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Department ofBotany

No. 206
February 2002

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In This Issue

Botanical Symposium 2002
"The Convention on Biological Diversity:
The Globalization of Natural History Science"

5-6 April 2002
National Museum of Natural History
Washington, DC

Habitat Fragmentation Can Amplify Ecological Stress

By Robin Meadows

Habitat fragmentation is even more devastating than we thought. Fragments are well-known to be inferior to intact habitat because they are more likely to lose species. New research shows that fragments are also more vulnerable to hunting, fire, drought and other kinds of ecological stress.

"Such negative synergisms could potentially be one of the most important-and least understood-aspects of the modern environmental crisis," say William Laurance of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Balboa, Panama, and Mark Cochrane of Michigan State University in East Lansing, who co-edited a five-paper special section called "Synergistic Effects in Fragmented Landscapes" in the December issue of Conservation Biology.

The findings in the special section include:

  • Hunting may accelerate extinction in fragments. A study of hunting in Amazon forest fragments found that the smaller the fragment, the greater the overharvesting of animals from peccaries to monkeys to curassows (turkey-, tree-dwelling birds). The disproportionate impact of hunting on fragments is presumably due partly to the fact that fragments are more accessible to hunters. This work is by Carlos Peres of the University of East Anglia in Norwich, the United Kingdom.

  • Fragments may also be more vulnerable to airborne pollutants. A study of atmospheric deposition in deciduous forest fragments in New York State found that during the growing season, sulfate is about 20% higher at the edge than in the interior. Moreover, nitrogen in the forest understory is about 45% higher at the edge than in the interior of fragments. Considered to limit the growth of many temperate trees, excess nitrogen could increase the growth of nitrogen-loving species along forest edges. This work is by Kathleen Weathers, Mary Cadenasso and Steward Pickett of the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York.

  • Forest fragments can also be more susceptible to fire. A study of fire in the Brazilian Amazon found that more than 90% of burned forest was within a third of an edge. Once burned, many fragments are likely to burn again within a decade or two. The estimated historical fire interval is at least 100 years, and tropical trees cannot withstand more frequent fires because their bark is too thin. This work is by Mark Cochrane.

  • Amazon forest fragments are also more susceptible to damage from El Niño-Southern Oscillation droughts. During the 1997 drought, trees near fragment edges were 50% more likely to die than trees in the interior. These fragments are already particularly vulnerable to fire because they have dry edges and often adjoin cattle pastures, which are burned regularly. Moreover, global warming could make Amazon forest fragments even more vulnerable to fire by exacerbating the periodic droughts. This work is by William Laurance of STRI, and Bruce Williamson of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

This small but compelling body of research shows that other environmental stresses can amplify the effects of fragmentation. However, most habitat fragmentation studies fail to take other environmental changes into account, simply focusing on the fact that fragments are small and isolated. "The current fragmentation dangerously inadequate for conservation purposes," say Laurance and Cochrane.

Global Trees Campaign is Launched

Trees are essential for life on earth, but over 8,000 species, 10% of the world's total, are threatened with extinction. Woodland and forest destruction and unsustainable felling of valuable timbers are depleting birch, cedar, magnolia, mahogany, maple, meranti, oak and pine species around the world.

A Global Trees Campaign has been organized by Fauna and Flora International (FFI), which aims to save the world's most threatened tree species and the habitats where they grow through information, conservation and wise use. The campaign focuses on trees as flagship species for conservation of ecosystems and landscapes and enables local people to carry out rescue and sustainable use operations. FFI is a UK non-government organization that acts to conserve threatened species and ecosystems worldwide.

PlantNet, the Plant Collections Network of Britain and Ireland, has produced an attractive leaflet, Trees in Danger, in collaboration with FFI to encourage people to support the Campaign. Nine species are illustrated in the brochure, including Fitzroya cupressoides, Sorbus wilmottiae and Metasequoia glyptostroboides with a map to show a selection of the many places in Britain and Ireland with diverse tree collections. The leaflet suggests that people should visit botanic gardens and arboreta and learn about their conservation activities.

For further information contact the Global Trees Campaign, Fauna and Flora International, Great Eastern House, Tenison Road, Cambridge CB1 2TT, U.K.; Tel: +44 01223 461481; or visit <>.

New Publications

One of the major impediments to the advancement of medicinal plant conservation is the difficulty of accessing and analyzing the relevant literature. Books and papers on medicinal plants count by the tens of thousands worldwide. The bulk of them relate to pharmacology and medicinal properties or to classical ethnobotanical research. Regrettably, information on distribution, life history, biology, population status, levels of extraction and trade, or resource management of the taxa is scarce. Therefore, information urgently needed for setting plant conservation priorities is rare and scattered. The Medicinal Plant Conservation Bibliography: Volume 2, by Uwe Schippmann, is designed to collect this information from the scattered sources.

The Medicinal Plant Conservation Bibliography systematically reviews about 70 journals and newsletter for papers with relation to medicinal plant conservation issues. Also, other serial and monographic publications are included. The first volume included references of the years 1990 to 1996. The present, second volume covers the period 1997 to 2000. Volume 2 also contains sporadic references from earlier years. In total, 801 references and 170 reviews, indexed by general, geographic, and taxonomic keywords, are incorporated.

This volume of Medicinal Plant Conservation Bibliography (MPCB) can be obtained at the price of US$15.00 / GBP 10.00. It is available through: IUCN Publications Service Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, United Kingdom; Tel: +44/1223/277-894; Fax: +44/1223/277-175; E-mail:

Future Meetings

National Invasive Weeds Awareness Week 2002 (NIWAW III) will be held 25 February to 1 March 2002 in Washington, D.C. The event will focus on invasive weeds and non-native species issues and the critical role of federal programs in dealing with these problems. The schedule has been designed to provide ample time for participants to visit congressional offices and to inform them about invasive plant issues in particular U.S. regions. Additional activities are still being planned, but the week's activities will include a breakfast briefing on key national invasive weed issues, meetings with federal agencies active in invasive weed management and control, a poster session for federal policy makers showcasing invasive weed problems and innovative management strategies from the country's top practitioners and researchers, and a Congressional reception. NIWAW III is being sponsored by the Invasive Weeds Awareness Coalition, a Washington D.C. based coalition dedicated to increasing awareness of the problems and needs associated with invasive weeds. To participate and gain more information, contact NAWMA, PO Box 1910, 461 E. Agate, Granby, CO 80446-1910; Tel: 970-887-1228; Fax: 970-887-9560; or visit <>.

An international conference on research to promote plant conservation will be held 8-10 July 2002 at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. Entitled "Science for Plant Conservation - An International Conference for Botanic Gardens," this exciting international conference includes three days of contributed and invited presentations, and both pre- and post-conference trips to explore the plant diversity of Ireland. Although oriented towards the global botanical garden community, participation by everyone interested in plant conservation is encouraged. Plenary sessions include causes of endangerment, monitoring, and integrated conservation. Parallel sessions include recovery and reintroduction, invasive species, demography & population management, propagation science, restoration ecology, sustainable utilization, gene banks & seed biology, pathology, and administration & funding. For more information, and all registration materials, please visit the conference Web site <>, or contact Mary Foody ( or Steve Waldren (, Conservation Conference, Botany Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland; Tel: +353-1-6081274; Fax: +353-1-6081147.

The Association for Tropical Biology will be holding their 2002 annual meeting "Tropical Forests: Past, Present and Future" in Panama City, Republic of Panama, from 29 July to 2 August 2002. The meeting will emphasize ecology and evolution, and the perspective to be gained through an understanding of past and future changes in climate and human populations. Tropical forests are undergoing unprecedented change as 1.2% of the remaining forests is removed each year, as hunters reduce vertebrate populations, as atmospheric carbon dioxide increases by 0.4% each year, and as global climate change begins in earnest. Symposia on paleoclimate and prehistoric human population density will provide perspectives on the modern human onslaught. Symposia on deforestation rates, consequences of forest fragmentation, and forest carbon balance will evaluate ongoing responses. Additional symposia are already planned for a wide range of topics of current interest. The deadline for contributed abstracts is 30 April 2002. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, the Organization for Tropical Studies, and the Center for Tropical Forest Science will co-host the meeting. For further information, contact Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, ATTN: ATB 2002, APO AA 34002-0948 USA; E-mail:; or visit <>.

Current Literature

Aava, B. 2001. Can resource use be the link between productivity and species richness in mammals? Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2011-2022.

Alves, M.J., Coelho, H., Collares-Pereira, M.J., and Coelho, M.M. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the highly endangered cyprinid fish Anaecypris hispanica: importance for conservation. Heredity 87:463-473.

Andrews, R.N.L. 2001. Politics, economics, and perceptions. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1485-1487.

Araújo, M.B., and Williams, P.H. 2001. The bias of complementarity hotspots toward marginal populations. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1710-1720.

Arnold, J.E.M., and Perez, M.R. 2001. Can non-timber forest products match tropical forest conservation and development objectives? Ecol. Econ. 39(3):437-447.

Barbosa, F.M.A., Cuambe, C.C., and Bandeira, S.O. 2001. Status and distribution of mangroves in Mozambique. S. Afr. J. Bot. 67(3):393-398.

Barrett, G.W., and Barrett, T.L. 2001. Cemeteries as repositories of natural and cultural diversity. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1820-1824.

Becker, L.C., and Mueller, E. 2001. The culture, transplantation and storage of Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata: what we have learned so far. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):881-896.

Blaustein, A.R., Belden, L.K., Olson, D.H., Green, D.M., Root, T.L., and Kiesecker, J.M. 2001. Amphibian breeding and climate change. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1804-1809.

Boshoff, A.F., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2001. Potential distributions of the medium- to large-sized mammals in the Cape Floristic Region, based on historical accounts and habitat requirements. Afr. Zool. 36(2):245-273.

Bowden-Kerby, A. 2001. Low-tech coral reef restoration methods modeled after natural fragmentation processes. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):915-931.

Bulte, E.H., and Van Kooten, G.C. 2001. State intervention to protect endangered species: why history and bad luck matter. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1799-1803.

Caley, M.J., Buckley, K.A., and Jones, G.P. 2001. Separating ecological effects of habitat fragmentation, degradation, and loss on coral commensals. Ecology 82(12):3435-3448.

Cassel, A., Windig, J., Nylin, S., and Wiklund, C. 2001. Effects of population size and food stress on fitness-related characters in the scarce heath, a rare butterfly in western Europe. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1667-1673.

Castley, J.G., Boshoff, A.F., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2001. Compromising South Africa's natural biodiversity - inappropriate herbivore introductions. S. Afr. J. Sci. 97(9-10):344-348.

Castro, C.B., and Pires, D.O. 2001. Brazilian coral reefs: what we already know and what is still missing. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):357-371.

Cochrane, M.A. 2001. Synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and fire in evergreen tropical forests. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1515-1521.

Cohn, J.P. 2001. Resurrecting the dammed: a look at Colorado River restoration. BioScience 51(12):998-1003.

Coleman, F.C., and Williams, S.L. 2002. Overexploiting marine ecosystem engineers: potential consequences for biodiversity. TREE 17(1):40-44.

Colyvan, M. 2001. Ranking in threatened species classification: reply to Todd. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1814-1816.

Corbacho, C., and Sánchez, J.M. 2001. Patterns of species richness and introduced species in native freshwater fish faunas of a Mediterranean-type basin: the Guadiana River (southwest Iberian Peninsula). Reg. Rivers Res. Manag. 17(6):699-707.

Cordeiro, N.J., and Howe, H.F. 2001. Low recruitment of trees dispersed by animals in African forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1733-1741.

Crawford, D.J., Ruiz, E., Stuessy, T.F., Tepe, E., Aqeveque, P., Gonzalez, F., Jensen, R.J., Anderson, G.J., Bernardello, G., Baeza, C.M., Swenson, U., and O, M.S. 2001. Allozyme diversity in endemic flowering plant species of the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile: ecological and historical factors with implications for conservation. Am. J. Bot. 88(12):2195-2203.

Cuevas, J.G., and van Leersum, G. 2001. Project "Conservation, restoration, and development of the Juan Fernandez islands, Chile". Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 74(4):899-910.

Deferrari, G., Camilión, C., Pastur, G.M., and Peri, P.L. 2001. Changes in Nothofagus pumilio forest biodiversity during the forest management cycle. 2. Birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2093-2108.

Dennis, R.L.H., and Hardy, P.B. 2001. Loss rates of butterfly species with urban development. A test of atlas data and sampling artefacts at a fine scale. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1831-1837.

Diaz, V., Muniz, L.M., and Ferrer, E. 2001. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism assessment of genetic variation in Nicaraguan populations of Pinus oocarpa. Mol. Ecol. 10(11):2593-2603.

Dingaan, M.N.V., du Preez, P.J., and Venter, H.J.T. 2001. Riparian and wetland vegetation of natural open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State. S. Afr. J. Bot. 67(2):294-302.

Done, T.J. 2001. Useful science for coral reef management: the Cooperative Research Centre model. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):309-315.

Drewes, S.E., Crouch, N.R., Mashimbye, M.J., de Leeuw, B.M., and Horn, M.M. 2001. A phytochemical basis for the potential use of Warburgia salutaris (pepper-bark tree) leaves in the place of bark. S. Afr. J. Sci. 97(9-10):383-386.

du Plessis, M.A. 2001. Academia as a nursery ground for conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1477.

Dzerefos, C.M., and Witkowski, E.T.F. 2001. Density and potential utilisation of medicinal grassland plants from Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1875-1896.

Ellery, W.N., Balkwill, K., Ellery, K., and Reddy, R.A. 2001. Conservation of the vegetation on the Melville Ridge, Johannesburg. S. Afr. J. Bot. 67(2):261-273.

England, P.R., Beynon, F., Ayre, D.J., and Whelan, R.J. 2001. A molecular genetic assessment of mating-system variation in a naturally bird-pollinated shrub: contributions from birds and introduced honeybees. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1645-1655.

Fernández-Juricic, E., and Jokimäki, J. 2001. A habitat island approach to conserving birds in urban landscapes: case studies from southern and northern Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2023-2043.

Fleishman, E., Mac Nally, R., Fay, J.P., and Murphy, D.D. 2001. Modeling and predicting species occurrence using broad-scale environmental variables: an example with butterflies of the Great Basin. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1674-1685.

Fraser, A., and Kindscher, K. 2001. Tree spade transplanting of Spartina pectinata (Link) and Eleocharis macrostachya (Britt.) in a prairie wetland restoration site. Aquat. Bot. 71(4):297-304.

Fraser, D.J., and Bernatchez, L. 2001. Adaptive evolutionary conservation: towards a unified concept for defining conservation units. Mol. Ecol. 10(12):2741-2752.

Garnier-Géré, P.H., and Ades, P.K. 2001. Environmental surrogates for predicting and conserving adaptive genetic variability in tree species. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1632-1644.

Gill, A.M. 2001. Economically destructive fires and biodiversity conservation: an Australian perspective. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1558-1560.

Gleason, D.F., Brazeau, D.A., and Munfus, D. 2001. Can self-fertilizing coral species be used to enhance restoration of Caribbean reefs? Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):933-943.

Golding, J.S. 2001. Southern African herbaria and Red Data Lists. Taxon 50(2):593-602.

Golding, J.S., and Smith, P.P. 2001. A 13-point flora strategy to meet conservation challenges. Taxon 50(2):475-477.

Graham, C.H. 2001. Factors influencing movement patterns of keel-billed toucans in a fragmented tropical landscape in southern Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1789-1798.

Graham, C.H., and Blake, J.G. 2001. Influence of patch- and landscape-level factors on bird assemblages in a fragmented tropical landscape. Ecol. Appl. 11(6):1709-1721.

Gram, W.K., Sork, V.L., Marquis, R.J., Renken, R.B., Clawson, R.L., Faaborg, J., Fantz, D.K., Le Corff, J., Lill, J., and Porneluzi, P.A. 2001. Evaluating the effects of ecosystem management: a case study in a Missouri Ozark forest. Ecol. Appl. 11(6):1667-1679.

Grgurinovic, C.A., and Simpson, J.A. 2001. Conservation status of the known Agaricales, Boletales, Cantharellales, Lycoperdales, Phallales and Russulales of South Australia. Fungal Divers. 8:97-127.

Haas, G.R., and McPhail, J.D. 2001. The post-Wisconsinan glacial biogeography of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus): a multivariate morphometric approach for conservation biology and management. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58(11):2189-2203.

Hall, G.M.J. 2001. Mitigating an organization's future net carbon emissions by native forest restoration. Ecol. Appl. 11(6):1622-1633.

Hall, G.M.J., and McGlone, M.S. 2001. Forest reconstruction and past climatic estimates for a deforested region of south-eastern New Zealand. Landscape Ecol. 16(6):501-521.

Hansson, L. 2001. Traditional management of forests: plant and bird community responses to alternative restoration of oak-hazel woodland in Sweden. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1865-1873.

Hector, A., Joshi, J., Lawler, S.P., Spehn, E.M., and Wilby, A. 2001. Conservation implications of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Oecologia 129(4):624-628.

Hempel, L.C., and Morozova, S. 2001. Science into policy: designing coral reef management from the benthos up. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):945-966.

Heywood, V. 2001. Floristics and monography - an uncertain future? Taxon 50(2):361-380.

Hobbs, R.J. 2001. Synergisms among habitat fragmentation, livestock grazing, and biotic invasions in southwestern Australia. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1522-1528.

Horvath, A., March, I.J., and Wolf, J.H.D. 2001. Rodent diversity and land use in Montebello, Chiapas, Mexico. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 36(3):169-176.

Ingerpuu, N., Vellak, K., Kukk, T., and Pärtel, M. 2001. Bryophyte and vascular plant species richness in boreo-nemoral moist forests and mires. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2153-2166.

Jaap, W.C., and Hudson, J.H. 2001. Coral reef restoration following anthropogenic disturbances. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):333.

Jameson, S.C., Erdmann, M.V., Karr, J.R., and Potts, K.W. 2001. Charting a course toward diagnostic monitoring: a continuing review of coral reef attributes and a research strategy for creating coral reef indexes of biotic integrity. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):701-744.

Jensen, K., and Meyer, C. 2001. Effects of light competition and litter on the performance of Viola palustris and on species composition and diversity of an abandoned fen meadow. Plant Ecol. 155(2):169-181.

Johnson, E.A., Miyanishi, K., and Bridge, S.R.J. 2001. Wildfire regime in the boreal forest and the idea of suppression and fuel buildup. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1554-1557.

Joyal, L.A., McCollough, M., and Hunter, M.L. 2001. Landscape ecology approaches to wetland species conservation: a case study of two turtle species in southern Maine. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1755-1762.

Kairo, J.G., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Bosire, J., and Koedam, N. 2001. Restoration and management of mangrove systems - a lesson for and from the East African region. S. Afr. J. Bot. 67(3):383-389.

Keeley, J.E., and Fotheringham, C.J. 2001. Historic fire regime in Southern California shrublands. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1536-1548.

Keeley, J.E., and Fotheringham, C.J. 2001. History and management of crown-fire ecosystems: a summary and response. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1561-1567.

Kelt, D.A. 2001. Differential effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in Valdivian temperate rainforests. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 74(4):769-777.

Kemp, A.C., Herholdt, J.J., Whyte, I., and Harrison, J. 2001. Birds of the two largest national parks in South Africa: a method to generate estimates of population size for all species and assess their conservation ecology. S. Afr. J. Sci. 97(9-10):393-403.

Kessler, M. 2001. Patterns of diversity and range size of selected plant groups along an elevational transect in the Bolivian Andes. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1897-1921.

Kojis, B.L., and Quinn, N.J. 2001. The importance of regional differences in hard coral recruitment rates for determining the need for coral restoration. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):967-974.

Koontz, J.A., Soltis, P.S., and Brunsfeld, S.J. 2001. Genetic diversity and tests of the hybrid origin of the endangered yellow larkspur. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1608-1618.

Kraft, M.E. 2001. Leverage and sustainable communities: overcoming policy obstacles at the local level. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1483-1484.

Kshatriya, M., Cosner, C., and Van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2001. Early detection of declining populations using floor and ceiling models. J. Anim. Ecol. 70(6):906-914.

Lafferty, K.D. 2001. Birds at a Southern California beach: seasonality, habitat use and disturbance by human activity. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1949-1962.

Langholz, J.A., and Lassoie, J.P. 2001. Perils and promise of privately owned protected areas. BioScience 51(12):1079-1085.

Laurance, W.F., and Cochrane, M.A. 2001. Special section: Synergistic Effects in Fragmented Landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1488-1489.

Laurance, W.F., and Williamson, G.B. 2001. Positive feedbacks among forest fragmentation, drought, and climate change in the Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1529-1535.

Law, B.S. 2001. The diet of the common blossom bat (Syconycteris australis) in upland tropical rainforest and the importance of riparian areas. Wildlife Res. 28(6):619-626.

Leibo, S.P., and Songsasen, N. 2002. Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of non-domestic species. Theriogenology 57(1):303-326.

LeJeune, K.D., and Seastedt, T.R. 2001. Centaurea species: the forb that won the west. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1568-1574.

Lennon, J.J., Koleff, P., Greenwood, J.J.D., and Gaston, K.J. 2001. The geographical structure of British bird distributions: diversity, spatial turnover and scale. J. Anim. Ecol. 70(6):966-979.

Lopez, J.E., and Pfister, C.A. 2001. Local population dynamics in metapopulation models: implications for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1700-1709.

Lu, Z., Johnson, W.E., Menotti-Raymond, M., Yuhki, N., Martenson, J.S., Mainka, S., Shi-Qiang, H., Zhihe, Z., Li, G.H., Pan, W.S., Mao, X.R., and O'Brien, S.J. 2001. Patterns of genetic diversity in remaining giant panda populations. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1596-1607.

Lundmark, C. 2001. Biodiversity initiatives make good use of technology. BioScience 51(12):1102.

Lücking, R., and Matzer, M. 2001. High foliicolous lichen alpha-diversity on individual leaves in Costa Rica and Amazonian Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2139-2152.

Maki, M. 2001. Genetic differentiation within and among island populations of the endangered plant Aster miyagii (Asteraceae), an endemic to the Ryukyu Islands. Am. J. Bot. 88(12):2189-2194.

Marques, M.I., Adis, J., da Cunha, C.N., and dos Santos, G.B. 2001. Arthropod biodiversity in the canopy of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae), a forest dominant in the Brazilian Pantanal. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 36(3):205-210.

Mañosa, S. 2001. Strategies to identify dangerous electricity pylons for birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1997-2012.

Meffe, G.K. 2001. Unity. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1475-1476.

Mettler, P.A., Smith, M., and Victory, K. 2001. The effects of nutrient pulsing on the threatened, floodplain species, Boltonia decurrens. Plant Ecol. 155(1):91-98.

Mikkelsen, P.M., and Cracraft, J. 2001. Marine biodiversity and the need for systematic inventories. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):525-534.

Miller, M.W., and Barimo, J. 2001. Assessment of juvenile coral populations at two reef restoration sites in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: indicators of success? Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):395-405.

Milon, J.W., and Dodge, R.E. 2001. Applying habitat equivalency analysis for coral reef damage assessment and restoration. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):975-988.

Minnich, R.A. 2001. An integrated model of two fire regimes. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1549-1553.

Oindo, B.O., Skidmore, A.K., and Prins, H.H.T. 2001. Body size and abundance relationship: an index of diversity for herbivores. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1923-1931.

Orr, D.W. 2001. Leverage. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1480-1482.

Ostendorf, B., Hilbert, D.W., and Hopkins, M.S. 2001. The effect of climate change on tropical rainforest vegetation pattern. Ecol. Model. 145(2-3):211-224.

Paoli, G.D., Peart, D.R., Leighton, M., and Samsoedin, I. 2001. An ecological and economic assessment of the nontimber forest product gaharu wood in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1721-1732.

Parrish, J.K., Marvier, M., and Paine, R.T. 2001. Direct and indirect effects: interactions between bald eagles and common murres. Ecol. Appl. 11(6):1858-1869.

Perala, J. 2001. A new species of Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the Middle East, with implications for conservation. J. Herpetol. 35(4):567-582.

Peres, C.A. 2001. Synergistic effects of subsistence hunting and habitat fragmentation on Amazonian forest vertebrates. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1490-1505.

Perry, W.L., Feder, J.L., and Lodge, D.M. 2001. Implications of hybridization between introduced and resident Orconectes crayfishes. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1656-1666.

Petersen, D., and Tollrian, R. 2001. Methods to enhance sexual recruitment for restoration of damaged reefs. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):989-1000.

Phifer, P., and Roebuck, P. 2001. The complexity of population growth: reply to Pletscher and Schwartz. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1810-1811.

Pidgeon, A.M., Mathews, N.E., Benoit, R., and Nordheim, E.V. 2001. Response of avian communities to historic habitat change in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1772-1788.

Pilcher, N.J., and Enderby, S. 2001. Effects of prolonged retention in hatcheries on green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchling swimming speed and survival. J. Herpetol. 35(4):633-638.

Pletscher, D.H., and Schwartz, M.K. 2001. Rearranging the deck chairs on the Malthusian ship: reply to Phifer and Roebuck. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1812-1813.

Prance, G.T. 2001. Discovering the plant world. Taxon 50(2):345-359.

Precht, W.F. 2001. Improving decision-making in coral reef restoration. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):329-330.

Precht, W.F., Aronson, R.B., and Swanson, D.W. 2001. Improving scientific decision-making in the restoration of ship-grounding sites on coral reefs. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):1001-1012.

Primack, R.B. 2001. Academia as a nursery ground for conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1477-1478.

Raherilalao, M.J. 2001. Effects of forest fragmentation on bird communities around Ranomafana National Park (Madagascar). Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 56(4):389-406.

Ratcliffe, C.S., and Crowe, T.M. 2001. The effects of agriculture and the availability of edge habitat on populations of helmeted guineafowl Numida meleagris and on the diversity and composition of associated bird assemblages in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2109-2127.

Reitsma, R., Parrish, J.D., and McLarney, W. 2001. The role of cacao plantations in maintaining forest avian diversity in southeastern Costa Rica. Agroforestry Syst. 53(2):185-193.

Ricci, M. 2001. Evaluation of conservation status of Lactoris fernandeziana Philippi (Lactoridaceae) in Chile. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2129-2138.

Robinson, S.K., and Robinson, W.D. 2001. Avian nesting success in a selectively harvested north temperate deciduous forest. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1763-1771.

Rodríguez, J.P. 2001. Exotic species introductions into South America: an underestimated threat? Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1983-1996.

Rogers, S.O., Watson, B.T., and Neves, R.J. 2001. Life history and population biology of the endangered tan riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae). J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 20(4):582-594.

Rojas, L., Godoy, C., Hanson, P., Kleinn, C., and Hilje, L. 2001. Hopper (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) diversity in shaded coffee systems of Turrialba, Costa Rica. Agroforestry Syst. 53(2):171-177.

Ruttenberg, B.I. 2001. Effects of artisanal fishing on marine communities in the Galápagos Islands. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1691-1699.

Salafsky, N., Cauley, H., Balachander, G., Cordes, B., Parks, J., Margoluis, C., Bhatt, S., Encarnacion, C., Russell, D., and Margoluis, R. 2001. A systematic test of an enterprise strategy for community-based biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1585-1595.

Samways, M.J., and Hatton, M.J. 2001. An appraisal of two coral reef rapid monitoring manuals for gathering baseline data. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):471-485.

Samways, M.J., and Kreuzinger, K. 2001. Vegetation, ungulate and grasshopper interactions inside vs. outside an African savanna game park. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1963-1981.

Segarra-Moragues, J.G., and Catalan, P. 2002. Low allozyme variability in the critically endangered Borderea chouardii and in its congener Borderea pyrenaica (Dioscoreaceae), two paleoendemic relicts from the Central Pyrenees. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(1):159-166.

Seymour, C.L., De Klerk, H.M., Channing, A., and Crowe, T.M. 2001. The biogeography of the Anura of sub-equatorial Africa and the prioritisation of areas for their conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2045-2076.

Sherman, R.L., Gilliam, D.S., and Spieler, R.E. 2001. Site-dependent differences in artificial reef function: implications for coral reef restoration. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):1053-1056.

Silori, C.S., and Mishra, B.K. 2001. Assessment of livestock grazing pressure in and around the elephant corridors in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, south India. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2181-2195.

Smith, M.A., Turner, M.G., and Rusch, D.H. 2002. The effect of military training activity on eastern lupine and the Karner blue butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Environ. Manage. 29(1):102-115.

Snow, N., Ford, A.J., and Koblitz, B. 2001. Rhodamnia longisepala (Myrtaceae): an endangered species from northeastern Queensland, Australia. Novon 11(4):479-483.

Snow, N., and Guymer, G.P. 2001. A new and endangered species of Decaspermum (Myrtaceae) from east-central Queensland. Novon 11(4):475-478.

Souter, N.J., and Williams, W.D. 2001. A comparison of macroinvertebrate communities in three South Australian streams with regard to reintroduction of the platypus. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 125:71-82.

Spagarino, C., Pastur, G.M., and Peri, P. 2001. Changes in Nothofagus pumilio forest biodiversity during the forest management cycle. 1. Insects. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2077-2092.

Spieler, R.E., Gilliam, D.S., and Sherman, R.L. 2001. Artificial substrate and coral reef restoration: what do we need to know to know what we need. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):1013-1030.

Spurgeon, J.P.G. 2001. Improving the economic effectiveness of coral reef restoration. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):1031-1045.

Stowe, J.P., Schmidt, E.V., and Green, D. 2001. Toxic burials: the final insult. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1817-1819.

Strittholt, J.R., and Dellasala, D.A. 2001. Importance of roadless areas in biodiversity conservation in forested ecosystems: case study of the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion of the United States. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1742-1754.

Sun, M., and Wong, K.C. 2001. Genetic structure of three orchid species with contrasting breeding systems using RAPD and allozyme markers. Am. J. Bot. 88(12):2180-2188.

Söderström, B., Svensson, B., Vessby, K., and Glimskär, A. 2001. Plants, insects and birds in semi-natural pastures in relation to local habitat and landscape factors. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1839-1863.

Tam, L., Derry, A.M., Kevan, P.G., and Trevors, J.T. 2001. Functional diversity and community structure of microorganisms in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere Canadian arctic soils. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1933-1947.

Tattersfield, P., Seddon, M.B., and Lange, C.N. 2001. Land-snail faunas in indigenous rainforest and commercial forestry plantations in Kakamega Forest, western Kenya. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(11):1809-1829.

Thomas, J.D. 2001. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Aspects of Coral Reef Assessment, Monitoring, and Restoration - National Coral Reef Institute - Fort Lauderdale, Florida - April 14-16, 1999 - preface. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):293-294.

Thorbjarnarson, J., Wang, X.M., and He, L.J. 2001. Reproductive ecology of the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and implications for conservation. J. Herpetol. 35(4):553-558.

Tikka, P.M., Hogmander, H., and Koski, P.S. 2001. Road and railway verges serve as dispersal corridors for grassland plants. Landscape Ecol. 16(7):659-666.

Tittler, R., Hannon, S.J., and Norton, M.R. 2001. Residual tree retention ameliorates short-term effects of clear-cutting on some boreal songbirds. Ecol. Appl. 11(6):1656-1666.

Tomas, J., Aznar, F.J., and Raga, J.A. 2001. Feeding ecology of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta in the western Mediterranean. J. Zool. 255:525-532.

Vallet, C., Dauvin, J.C., Hamon, D., and Dupuy, C. 2001. Effect of the introduced common slipper shell on the suprabenthic biodiversity of the subtidal communities in the Bay of Saint-Brieuc. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1686-1690.

van Wesemael, B., and Lambin, E.F. 2001. Carbon sinks and conserving biodiversity. Science 294(5549):2094-2095.

Walters, R.D.M., and Samways, M.J. 2001. Sustainable dive ecotourism on a South African coral reef. Biodivers. Conserv. 10(12):2167-2179.

Wang, J.L., and Ryman, N. 2001. Genetic effects of multiple generations of supportive breeding. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1619-1631.

Weathers, K.C., Cadenasso, M.L., and Pickett, S.T.A. 2001. Forest edges as nutrient and pollutant concentrators: potential synergisms between fragmentation, forest canopies, and the atmosphere. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1506-1514.

Wiegand, K., Sarre, S.D., Henle, K., Stephan, T., Wissel, C., and Brandl, R. 2001. Demographic stochasticity does not predict persistence of gecko populations. Ecol. Appl. 11(6):1738-1749.

Wittemyer, G. 2001. The elephant population of Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 39(4):357-365.

Young, C.H., and Jarvis, P.J. 2001. Measuring urban habitat fragmentation: an example from the Black Country, UK. Landscape Ecol. 16(7):643-658.

Young, M.K., and Harig, A.L. 2001. A critique of the recovery of greenback cutthroat trout. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1575-1584.

Yozell, S.J. 2001. Text of the keynote presentation to the International Conference on Scientific Aspects of Coral Reef Assessment, Monitoring, and Restoration - April 16, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69(2):295-303.

Zanne, A.E., and Chapman, C.A. 2001. Expediting reforestation in tropical grasslands: distance and isolation from seed sources in plantations. Ecol. Appl. 11(6):1610-1621.

Zedler, J.B., Callaway, J.C., and Sullivan, G. 2001. Declining biodiversity: why species matter and how their functions might be restored in Californian tidal marshes. BioScience 51(12):1005-1017.

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