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Department ofBotany

No. 208
April 2002

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In This Issue

HSBC, BGCI, Earthwatch and WWF Launch Investing in Nature

HSBC, one of the world's largest financial services organizations, is creating a $50 million partnership with Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI), Earthwatch and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) entitled "Investing in Nature." Launched in February, Investing in Nature will help save 20,000 rare plant species from extinction, resuscitate three of the world's major rivers, train 200 scientists, and send 2,000 staff to work on vital conservation research projects worldwide.

Plants are one of the world's greatest renewable resources. They provide food, fiber, medicines, timber and fuel, helping to maintain the ecological balance of the planet. Many species, however, face extinction. HSBC and Botanic Gardens Conservation International are working together to protect threatened species. Over the next five years, a living gene bank will be created in botanic gardens worldwide, protecting 20,000 endangered plant species. Also underway is an effort to revitalize conservation programs in 16 botanic gardens in Argentina, Brazil, India, Indonesia, and the Middle East.

HSBC and WWF are working in partnership to breathe life into some of the world's major freshwater systems. "Freshwater is the world's next big environmental issue," says Garo Batmanian, CEO of WWF-Brazil. The goal is to restore around two million hectares of river basin habitats in the Amazon in Brazil, the Rio Grande in the U.S., and the Yangtze in China by 2007. These projects will return the natural flow of rivers, protect fish and other freshwater species, and secure fresh drinking water for millions. "We must act now to avoid potentially devastating implications for people, plants and animals right around the world," says Batmanian.

HSBC and Earthwatch will mobilize 2,000 fieldworkers to become active conservationists in the field and back at home. Earthwatch will place these staff, and a further 200 young scientists in need of training, on conservation projects worldwide. They will work on environmental issues as diverse as researching why populations of frogs are threatened with extinction in Australia, to monitoring the effects of acid rain in the Czech Republic, putting in place reforestation programs.

For more information, visit the Investing in Nature Web site at

Future Meetings

The "International Colloquium on Medicinal Plants, Health, and Environment" and the "International Workshop on Sustainable Trade and Conservation of Medicinal Plants Resources" will be held in Rabat, Morocco on 2-4 May 2002, under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and Research, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Agriculture and the University of Rabat. The Symposium will focus on issues relating to medicinal plants for traditional human and veterinary medicine, aromatic and cosmetic plants, phytomedicines and other plants-derived natural products. The meeting will attended by government and donor representatives, scientists, researchers, policy-makers, conservationists, NGOs, private companies, health professionals, herbalists and traditional practitioners. For more information, visit the Web site <>.

The Society for Conservation GIS (SCGIS) will be hosting "The 5th Annual SCGIS Conference" on 5-7 July 2002 to discuss and promote local and global conservation of natural and cultural heritage. A diverse conference agenda will explore a variety of issues ranging from the technical applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conservation to recurring philosophical and ethical issues faced by conservationists throughout the world. The conference will be held at La Casa Del Zorro in Borrego Springs, about two hours east of San Diego. The theme of this year's conference is "Embracing Diversity." Presenters will be encouraged to address the community building efforts of their conservation activities, emphasizing the efforts made by government agencies, academics, nonprofits, activists, and commercial groups to work together and communicate. The conference format will include concurrent sessions of formal presentations, posters sessions, discussion panels, user group meetings, hands-on training sessions, technical workshops, and organized socials. Deadline for abstract submittal is 15 April 2002. For details and additional information visit the conference Web site at <>.

Invasive species are an enormous threat to native plants, animals and ecosystems all around the world. In the United States, invasive plants and animals are threatening the environment and economy. Nearly half of the species listed as threatened or endangered are at risk due to competition with or predation by non-native species, and the non-native species are costing the country nearly $125 billion per year. This year, the Chicago Botanic Garden's annual conservation symposium will focus on invasive plants. The conference, entitled "Invasive Plants: Global Issues, Local Challenges" will be held 27-30 October 2002 at the Congress Plaza Hotel in Chicago, Illinois. Registration materials will be available in July 2002. For more information and a call for papers, visit the conference Web site at <>. For more information, contact Dr. Kay Havens, Director, Institute for Plant Conservation Biology, Chicago Botanic Garden, via e-mail at or phone at (847) 835-8378.

New Publications

Over the past decades, the fascinating phenomenon of animal migration has been studied applying new, highly sophisticated methods. Surprising new insights into this old phenomenon have been revealed by using satellite tracking, genetic analysis and new information technologies. "New Perspectives for Monitoring Migratory Animals - Improving Knowledge for Conservation," edited by Klaus Riede, illustrate how these new technologies might help to improve the conservation of migratory species. They were presented at a workshop bringing together scientists and conservationists, who met during the 20th anniversary of the "Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals" (Bonn Convention), celebrated in Bonn, June 1999. This convention covers a wide variety of migratory taxa, including mammals, birds, sea turtles, fishes and insects. Protection of their habitats, routes and staging areas against old and new threats requires a firm stance of conservationists, which has to be backed up by hard data. Several conservation programs tailored to the conservation of migratory species are presented here and illustrate the great potential of these data sets. For more information, visit <>; Tel: 02501/801-300; Fax: 02501/801-351. Available in paperback: ISBN 3-7843-3819-4. €12. 164 pp.

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) announces the publication of the report "Global Trade and Consumer Choices: Coral Reefs in Crisis." The report features papers by five experts on the global trade in coral reef species and coral reef conservation. The papers analyze the causes and consequences of trade in coral reef animals and the role of the U.S. as both a major importer and leader in trade and conservation efforts. The report also presents solutions to reduce the negative impacts of trade on reefs while promoting long-term benefits to local communities through sustainable resource use. Authors address scientific concerns such as how to determine sustainability of resource use, policy issues (how to certify and regulate trade), and public awareness. The report is available free of charge at <> or from Africa Program, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20005; Tel: (202) 326-6651; Fax: 202-289-4958; E-mail:

Current Literature

Aagaard, K., Hindar, K., Pullin, A.S., James, C.H., Hammarstedt, O., Balstad, T., and Hanssen, O. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in brown argus butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Aricia) from north-western Europe. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 75(1):27-37.

Almodóvar, A., Suárez, J., Nicola, G.G., and Nuevo, M. 2001. Genetic introgression between wild and stocked brown trout in the Douro River basin, Spain. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):68-74.

Austen, M.C., Lambshead, P.J.D., Hutchings, P.A., Boucher, G., Snelgrove, P.V.R., Heip, C., King, G., Koike, I., and Smith, C. 2002. Biodiversity links above and below the marine sediment-water interface that may influence community stability. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):113-136.

Austrheim, G., and Eriksson, O. 2001. Plant species diversity and grazing in the Scandinavian mountains - patterns and processes at different spatial scales. Ecography 24(6):683-695.

Balke, M. 2001. Papuadessus pakdjoko - a new genus and species of rheobiont diving beetle from New Guinea of potential use for environmental impact assessments (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Hydrobiologia 464(1-3):107-112.

Balkwill, K., and Campbell-Young, G.J. 2001. Taxonomic studies in the Acanthaceae: Peristrophe serpenticola - a new species from the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. S. Afr. J. Sci. 97(11-12):551-554.

Beck, J., Schulze, C.H., Linsenmair, K.E., and Fiedler, K. 2002. From forest to farmland: diversity of geometrid moths along two habitat gradients on Borneo. J. Trop. Ecol. 18:33-51.

Bella, D.A. 2002. What counts in conservation? Science 295(5558):1236.

Berg, D.J., Garton, D.W., MacIsaac, H.J., Panov, V.E., and Telesh, I.V. 2002. Changes in genetic structure of North American Bythotrephes populations following invasion from Lake Ladoga, Russia. Freshwater Biol. 47(2):275-282.

Berglund, H., and Jonsson, B.G. 2001. Predictability of plant and fungal species richness of old-growth boreal forest islands. J. Veg. Sci. 12(6):857-866.

Bernardello, G., Anderson, G.J., Stuessy, T.F., and Crawford, D.J. 2001. A survey of floral traits, breeding systems, floral visitors, and pollination systems of the angiosperms of the Juan Fernandez Islands (Chile). Bot. Rev. 67(3):255-308.

Bertiller, M.B., Sain, C.L., Bisigato, A.J., Coronato, F.R., Aries, J.O., and Graff, P. 2002. Spatial sex segregation in the dioecious grass Poa ligularis in northern Patagonia: the role of environmental patchiness. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):69-84.

Bianco, P.G., and Ketmaier, V. 2001. Anthropogenic changes in the freshwater fish fauna of Italy, with reference to the central region and Barbus graellsii, a newly established alien species of Iberian origin. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):190-208.

Bohlen, J., and Ráb, P. 2001. Species and hybrid richness in spined loaches of the genus Cobitis (Teleostei: Cobitidae), with a checklist of European forms and suggestions for conservation. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):75-89.

Boutin, C., Jobin, B., Bélanger, L., and Choiniére, L. 2002. Plant diversity in three types of hedgerows adjacent to cropfields. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):1-25.

Brewer, C. 2002. Outreach and partnership programs for conservation education where endangered species conservation and research occur. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):4-6.

Brook, B.W., Burgman, M.A., Akçakaya, H.R., O'Grady, J.J., and Frankham, R. 2002. Critiques of PVA ask the wrong questions: throwing the heuristic baby out with the numerical bath water. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):262-263.

Brotons, L., Desrochers, A., and Turcotte, Y. 2001. Food hoarding behaviour of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in relation to forest edges. Oikos 95(3):511-519.

Brummitt, R.K., Castroviejo, S., Chikuni, A.C., Orchard, A.E., Smith, G.F., and Wagner, W.L. 2001. The Species Plantarum Project, an international collaborative initiative for higher plant taxonomy. Taxon 50(4):1217-1230.

Bryan, S.D., Robinson, A.T., and Sweetser, M.G. 2002. Behavioral responses of a small native fish to multiple introduced predators. Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(1):49-56.

Bulte, E., van Soest, D.P., van Kooten, G.C., and Schipper, R.A. 2002. Forest conservation in Costa Rica when nonuse benefits are uncertain but rising. Am. J. Agricult. Econom. 84(1):150-160.

Burgman, M.A. 2002. Are listed threatened plant species actually at risk? Aust. J. Bot. 50(1):1-13.

Cascante, A., Quesada, M., Lobo, J.J., and Fuchs, E.A. 2002. Effects of dry tropical forest fragmentation on the reproductive success and genetic structure of the tree Samanea saman. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):137-147.

Cooke, S.J., Kassler, T.W., and Phillipp, D.P. 2001. Physiological performance of largemouth bass related to local adaptation and interstock hybridization: implications for conservation and management. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):248-268.

Cooks, J.A. 2001. Assessing invader roles within changing ecosystems: historical and experimental perspectives on an exotic mussel in an urbanized lagoon. Biol. Invasions 3(1):23-36.

Côté, I.M., Mosqueira, I., and Reynolds, J.D. 2001. Effects of marine reserve characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):178-189.

Crawford, R.J.M., David, J.H.M., Shannon, L.J., Kemper, J., Klages, N.T.W., Roux, J.P., Underhill, L.G., Ward, V.L., Williams, A.J., and Wolfaardt, A.C. 2001. African penguins as predators and prey - coping (or not) with change. S. Afr. J. Marine Sci. 23:435-447.

Cumming, G. 2002. Habitat shape, species invasions, and reserve design: insights from simple models. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):3. <>

D'Antonio, C.M., and Mack, M. 2001. Exotic grasses potentially slow invasion of an N-fixing tree into a Hawaiian woodland. Biol. Invasions 3(1):69-73.

Davis, A.P., and Ozhatay, N. 2001. Galanthus trojanus: a new species of Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae) from north-western Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 137(4):409-412.

Davis, L.T., and Guy, P.L. 2001. Introduced plant viruses and the invasion of a native grass flora. Biol. Invasions 3(1):89-95.

De La Rúa, P., Serrano, J., and Galián, J. 2002. Biodiversity of Apis mellifera populations from Tenerife (Canary Islands) and hybridisation with East European races. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):59-67.

Dhar, U. 2002. Conservation implications of plant endemism in high-altitude Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 82(2):141-148.

Dodd, J.C., Dougall, T.A., Clapp, J.P., and Jeffries, P. 2002. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant community establishment at Samphire Hoe, Kent, UK - the reclamation platform created during the building of the Channel tunnel between France and UK. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):39-58.

Donmez, A.A. 2001. A new Turkish species of Salvia L. (Lamiaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 137(4):413-416.

Douglas, M.R., and Brunner, P.C. 2002. Biodiversity of Central Alpine Coregonus (Salmoniformes): impact of one-hundred years of management. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):154-172.

Dulymamode, R., Cannon, P.F., and Peerally, A. 2001. Fungi on endemic plants of Mauritius. Mycol. Res. 105:1472-1479.

Duman, H. 2001. A new species of Globularia L. (Globulariaceae) from South Anatolia. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 137(4):425-428.

Eggleston, D.B., and Dahlgren, C.P. 2001. Distribution and abundance of Caribbean spiny lobsters in the Key West National Wildlife Refuge: relationship to habitat features and impact of an intensive recreational fishery. Mar. Freshwater Res. 52(8):1567-1576.

Ehrlich, P.R. 2002. Human natures, nature conservation, and environmental ethics. BioScience 52(1):31-43.

Elliott, C.P., Yates, C.J., Ladd, P.G., and Coates, D.J. 2002. Morphometric, genetic and ecological studies clarify the conservation status of a rare Acacia in Western Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 50(1):63-73.

Ellner, S.P., Fieberg, J., Ludwig, D., and Wilcox, C. 2002. Precision of population viability analysis. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):258-261.

Elvira, B., and Almodóvar, A. 2001. Freshwater fish introductions in Spain: facts and figures at the beginning of the 21st century. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):323-331.

Eristhee, N., and Oxenford, H.A. 2001. Home range size and use of space by Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (L.) in two marine reserves in the Soufriere Marine Management Area, St Lucia, West Indies. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):129-151.

Fa, J.E., Peres, C.A., and Meeuwig, J. 2002. Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: an intercontinental comparison. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):232-237.

Faith, D.P. 2002. Quantifying biodiversity: a phylogenetic perspective. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):248-252.

Fischer, M. 2002. Positive biodiversity-production relationships: towards mechanisms. TREE 17(2):61.

Fisher, R.N., Suarez, A.V., and Case, T.J. 2002. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):205-215.

Fleishman, E., Austin, G.T., and Murphy, D.D. 2001. Biogeography of Great Basin butterflies: revisiting patterns, paradigms, and climate change scenarios. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 74(4):501-515.

Fredericksen, N.J., and Fredericksen, T.S. 2002. Terrestrial wildlife responses to logging and fire in a Bolivian tropical humid forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):27-38.

Fricke, H. 2001. Coelacanths: a human responsibility. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):332-338.

Gajardo, G., Cancino, J.M., and Navarro, J.M. 2002. Genetic variation and population structure in the marine snail Chorus giganteus (Gastropod: Muricidae), an overexploited endemic resource from Chile. Fish. Res. 55(1-3):329-333.

Geist, H.J., and Lambin, E.F. 2002. Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation. BioScience 52(2):143-150.

Gillespie, R.G., and Roderick, G.K. 2002. Arthropods on islands: colonization, speciation, and conservation. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47:595-632.

Gompper, M.E. 2002. Top carnivores in the suburbs? Ecological and conservation issues raised by colonization of north-eastern North America by coyotes. BioScience 52(2):185-190.

Hannah, L., Midgley, G.F., Lovejoy, T., Bond, W.J., Bush, M., Lovett, J.C., Scott, D., and Woodward, F.I. 2002. Conservation of biodiversity in a changing climate. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):264-268.

Hansen, A.J., Rasker, R., Maxwell, B., Rotella, J.J., Johnson, J.D., Parmenter, A.W., Langner, L., Cohen, W.B., Lawrence, R.L., and Kraska, M.P.V. 2002. Ecological causes and consequences of demographic change in the new west. BioScience 52(2):151-162.

Hargrove, W.W., Hoffman, F.M., and Schwartz, P.M. 2002. A fractal landscape realizer for generating synthetic maps. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):2. <>

Harris, L.G., and Tyrrell, M.C. 2001. Changing community states in the Gulf of Maine: synergism between invaders, overfishing and climate change. Biol. Invasions 3(1):9-21.

Harrod, C., Griffiths, D., McCarthy, T.K., and Rosell, R. 2001. The Irish pollan, Coregonus autumnalis: options for its conservation. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):339-355.

Hastie, L.C., and Cosgrove, P.J. 2002. Intensive searching for mussels in a fast-flowing river: an estimation of sampling bias. J. Conchology 37:309-316.

Hawksworth, D.L. 2001. The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited. Mycol. Res. 105:1422-1432.

Heino, J. 2002. Concordance of species richness patterns among multiple freshwater taxa: a regional perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):137-147.

Hirai, T., and Matsui, M. 2001. Food habits of an endangered Japanese frog, Rana porosa brevipoda. Ecol. Res. 16(4):737-743.

Holroyd, G.L., Rodriguez-Estrella, R., and Sheffield, S.R. 2001. Conservation of the burrowing owl in western North America: issues, challenges, and recommendations. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):399-407.

Hoopes, M.F., and Hall, L.M. 2002. Edaphic factors and competition affect pattern formation and invasion in a California grassland. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):24-39.

Huber, D.M., Hugh-Jones, M.E., Rust, M.K., Sheffield, S.R., Simberloff, D., and Taylor, C.R. 2002. Invasive pest species: Impacts on agricultural production, natural resources, and the environment. CAST Issue Paper 20:1-18. <>

Hufbauer, R.A. 2002. Evidence for nonadaptive evolution in parasitoid virulence following a biological control introduction. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):66-78.

Hutchings, J.A. 2001. Influence of population decline, fishing, and spawner variability on the recovery of marine fishes. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):306-322.

Hyde, K.D. 2001. Where are the missing fungi? Does Hong Kong have any answers? Mycol. Res. 105:1514-1518.

James, S.M. 2002. Bridging the gap between private landowners and conservationists. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):269-271.

Jepson, P., and Whittaker, R.J. 2002. Ecoregions in context: a critique with special reference to Indonesia. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):42-57.

Johnson, B.R., and Hill, K. (eds.). 2001. Ecology and Design: Frameworks for Learning. Island Press. Washington, DC. 448 pp.

Kalinowski, S.T., and Waples, R.S. 2002. Relationship of effective to census size in fluctuating populations. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):129-136.

Karl, S.A., and Wilson, D.S. 2001. Phylogeography and systematics of the mud turtle, Kinosternon baurii. Copeia (3):797-801.

Keith, P. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxias neocaledonicus Weber & De Beaufort, 1913 (Galaxiidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(1):26.

Keith, P. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Rhyacichthys guilberti Dingerkus Séret, 1992 (Rhyacichthyidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(1):40.

Kemper, J., Roux, J.P., Bartlett, P.A., Chesselet, Y.J., James, J.A.C., Jones, R., Wepener, S., and Molloy, F.J. 2001. Recent population trends of African penguins Spheniscus demersus in Namibia. S. Afr. J. Marine Sci. 23:429-434.

Kendall, B.E., and Fox, G.A. 2002. Variation among individuals and reduced demographic stochasticity. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):109-116.

Kerley, L.L., Goodrich, J.M., Miquelle, D.G., Smirnov, E.N., Quigley, H.B., and Hornocker, N.G. 2002. Effects of roads and human disturbance on Amur tigers. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):97-108.

Killeen, I.J., and Oliver, P.G. 2002. The taxonomic and conservation status of Thyasira gouldi (Philippi, 1844), the northern hatchet shell, in British waters. J. Conchology 37:391-402.

Kitsiou, D., Coccossis, H., and Karydis, M. 2002. Multi-dimensional evaluation and ranking of coastal areas using GIS and multiple criteria choice methods. Sci. Total Environ. 284(1-3):1-17.

Koljonen, M.L. 2001. Conservation goals and fisheries management units for Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea area. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):269-288.

Koopowitz, H. 2001. Orchids and Their Conservation. Timber Press. Porland, OR. 176 pp.

Koshy, K.C., and Harikumar, D. 2001. Reproductive biology of Ochlandra scriptoria, an endemic reed bamboo of the Western Ghats, India. Bamboo Sci. Cult. 15(1):1-7.

Lambrinos, J.G. 2002. The variable invasive success of Cortaderia species in a complex landscape. Ecology 83(2):518-529.

Lee, J.T., Bailey, N., and Thompson, S. 2002. Using geographical information systems to identify and target sites for creation and restoration of native woodlands: a case study of the Chiltern Hills, UK. J. Environ. Manage. 64(1):25-34.

Leupin, E.E., and Low, D.J. 2001. Burrowing owl reintroduction efforts in the Thompson-Nicola region of British Columbia. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):392-398.

Levine, J.M. 2001. Local interactions, dispersal, and native and exotic plant diversity along a California stream. Oikos 95(3):397-408.

Li, T.S.C. 2001. Siberian ginseng. Horttechnology 11(1):79-85.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., Donnelly, C.F., Nix, H., and Lindenmayer, B.D. 2002. Effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in a novel landscape context. Ecol. Monogr. 72(1):1-18.

Ling, N., Gleeson, D.M., Willis, K.J., and Binzegger, S.U. 2001. Creating and destroying species: the 'new' biodiversity and evolutionarily significant units among New Zealand's galaxiid fishes. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):209-222.

Lipcius, R.N., Stockhausen, W.T., and Eggleston, D.B. 2001. Marine reserves for Caribbean spiny lobster: empirical evaluation and theoretical metapopulation recruitment dynamics. Mar. Freshwater Res. 52(8):1589-1598.

Lobo, J.M., and Martín-Piera, F. 2002. Searching for a predictive model for species richness of Iberian dung beetle based on spatial and environmental variables. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):158-173.

Lockwood, J.L., Simberloff, D., McKinney, M.L., and Von Holle, B. 2001. How many, and which, plants will invade natural areas? Biol. Invasions 3(1):1-8.

Lohmus, P., and Lohmus, A. 2001. Snags, and their lichen flora in old Estonian peatland forests. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 38(4):265-280.

Lowe, W.H., and Bolger, D.T. 2002. Local and landscape-scale predictors of salamander abundance in New Hampshire headwater streams. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):183-193.

Lyman, R.L., and Wolverton, S. 2002. The late prehistoric-early historic game sink in the northwestern United States. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):73-85.

Mac Nally, R., and Fleishman, E. 2002. Using 'indicator' species to model species richness: model development and predictions. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):79-92.

Magurran, A.E., and Phillip, D.A.T. 2001. Implications of species loss in freshwater fish assemblages. Ecography 24(6):645-650.

Margis, R., Felix, D., Caldas, J.F., Salgueiro, F., De Araujo, D.S.D., Breyne, P., Van Montagu, M., De Oliveira, D., and Margis-Pinheiro, M. 2002. Genetic differentiation among three neighboring Brazil-cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) populations within the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):149-163.

Martell, M.S., Schladweiler, J., and Cuthbert, F. 2001. Status and attempted reintroduction of burrowing owls in Minnesota, USA. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):331-336.

Martin, P.S., and Szuter, C.R. 2002. Game parks before and after Lewis and Clark: reply to Lyman and Wolverton. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):244-247.

Matthews, S., O'Connor, R., and Plantinga, A.J. 2002. Quantifying the impacts on biodiversity of policies for carbon sequestration in forests. Ecol. Econ. 40(1):71-87.

McGregor, C.E., van Treuren, R., Hoekstra, R., and van Hintum, T.J.L. 2002. Analysis of the wild potato germplasm of the series Acaulia with AFLPs: implications for ex situ conservation. Theor. Appl. Genet. 104(1):146-156.

Miller, J.K., Scott, J.M., Miller, C.R., and Waits, L.P. 2002. The Endangered Species Act: dollars and sense? BioScience 52(2):163-168.

Motte, G., and Libois, R. 2002. Conservation of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros Bechstein, 1800) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Belgium. A case study of feeding habitat requirements. Belgian J. Zool. 132(1):49-54.

Murphy, R.K., Hasselblad, K.W., Grondahl, C.D., Sidle, J.G., Martin, R.E., and Freed, D.W. 2001. Status of the burrowing owl in North Dakota. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):322-330.

Nalle, D.J., Arthur, J.L., and Sessions, J. 2002. Designing compact and contiguous reserve networks with a hybrid heuristic algorithm. Forest Sci. 48(1):59-68.

Noy-Meir, I., and Oron, T. 2001. Effects of grazing on geophytes in Mediterranean vegetation. J. Veg. Sci. 12(6):749-760.

Olff, H., Ritchie, M.E., and Prins, H.H.T. 2002. Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature 415(6874):901-904.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Powell, G.V.N., and Wikramanayake, E.D. 2002. Conservation biology for the biodiversity crisis. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):1-3.

Panetta, F.D., and Sparkes, E.C. 2001. Reinvasion of a riparian forest community by an animal-dispersed tree weed following control measures. Biol. Invasions 3(1):75-88.

Paton, P.W.C., and Crouch, W.B. 2002. Using the phenology of pond-breeding amphibians to develop conservation strategies. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):194-204.

Pegg, M.A., Lemke, A.M., and Stoeckel, J.A. 2002. Establishment of bighead carp in an Illinois river floodplain lake: a potential source population for the Illinois River. J. Freshwater Ecol. 17(1):161-163.

Perfecto, I., and Vandermeer, J. 2002. Quality of agroecological matrix in a tropical montane landscape: ants in coffee plantations in southern Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):174-182.

Perrings, C., Williamson, M., Barbier, E.B., Delfino, D., Dalmazzone, S., Shogren, J., Simmons, P., and Watkinson, A. 2002. Biological invasion risks and the public good: an economic perspective. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):1. <>

Potter, D.A., and Held, D.W. 2002. Biology and management of the Japanese beetle. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47:175-205.

Powers, S.L., and Mayden, R.L. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Percina aurolineata Suttkus & Ramsey, 1967 (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(1):116.

Quilichini, A. 2001. Biology and estimation of threats on the populations of the Corsica and Sardinia endemic Anchusa crispa Viv. (Boraginaceae) in Corsica. Acta Bot. Gallica 148(4):319-331.

Reddy, R.A., Balkwill, K., and McLellan, T. 2001. Is there a unique serpentine flora on the Witwatersrand? S. Afr. J. Sci. 97(11-12):485-495.

Reed, J.M., Mills, L.S., Dunning, J.B., Menges, E.S., McKelvey, K.S., Frye, R., Beissinger, S.R., Anstett, M.C., and Miller, P. 2002. Emerging issues in population viability analysis. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):7-19.

Reitz, S.R., and Trumble, J.T. 2002. Competitive displacement among insects and arachnids. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47:435-465.

Restani, M., and Marzluff, J.M. 2002. Funding extinction? Biological needs and political realities in the allocation of resources to endangered species recovery. BioScience 52(2):169-177.

Roberts, C.M., McClean, C.J., Veron, J.E.N., Hawkins, J.P., Allen, G.R., McAllister, D.E., Mittermeier, C.G., Schueler, F.W., Spalding, M., Wells, F., Vynne, C., and Werner, T.B. 2002. Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295(5558):1280-1284.

Rodgers, J.A., and Schwikert, S.T. 2002. Buffer-zone distances to protect foraging and loafing waterbirds from disturbance by personal watercraft and outboard-powered boats. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):216-224.

Rodriguez, J.P. 2002. Range contraction in declining North American bird populations. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):238-248.

Rolstad, J., Gjerde, I., Gundersen, V.S., and Saetersdal, M. 2002. Use of indicator species to assess forest continuity: a critique. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):253-257.

Rubidge, E., Corbett, P., and Taylor, E.B. 2001. A molecular analysis of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):42-54.

Sadovy, Y. 2001. The threat of fishing to highly fecund fishes. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):90-108.

Salas, L.A., and Kim, J.B. 2002. Spatial factors and stochasticity in the evaluation of sustainable hunting of tapirs. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):86-96.

Sanderson, E.W., Redford, K.H., Chetkiewicz, C.L.B., Medellin, R.A., Rabinowitz, A.R., Robinson, J.G., and Taber, A.B. 2002. Planning to save a species: the jaguar as a model. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):58-72.

Saunders, D.L., Meeuwig, J.J., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2002. Freshwater protected areas: strategies for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):30-41.

Schwartz, M.K., Mills, L.S., McKelvey, K.S., Ruggiero, L.F., and Allendorf, F.W. 2002. DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx. Nature 415(6871):520-522.

Shapcott, A. 2002. Conservation genetics and ecology of the endangered rainforest shrub, Triunia robusta, from the Sunshine Coast, Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 50(1):93-105.

Sheffield, S.R., and Howery, M. 2001. Current status, distribution, and conservation of the burrowing owl in Oklahoma. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):351-356.

Singh, M., Kumara, H.N., Kumar, M.A., and Sharma, A.K. 2001. Behavioural responses of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) to a changing habitat in a tropical rain forest fragment in the Western Ghats, India. Folia Primatolog. 72(5):278-291.

Skeel, M.A., Keith, J., and Palaschuk, C.S. 2001. Population decline recorded by operation burrowing owl in Saskatchewan. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):371-377.

Slik, J.W.F., Verburg, R.W., and Keßler, P.J.A. 2002. Effects of fire and selective logging on the tree species composition of lowland dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):85-98.

Smedbol, R.K., and Stephenson, R. 2001. The importance of managing within-species diversity in cod and herring fisheries of the north-western Atlantic. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):109-128.

Smith, B.W., and Belthoff, J.R. 2001. Burrowing owls and development: short-distance nest burrow relocation to minimize construction impacts. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):385-391.

Stanley, T.R., and Knopf, F.L. 2002. Avian responses to late-season grazing in a shrub-willow floodplain. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):225-231.

Stockhausen, W.T., and Lipcius, R.N. 2001. Single large or several small marine reserves for the Caribbean spiny lobster? Mar. Freshwater Res. 52(8):1605-1614.

Stohlgren, T.J., Otsuki, Y., Villa, C.A., Lee, M., and Belnap, J. 2001. Patterns of plant invasions: a case example in native species hotspots and rare habitats. Biol. Invasions 3(1):37-50.

Strange, E., Galbraith, H., Bickel, S., Mills, D., Beltman, D., and Lipton, J. 2002. Determining ecological equivalence in service-to-service scaling of salt marsh restoration. Environ. Manage. 29(2):290-300.

Suarez, A.V., and Case, T.J. 2002. Bottom-up effects on persistence of a specialist predator: ant invasions and horned lizards. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):291-298.

Symondson, W.O.C., Sunderland, K.D., and Greenstone, M.H. 2002. Can generalist predators be effective biocontrol agents? Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47:561-594.

Talley, T.S., and Levin, L.A. 2001. Modification of sediments and macrofauna by an invasive marsh plant. Biol. Invasions 3(1):51-68.

Taylor, J.E., Lee, S., and Crous, P.W. 2001. Biodiversity in the Cape Floral Kingdom: fungi occurring on Proteaceae. Mycol. Res. 105:1480-1484.

Theobald, D.M., and Hobbs, N.T. 2002. A framework for evaluating land use planning alternatives: protecting biodiversity on private land. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):5. <>

Thompson, D.M. 2002. Long-term effect of instream habitat-improvement structures on channel morphology along the Blackledge and Salmon rivers, Connecticut, USA. Environ. Manage. 29(2):250-265.

Tsigenopoulos, C.S., Kotlik, P., and Berrebi, P. 2002. Biogeography and pattern of gene flow among Barbus species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) inhabiting the Italian peninsula and neighbouring Adriatic drainages as revealed by allozyme and mitochondrial sequence data. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 75(1):83-99.

Tucker, A.D., Gibbons, J.W., and Greene, J.L. 2001. Estimates of adult survival and migration for diamondback terrapins: conservation insight from local extirpation within a metapopulation. Can. J. Zool. 79(12):2199-2209.

Tully, O. 2001. Impact of the v-notch technical conservation measure on reproductive potential in a lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) fishery in Ireland. Mar. Freshwater Res. 52(8):1551-1557.

Uhmann, T.V., Kenkel, N.C., and Baydack, R.K. 2001. Development of a habitat suitability index model for burrowing owls in the eastern Canadian prairies. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):378-384.

Uiblein, F., Jagsch, A., Honsig-Erlenburg, W., and Weiss, S. 2001. Status, habitat use, and vulnerability of the European grayling in Austrian waters. J. Fish Biol. 59(a):223-247.

Vagelli, A.A., and Erdmann, M.V. 2002. First comprehensive ecological survey of the Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni. Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(1):1-8.

Vercauteren, T.L., Gillihan, S.W., and Hutchings, S.W. 2001. Distribution of burrowing owls on public and private lands in Colorado. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):357-361.

Verlaque, R., Medail, F., and Aboucaya, A. 2001. Predictive value of life-forms for plant conservation in the Mediterranean area. C. R. Acad. Sci. III-Vie 324(12):1157-1165.

Veríssimo, A., Cochrane, M.A., Souza, C., Jr, and Salomão, R. 2002. Priority areas for establishing national forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):4. <>

Warwick, R.M., and Light, J. 2002. Death assemblages of molluscs on St. Martin's Flats, Isles of Scilly: a surrogate for regional biodiversity? Biodivers. Conserv. 11(1):99-112.

Washitani, I. 2001. Plant conservation ecology for management and restoration of riparian habitats of lowland Japan. Pop. Ecol. 43(3):189-195.

Webster, M.S., Marra, P.P., Haig, S.M., Bensch, S., and Holmes, R.T. 2002. Links between worlds: unraveling migratory connectivity. TREE 17(2):76-83.

Wellicome, T.I., and Holroyd, G.L. 2001. The Second International Burrowing Owl Symposium: background and context. J. Raptor Res. 35(4):269-273.

Wiegand, K., Henle, K., and Sarre, S.D. 2002. Extinction and spatial structure in simulation models. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):117-128.

Wikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C., Olson, D., Morrison, J., Lamoreux, J., McKnight, M., and Hedao, P. 2002. Ecoregions in ascendance: reply to Jepson and Whittaker. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):238-243.

Wilhere, G.F. 2002. Adaptive management in habitat conservation plans. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):20-29.

Williams, B.L. 2002. Conservation genetics, extinction, and taxonomic status: a case history of the regal fritillary. Conserv. Biol. 16(1):148-157.

Williamson, J., and Harrison, S. 2002. Biotic and abiotic limits to the spread of exotic revegetation species. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):40-51.

Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Perrin, M.R., and Symes, C.T. 2002. Taxonomic relationships of the subspecies of the Cape parrot Poicephalus robustus (Gmelin). J. Nat. Hist. 36(3):361-378.

With, K.A., Pavuk, D.M., Worchuck, J.L., Oates, R.K., and Fisher, J.L. 2002. Threshold effects of landscape structure on biological control in agroecosystems. Ecol. Appl. 12(1):52-65.

Witkowski, E.T.F., Dahlmann, L.A., and Boycott, R.C. 2001. Conservation biology of Kniphofia umbrina, a critically endangered Swaziland serpentine endemic. S. Afr. J. Sci. 97(11-12):609-616.

Zabel, R.W., and Williams, J.G. 2002. Selective mortality in chinook salmon: what is the role of human disturbance? Ecol. Appl. 12(1):173-183.

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