 137(3):249-266.

Miller, S.D., and Cully, J.F. 2001. Conservation of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). J. Mammal. 82(4):889-893.

Mills, M.G.L., Juritz, J.M., and Zucchini, W. 2001. Estimating the size of spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) populations through playback recordings allowing for non-response. Anim. Conserv. 4:335-343.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Akcakaya, H.R. 2001. Sustainability indices for exploited populations. TREE 16(12):686-692.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Kholodova, M.V., Bekenov, A., Bukreeva, O.M., Grachev, I.A., Amgalan, L., and Lushchekina, A.A. 2001. Dramatic declines in saiga antelope populations. Oryx 35(4):340-345.

Mishra, C., Prins, H.H.T., and van Wieren, S.E. 2001. Overstocking in the trans-Himalayan rangelands of India. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):279-283.

Montagnini, F. 2001. Strategies for the recovery of degraded ecosystems: experiences from Latin America. Interciencia 26(10):498-503.

Muheebwa-Muhoozi, J. 2001. The status of the grey crowned crane, Balearica regulorum in Uganda, with special reference to breeding. Ostrich July(Suppl.):122-125.

Nachuha, S., and Pomeroy, D. 2001. Using bird survey data for conservation planning in Uganda's savannas. Ostrich July(Suppl.):162-166.

Nekola, J.C., and Coles, B.F. 2001. Systematics and ecology of Gastrocopta (Gastrocopta) rogersensis (Gastropoda: Pupillidae), a new species of land snail from the Midwest of the United States of America. The Nautilus 115(3):105-114.

Newman, G.J., and Redente, E.F. 2001. Long-term plant community development as influenced by revegetation techniques. J. Range Manag. 54(6):717-724.

Ngabo, C.K.M., and Dranzoa, C. 2001. Bird communities in gaps of Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Ostrich July(Suppl.):38-43.

Noss, A.J., and Cuéllar, R.L. 2001. Community attitudes towards wildlife management in the Bolivian Chaco. Oryx 35(4):292-300.

Nunes, P.A.L.D., and van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. 2001. Economic valuation of biodiversity: sense or nonsense? Ecol. Econ. 39(2):203-222.

O'Brien, M., and Bainbridge, I. 2002. The evaluation of key sites for breeding waders in lowland Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):51-63.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D'Amico, J.A., Itoua, I., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Ricketts, T.H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J.F., Wettengel, W.W., Hedao, P., and Kassem, K.R. 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. BioScience 51(11):933-938.

Osemeobo, G.J. 2001. Is traditional ecological knowledge relevant in environmental conservation in Nigeria? Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 8(3):203-210.

Ostrowski, S., Massalatchi, M.S., and Mamane, M. 2001. Evidence of a dramatic decline of the red-necked ostrich Struthio camelus camelus in the Aïr and Ténéré National Nature Reserve, Niger. Oryx 35(4):349-352.

Parham, J.F., Simison, W.B., Kozak, K.H., Feldman, C.R., and Shi, H.T. 2001. New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Anim. Conserv. 4:357-367.

Pearch, M.J., Bates, P.J.J., and Magin, C. 2001. A review of the small mammal fauna of Djibouti and the results of a recent survey. Mammalia 65(3):387-410.

Pegoraro, K., Foger, M., and Parson, W. 2001. First evidence of mtDNA sequence differences between northern bald ibises (Geronticus eremita) of Moroccan and Turkish origin. J. Ornithol. 142(4):425-428.

Perdices, A., Carmona, J.A., Fernandez-Delgado, C., and Doadrio, I. 2001. Nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal high genetic divergence among Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the Iberian killifish Aphanius iberus (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Heredity 87:314-324.

Perera, L., Russell, J.R., Provan, J., and Powell, W. 2001. Levels and distribution of genetic diversity of coconut (Cocos nucifera L., var. typica form typica) from Sri Lanka assessed by microsatellite markers. Euphytica 122(2):381-389.

Peterson, A.T., Sánchez-Cordero, V., Soberón, J., Bartley, J., Buddemeier, R.W., and Navarro-Sigüenza, A.G. 2001. Effects of global climate change on geographic distributions of Mexican Cracidae. Ecol. Model. 144(1):21-30.

Pires, R., and Neves, H.C. 2001. Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus conservation: a case study in the Desertas Islands. Mammalia 65(3):301-308.

Porley, R.D., and Rose, F. 2001. The characterization and status of the southern hepatic mat, Scapanietum asperae Rose & Porley, on the English Chalk. J. Bryol. 23:195-204.

Porter, P., and Lowery, H. 2001. A time for taxonomists to take the lead. Oryx 35(4):273-274.

Pratt, T.K., Simon, J.C., Farm, B.P., Berlin, K.E., and Kowalsky, J.R. 2001. Home range and territoriality of two Hawaiian honeycreepers, the 'Akohekohe and Maui Parrotbill. Condor 103(4):746-755.

Pretty, J. 2001. The rapid emergence of genetic modification in world agriculture: contested risks and benefits. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):248-262.

Quilichini, A., Debussche, M., and Thompson, J.D. 2001. Evidence for local outbreeding depression in the Mediterranean island endemic Anchusa crispa Viv. (Boraginaceae). Heredity 87:190-197.

Ramírez-Marcial, N., González-Espinosa, M., and Williams-Linera, G. 2001. Anthropogenic disturbance and tree diversity in montane rain forests in Chiapas, Mexico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 154(1-2):311-326.

Ranius, T. 2002. Influence of stand size and quality of tree hollows on saproxylic beetles in Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):85-91.

Ratner, S., and Lande, R. 2001. Demographic and evolutionary responses to selective harvesting in populations with discrete generations. Ecology 82(11):3093-3104.

Reich, P.B., Bakken, P., Carlson, D., Frelich, L.E., Friedman, S.K., and Grigal, D.F. 2001. Influence of logging, fire, and forest type on biodiversity and productivity in southern boreal forests. Ecology 82(10):2731-2748.

Revilla, E., Palomares, F., and Fernandez, N. 2001. Characteristics, location and selection of diurnal resting dens by Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in a low density area. J. Zool. 255:291-299.

Roach, J.L., Stapp, P., Van Horne, B., and Antolin, M.F. 2001. Genetic structure of a metapopulation of black-tailed prairie dogs. J. Mammal. 82(4):946-959.

Roberts, C.M., Bohnsack, J.A., Gell, F., Hawkins, J.P., and Goodridge, R. 2001. Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science 294(5548):1920-1923.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2001. How large do reserve networks need to be? Ecol. Lett. 4(6):602-609.

Rodríguez, J.P. 2001. Exotic species introductions as a challenge for the conservation of South American biodiversity. Interciencia 26(10):479-483.

Rodriguez-Oubina, J., Izco, J., and Ramil, P. 2001. Phytosociological characterization of Sphagnum pylaesii Brid. communities in northwest Spain. Acta Bot. Gallica 148(3):201-213.

Roemer, G.W., Coonan, T.J., Garcelon, D.K., Bascompte, J., and Laughrin, L. 2001. Feral pigs facilitate hyperpredation by golden eagles and indirectly cause the decline of the island fox. Anim. Conserv. 4:307-318.

Rudd, M.A. 2001. The non-extractive economic value of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):226-234.

Sanchez-Velasquez, L.R., Jimenez, R.G., and Benz, B.F. 2001. Population structure and ecology of a tropical rare rhizomatous species of teosinte Zea diploperennis (Gramineae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 49(1):249-258.

Sande, E., Dranzoa, C., and Wegge, R. 2001. Population density of the Nahan's Francolin Francolinus nahani in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Ostrich July(Suppl.):33-37.

Sappington, L.C., Mayer, F.L., Dwyer, F.J., Buckler, D.R., Jones, J.R., and Ellersieck, M.R. 2001. Contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered fishes compared to standard surrogate species. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20(12):2869-2876.

Schoen, D.J., and Brown, A.H.D. 2001. The conservation of wild plant species in seed banks. BioScience 51(11):960-966.

Schoener, T.W., Spiller, D.A., and Losos, J.B. 2001. Natural restoration of the species-area relation for a lizard after a hurricane. Science 294(5546):1525-1528.

Schwartz, M.W., and Simberloff, D. 2001. Taxon size predicts rates of rarity in vascular plants. Ecol. Lett. 4(5):464-469.

Scott, M.C., and Helfman, G.S. 2001. Native invasions, homogenization, and the mismeasure of integrity of fish assemblages. Fisheries 26(11):6-15.

Selonen, V., Hanski, I.K., and Stevens, P.C. 2001. Space use of the Siberian flying squirrel Pteromys volans in fragmented forest landscapes. Ecography 24(5):588-600.

Senterre, B., and Lejoly, J. 2001. Trees diversity in the Nsork rain forest (Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea). Acta Bot. Gallica 148(3):227-235.

Shackleton, C.M. 2001. Re-examining local and market-orientated use of wild species for the conservation of biodiversity. Environ. Conserv. 28(3):270-278.

Sheldon, F., Boulton, A.J., and Puckridge, J.T. 2002. Conservation value of variable connectivity: aquatic invertebrate assemblages of channel and floodplain habitats of a central Australian arid-zone river, Cooper Creek. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):13-31.

Simon, J.C., Pratt, T.K., Berlin, K.E., and Kowalsky, J.R. 2001. Reproductive ecology and demography of the 'Akohekohe. Condor 103(4):736-745.

Sinclair, E.A. 2001. Phylogeographic variation in the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Marsupialia: Macropodidae): implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 4:325-333.

Spring, D.A., Bevers, M., Kennedy, J.O.S., and Harley, D. 2001. Economics of a nest-box program for the conservation of an endangered species: a reappraisal. Can. J. Forest Res. 31(11):1992-2003.

Sternberg, L.D.L. 2001. Savanna-forest hysteresis in the tropics. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10(4):369-378.

Stoate, C., and Szczur, J. 2001. Could game management have a role in the conservation of farmland passerines? A case study from a Leicestershire farm. Bird Study 48:279-292.

Swain, D. 2001. Joint protected area management: a proposal for the management of sanctuaries and national parks in India. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 8(3):257-265.

Tadesse, W.G., Demel, T., Edwards, S., and Olsson, M. 2001. A comparative assessment of diversity and density of birds in Chilimo Forest, Ethiopia. Ostrich July(Suppl.):216-223.

Teixeira, J., Ferrand, N., and Arntzen, J.W. 2001. Biogeography of the golden-striped salamander Chioglossa lusitanica: a field survey and spatial modelling approach. Ecography 24(5):618-624.

Telfer, S., Holt, A., Donaldson, R., and Lambin, X. 2001. Metapopulation processes and persistence in remnant water vole populations. Oikos 95(1):31-42.

Terer, T., and Gichuki, N. 2001. Cultural values of birds and biodiversity conservation by the Kipsigis community in Kenya. Ostrich July(Suppl.):158-160.

Thompson, H.S. 2001. Future directions for bird conservation in Africa. Ostrich July(Suppl.):13-21.

Thorbjarnarson, J., Wang, X.M., Ming, S., He, L.J., Ding, Y.Z., Wu, Y.L., and McMurry, S.T. 2002. Wild populations of the Chinese alligator approach extinction. Biol. Conserv. 103(1):93-102.

Thrush, S.F., Hewitt, J.E., Funnell, G.A., Cummings, V.J., Ellis, J., Schultz, D., Talley, D., and Norkko, A. 2001. Fishing disturbance and marine biodiversity: role of habitat structure in simple soft-sediment systems. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 221:255-264.

Todd, K. 2001. Tinkering with Eden: A Natural History of Exotics in America. W.W. Norton. New York. 302 pp.

Trewavas, A. 2001. Open debate is essential on conservation issues. Nature 414(6864):581-582.

Tushabe, H., Reynolds, J., and Pomeroy, D. 2001. Innovative aspects of the Bird Atlas of Uganda. Ostrich July(Suppl.):183-188.

Tynan, C.T., DeMaster, D.P., and Peterson, W.T. 2001. Endangered right whales on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Science 294(5548):1894.

Wardle, D.A. 2001. Experimental demonstration that plant diversity reduces invasibility - evidence of a biological mechanism or a consequence of sampling effect? Oikos 95(1):161-170.

Wearne, L.J., and Morgan, J.W. 2001. Floristic composition and variability of subalpine grasslands in the Mt. Hotham region, north-eastern Victoria. Aust. J. Bot. 49(6):721-734.

Webb, C.O., and Peart, D.R. 2001. High seed dispersal rates in faunally intact tropical rain forest: theoretical and conservation implications. Ecol. Lett. 4(5):491-499.

Weishampel, J.F., Godin, J.R., and Henebry, G.M. 2001. Pantropical dynamics of 'intact' rain forest canopy texture. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 10(4):389-397.

Weng, Q.H. 2001. Modeling urban growth effects on surface runoff with the integration of remote sensing and GIS. Environ. Manage. 28(6):737-748.

Whinam, J., Barmuta, L.A., and Chilcott, N. 2001. Floristic description and environmental relationships of Tasmanian Sphagnum communities and their conservation management. Aust. J. Bot. 49(6):673-685.

Whitten, T., Castro, G., MacKinnon, K., and Platais, G. 2001. The World Bank and biodiversity conservation. Oryx 35(4):357-358.

Wilson, B.A., Aberton, J.G., and Reichl, T. 2001. Effects of fragmented habitat and fire on the distribution and ecology of the swamp antechinus (Antechinus minimus maritimus) in the eastern Otways, Victoria. Wildlife Res. 28(5):527-536.

Wilson, S.C., Mo, G., and Sipila, T. 2001. Legal protection for seals in small populations in European community and Mediterranean coastal waters. Mammalia 65(3):335-348.

Yue, T.X., Liu, J.Y., Jorgensen, S.E., Gao, Z.Q., Zhang, S.H., and Deng, X.Z. 2001. Changes of Holdridge life zone diversity in all of China over half a century. Ecol. Model. 144(2-3):153-162.

Zhang, D., and Shi, C.X. 2001. Sedimentary causes and management of two principal environmental problems in the lower Yellow River. Environ. Manage. 28(6):749-760.


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