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Department ofBotany

No. 209
May 2002

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In This Issue

The Showy Stickseed and the Buena Vista Lake Shrew are Declared Endangered

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has announced that two species have gained federal protection as endangered species. The showy stickseed (Hackelia venusta) is one of Washington's rarest plants, and the Buena Vista Lake shrew (Sorex ornatus relictus), a tiny insect-eating mammal, is native to California's southern San Joaquin Valley. Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), a species is considered endangered when it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

Known from only one location, the showy stickseed is a beautiful, five-lobed, white flower found in Chelan County, Washington, on U.S. Forest Service land. Past surveys show the stickseed has been moving steadily towards extinction, having declined from more than 1,200 individuals in the early 1980s to about 500 plants in 2001.

Cooperative recovery efforts have been developed and implemented to restore habitat for the stickseed. These include thinning trees around the sun-loving stickseed population to provide them with more light, and careful control of noxious weeds. Experimental propagation for this species also has been successful.

The stickseed is threatened primarily by collectors who desire the plant because of its rarity and remove plants from the wild. Today's final rule makes collection of the plant or its parts a federal offense. The stickseed grows on fine, loose granite slopes containing little organic matter, and as a result, few nutrients. Several non-native noxious weeds have invaded stickseed habitat and threaten to out-compete the stickseed for the available nutrients. Habitat disturbance also threatens the species, as does competition from native and non-native plant species caused by fire suppression.

The Buena Vista Lake shrew is a mouse-sized animal with a long snout, small eyes, and ears that are concealed or nearly concealed by soft fur. Its coat is predominantly black with brown specks on the back and smoke gray underneath. An adult weighs about the same as a quarter (0.14 ounces), and most are around 5 inches long (including their tails). The shrews benefit surrounding plant communities by consuming large quantities of insects, slugs and other invertebrates, influencing plant succession and controlling pest insects.

"The Buena Vista Lake shrew, a unique little animal that consumes more than its weight in insects every day, is part of the San Joaquin Valley's historic ecosystem," said Steve Thompson, Manager of USFWS's California-Nevada Operations Office. "With scientific surveys unearthing fewer than 30 of these animals at only four locations the former Kern Lake Preserve, Cole Levee Ecological Preserve, the Kern Fan recharge area and our own Kern National Wildlife Refuge complex we believe the species is close to extinction."

Biologists believe that historically the Buena Vista Lake shrew occurred widely in the marshlands of the Tulare Basin. By the time biologists first discovered the shrew in 1932 most of these marshes were drained or dried up by water diversions. Today, the species has lost more than 95 percent of its historic habitat.

The remaining populations of the shrew are threatened primarily by agricultural activities, modifications of local hydrology, uncertain water supply, possible toxic effects from selenium poisoning, and naturally occurring catastrophic events such as drought that could wipe out the remaining animals. Water is a vital component of the shrew's environment because of the moisture required to support the variety of insects that are its primary food source.

Future Meetings

The 29th Annual Natural Areas Conference will be held 25 October 2002 at the Renaissance Asheville Hotel in Asheville, North Carolina. The conference will be designed around the general theme "The Power of Nature and the Empowerment of Natural Areas." Symposium topics will include adaptive ecosystem management, aquatic conservation initiatives, and international natural areas conservation. A copy of the conference call for papers and abstract submission form is available in Adobe pdf format on the conference Web site <>. Abstracts must be submitted by 15 May 2002. Asheville is located on the eastern slope of the southern Appalachian Mountains, next door to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Field trips are planned in the mountains and also in North Carolina's Piedmont and Coastal Plain. As well as being in a physically beautiful setting, Asheville has a well-deserved reputation as a center for the arts, crafts and regional music. The Renaissance Asheville Hotel is adjacent to Thomas Wolfe's birthplace and the Asheville Community Theatre. For additional conference information, please contact Doreen DiCarlo, Center for Environmental Studies, 3932 RCA Blvd., Suite 3210, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida 33410; Tel: 561-691-8553; E-mail:

Information Highway Hi-Lites

MAB Database Online <> contains the Biosphere Reserve Integrated Monitoring (BRIM) database of vertebrates and vascular plants from protected natural areas worldwide. Maintained by the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program (USMAB) in cooperation with the University of California, Davis and the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program, the database contains records relating to over 24,000 unique vascular plant and 10,000 unique vertebrate species from more than 660 protected areas in 97 countries. The database is complied with the use of two software programs, MABFauna and MABFlora, to standardize biological inventory data and to allow the sharing of important scientific information among nature reserves. The software is designed to allow users to input, edit, retrieve and create checklists and reports of vertebrate and vascular plant inventory data. MABFauna and MABFlora come with a companion program, Observe, which allows the user to input, manage, and retrieve information on individual observations of vertebrates or vascular plants. Observe is designed for biologists who are monitoring populations through time and is highly user-configurable. For free copies of the software, and any other information on the BRIM program, contact: U.S. MAB, OES/ETC/MAB, SA 4C, Department of State, Washington, DC 20522-4401, USA; Tel: 202-776-8318; Fax: 202-776-8367; E-mail:

Current Literature

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Agoramoorthy, G., and Hsu, M.J. 2002. Biodiversity surveys are crucial for India. Curr. Sci. 82(3):244-245.

Anchorena, J., and Cingolani, A. 2002. Identifying habitat types in a disturbed area of the forest-steppe ecotone of Patagonia. Plant Ecol. 158(1):97-112.

Andersen, A.N., Hoffmann, B.D., Muller, W.J., and Griffiths, A.D. 2002. Using ants as bioindicators in land management: simplifying assessment of ant community responses. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(1):8-17.

Aparicio, A., Albaladejo, R.G., and Ceballos, G.L. 2002. Genetic differentiation in Silicicolous echinospartum (Leguminosae) indicated by allozyme variability. Plant Syst. Evol. 230(3-4):189-201.

Arkoosh, M.R., and Collier, T.K. 2002. Ecological risk assessment paradigm for salmon: analyzing immune function to evaluate risk. Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 8(2):265-276.

Arnold, W.S. 2001. Bivalve enhancement and restoration strategies in Florida, USA. Hydrobiologia 465(1-3):7-19.

Bell, D.T. 2001. Ecological response syndromes in the flora of southwestern Western Australia: fire resprouters versus reseeders. Bot. Rev. 67(4):417-440.

Belthoff, J.R., and King, R.A. 2002. Nest-site characteristics of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, Idaho, and applications to artificial burrow installation. West. N. Am. Naturalist 62(1):112-119.

Berthier, P., Beaumont, M.A., Cornuet, J.M., and Luikart, G. 2002. Likelihood-based estimation of the effective population size using temporal changes in allele frequencies: a genealogical approach. Genetics 160(2):741-751.

Bischoff, A. 2002. Dispersal and establishment of floodplain grassland species as limiting factors in restoration. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):25-33.

Bogaert, J., Salvador-Van Eysenrod, D., Van Hecke, P., and Impens, I. 2001. Geometrical consideration for evaluation of reserve design. Web Ecol. [Online] 2:65-70.

Bolden, S.R., and Brown, K.M. 2002. Role of stream, habitat, and density in predicting translocation success in the threatened Louisiana pearlshell, Margaritifera hembeli (Conrad). J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 21(1):89-96.

Boudouresque, C.F., and Verlaque, M. 2002. Biological pollution in the Mediterranean Sea: invasive versus introduced macrophytes. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(1):32-38.

Brooks, D.M., Tarifa, T., Rojas, J.M., Vargas, R.J., and Aranibar, H. 2001. A preliminary assessment of the mammalian fauna of the eastern Bolivian panhandle. Mammalia 65(4):509-520.

Burke, A. 2002. Island-matrix relationships in Nama Karoo inselberg landscapes - Part II: Are some inselbergs better sources than others? Plant Ecol. 158(1):41-48.

Byrom, A.E. 2002. Dispersal and survival of juvenile feral ferrets Mustela furo in New Zealand. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(1):67-78.

Cagnolo, L., Molina, S.I., and Valladares, G.R. 2002. Diversity and guild structure of insect assemblages under grazing and exclusion regimes in a montane grassland from Central Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(3):407-420.

Campbell, S.P., and Boecklen, W.J. 2002. Are plant hybrid zones centers of vertebrate biodiversity? A test in the Quercus grisea x Quercus gambelii species complex. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(3):443-467.

Carbone, C., and Gittleman, J.L. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295(5563):2273-2276.

Chambers, J.C., and Linnerooth, A.R. 2001. Restoring riparian meadows currently dominated by Artemisia using alternative state concepts - the establishment component. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(2):157-166.

Chapman, P.M. 2002. Integrating toxicology and ecology: putting the "eco" into ecotoxicology. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(1):7-15.

Colville, J., Picker, M.D., and Cowling, R.M. 2002. Species turnover of monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae: Hopliini) along environmental and disturbance gradients in the Namaqualand region of the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(2):243-264.

Cowell, C.M., and Stoudt, R.T. 2002. Dam-induced modifications to upper Allegheny River streamflow patterns and their biodiversity implications. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38(1):187-196.

Csecserits, A., and Rédei, T. 2001. Secondary succession on sandy old-fields in Hungary. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(1):63-74.

Cussac, V., and Ortubay, S. 2002. Gametogenesis and development of Gymnocharacinus bergi (Pisces, Characidae): reproductive mode relative to environmental stability. Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(3):289-297.

Czech, B. 2002. Economic bloating and biodiversity. BioScience 52(3):212-213.

da Fonseca, G.A.B., Gascon, C., Steininger, M.K., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, R.A., and Lacher, T.E. 2002. A global experiment under way. Science 295(5561):1835.

Da Silva, J.M.C., and Bates, J.M. 2002. Biogeographic patterns and conservation in the South American Cerrado: a tropical savanna hotspot. BioScience 52(3):225-233.

Dávila, P., Arizmendi, M.D., Valiente-Banuet, A., Villaseñor, J.L., Casas, A., and Lira, R. 2002. Biological diversity in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Valley, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(3):421-442.

Diemer, M., Oetiker, K., and Billeter, R. 2001. Abandonment alters community composition and canopy structure of Swiss calcareous fens. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(2):237-246.

Eames, J.C., Eve, R., and Tordoff, A.W. 2001. The importance of Vu Quang Nature Reserve, Vietnam, for bird conservation, in the context of the Annamese Lowlands Endemic Bird Area. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(4):247-285.

Eastham, C.P., Nicholls, M.K., and Fox, N.C. 2002. Morphological variation of the saker (Falco cherrug) and the implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(2):305-325.

Eterovic, A., and Duarte, M.R. 2002. Exotic snakes in São Paulo City, southeastern Brazil: why xenophobia? Biodivers. Conserv. 11(2):327-339.

Feral, J.P. 2002. How useful are the genetic markers in attempts to understand and manage marine biodiversity? J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 268(2):121-145.

Fernando, P.J., Vidya, T.N.C., and Melnick, D.J. 2001. Isolation and characterization of tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Mol. Ecol. Notes 1(4):232-233.

Fischer, M., and Wipf, S. 2002. Effect of low-intensity grazing on the species-rich vegetation of traditionally mown subalpine meadows. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):1-11.

Flores, G.E., and Roig-Junent, S. 2001. Cladistic and biogeographic analyses of the neotropical genus Epipedonota Solier (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), with conservation considerations. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 109(3-4):309-336.

French, D.D., and Cummins, R.P. 2001. Classification, composition, richness and diversity of British hedgerows. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(2):213-228.

Fretz, J.S. 2002. Scales of food availability for an endangered insectivore, the Hawaii Akepa. Auk 119(1):166-174.

García-Barros, E., Gurrea, P., Luciáñez, M.J., Cano, J.M., Munguira, M.L., Moreno, J.C., Sainz, H., Sanz, M.J., and Simón, J.C. 2002. Parsimony analysis of endemicity and its application to animal and plant geographical distributions in the Ibero-Balearic region (western Mediterranean). J. Biogeogr. 29(1):109-124.

Gebeyehu, S., and Samways, M.J. 2002. Grasshopper assemblage response to a restored national park (Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa). Biodivers. Conserv. 11(2):283-304.

Gewin, V. 2002. Poor nations seek new biodiversity deal. Nature 415(6875):949.

Ghazoul, J. 2002. Impact of logging on the richness and diversity of forest butterflies in a tropical dry forest in Thailand. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(3):521-541.

Ghersa, C.M., de la Fuente, E., Suarez, S., and Leon, R.J.C. 2002. Woody species invasion in the Rolling Pampa grasslands, Argentina. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 88(3):271-278.

Giordani, P., Brunialti, G., and Alleteo, D. 2002. Effects of atmospheric pollution on lichen biodiversity (LB) in a Mediterranean region (Liguria, northwest Italy). Environ. Pollut. 118(1):53-64.

Gómez-Marin, F., Veá, J.J., Rodríguez-Luna, E., García-Orduña, F., Canales-Espinosa, D., Escobar, M., and Asensio, N. 2001. Food resources and the survival of a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) in disturbed and restricted habitat at Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. Neotrop. Primates 9(2):60-67.

Goudswaard, K., Witte, F., and Chapman, L.J. 2002. Decline of the African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) in Lake Victoria (East Africa). Afr. J. Ecol. 40(1):42-52.

Goulson, D., Hughes, W.O.H., Derwent, L.C., and Stout, J.C. 2002. Colony growth of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, in improved and conventional agricultural and suburban habitats. Oecologia 130(2):267-273.

Green, A.J., El Hamzaoui, M., El Agbani, M.A., and Franchimont, J. 2002. The conservation status of Moroccan wetlands with particular reference to waterbirds and to changes since 1978. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):71-82.

Green, E.K., and Galatowitsch, S.M. 2002. Effects of Phalaris arundinacea and nitrate-N addition on the establishment of wetland plant communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(1):134-144.

Griffiths, H.I., Reed, J.M., Leng, M.J., Ryan, S., and Petkovski, S. 2002. The recent palaeoecology and conservation status of Balkan Lake Dojran. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):35-49.

Hailey, A., and Goutner, V. 2002. Changes in the Alyki Kitrous wetland in northern Greece: 1990-1999, and future prospects. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(3):357-377.

Hanks, J. 2001. Conservation strategies for Africa's large mammals. Reprod. Fert. Develop. 13(7-8):459-468.

Harding, J.M., and Mann, R. 2001. Oyster reefs as fish habitat: opportunistic use of restored reefs by transient fishes. J. Shellfish Res. 20(3):951-959.

Hernandez, H.M., Gomez-Hinostrosa, C., and Barcenas, R.T. 2001. Studies on Mexican Cactaceae. II. Opuntia megarrhiza, a poorly known endemic from San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Brittonia 53(4):528-533.

Hess, G.R., and King, T.J. 2002. Planning open spaces for wildlife - I. Selecting focal species using a Delphi survey approach. Landscape Urban Plan. 58(1):25-40.

Holland, B.S., and Hadfield, M.G. 2002. Islands within an island: phylogeography and conservation genetics of the endangered Hawaiian tree snail Achatinella mustelina. Mol. Ecol. 11(3):365-375.

Honnay, O., Bossuyt, B., Verheyen, K., Butaye, J., Jacquemyn, H., and Hermy, M. 2002. Ecological perspectives for the restoration of plant communities in European temperate Forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(2):213-242.

Hooker, S.K., Whitehead, H., and Gowans, S. 2002. Ecosystem consideration in conservation planning: energy demand of foraging bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) in a marine protected area. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):51-58.

Ibarra-Manríquez, G., Villaseñor, J.L., Durán, R., and Meave, J. 2002. Biogeographical analysis of the tree flora of the Yucatan Peninsula. J. Biogeogr. 29(1):17-29.

Imbeau, L., and Desrochers, A. 2002. Foraging ecology and use of drumming trees by three-toed woodpeckers. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(1):222-231.

Impson, D., and Swartz, E. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Barbus calidus Barnard, 1938 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(3):340.

Isler, M.L., Alonso, J.A., Isler, P.R., and Whitney, B.M. 2001. A new species of Percnostola antbird (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae) from Amazonian Peru, and an analysis of species limits within Percnostola rufifrons. Wilson Bull. 113(2):164-176.

Jayatissa, L.P., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., and Koedam, N. 2002. A review of the floral composition and distribution of mangroves in Sri Lanka. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138(1):29-43.

Johnson, P.A., Hey, R.D., Brown, E.R., and Rosgen, D.L. 2002. Stream restoration in the vicinity of bridges. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38(1):55-67.

Jones, J.W., and Neves, R.J. 2002. Life history and propagation of the endangered fanshell pearlymussel, Cyprogenia stegaria Rafinesque (Bivalvia: Unionidae). J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 21(1):76-88.

Jones, R.J. 2001. The status of seabird colonies on the Cook Islands atoll of Suwarrow. Bird Conserv. Int. 11(4):309-317.

Jonsell, M., and Nordlander, G. 2002. Insects in polypore fungi as indicator species: a comparison between forest sites differing in amounts and continuity of dead wood. Forest Ecol. Manag. 157(1-3):101-118.

Kellogg, C.H., and Bridgham, S.D. 2002. Colonization during early succession of restored freshwater marshes. Can. J. Bot. 80(2):176-185.

Khan, M.A., Gul, B., and Weber, D.J. 2002. Improving seed germination of Salicorania rubra (Chenopodiaceae) under saline conditions using germination-regulating chemicals. West. N. Am. Naturalist 62(1):101-105.

Khan, M.L., Upadhyaya, K., Singha, L.B., and Devi, A. 2002. A plea for conservation of threatened tree fern (Cyathea gigantea). Curr. Sci. 82(4):375-376.

Kingsland, S. 2002. Designing nature reserves: adapting ecology to real-world problems. Endeavour 26(1):9-14.

Kirmer, A., and Mahn, E.G. 2001. Spontaneous and initiated succession on unvegetated slopes in the abandoned lignite-mining area of Goitsche, Germany. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(1):19-27.

Kotiaho, J.S., and Hovi, M. 2002. Correcting species richness hotspots for latitudinal gradients: a new method. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 39(1):3-6.

Krahulec, F., Skálová, H., Herben, T., Hadincová, V., Wildová, R., and Pechácková, S. 2001. Vegetation changes following sheep grazing in abandoned mountain meadows. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(1):97-102.

Kull, T., Kukk, T., Leht, M., Krall, H., Kukk, U., Kull, K., and Kuusk, V. 2002. Distribution trends of rare vascular plant species in Estonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(2):171-196.

La Ferla, B., Taplin, J., Ockwell, D., and Lovett, J.C. 2002. Continental scale patterns of biodiversity: can higher taxa accurately predict African plant distributions? Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138(2):225-235.

Lackey, R.T. 2002. Restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest: framing the risk question. Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 8(2):223-232.

Large, A.R.G. 2001. Reversing spontaneous succession to protect high-value vegetation: assessment of two Scottish mires using rapid survey techniques. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(1):103-110.

Lee, C.T., Wickneswari, R., Mahani, M.C., and Zakri, A.H. 2002. Effect of selective logging on the genetic diversity of Scaphium macropodum. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):107-118.

Lee, M., Fahrig, L., Freemark, K., and Currie, D.J. 2002. Importance of patch scale vs landscape scale on selected forest birds. Oikos 96(1):110-118.

Lens, L., Van Dongen, S., Kark, S., and Matthysen, E. 2002. Fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of fitness: can we bridge the gap between studies? Biol. Rev. 77(1):27-38.

Lieckfeldt, D., Schmidt, A., and Pitra, C. 2001. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the great bustard, Otis tarda. Mol. Ecol. Notes 1(3):133-134.

Liiri, M., Setälä, H., Haimi, J., Pennanen, T., and Fritze, H. 2002. Relationship between soil microarthropod species diversity and plant growth does not change when the system is disturbed. Oikos 96(1):137-149.

Lipcius, R.N., and Stockhausen, W.T. 2002. Concurrent decline of the spawning stock, recruitment, larval abundance, and size of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 226:45-61.

Lohrer, A.M., and Whitlatch, R.B. 2002. Interactions among aliens: apparent replacement of one exotic species by another. Ecology 83(3):719-732.

Longino, J.T., Coddington, J., and Colwell, R.K. 2002. The ant fauna of a tropical rain forest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology 83(3):689-702.

Madhusudan, M.D., and Karanth, K.U. 2002. Local hunting and the conservation of large mammals in India. Ambio 31(1):49-54.

Magura, T. 2002. Carabids and forest edge: spatial pattern and edge effect. Forest Ecol. Manag. 157(1-3):23-37.

Mathevet, R., and Tamisier, A. 2002. Creation of a nature reserve, its effects on hunting management and waterfowl distribution in the Camargue (southern France). Biodivers. Conserv. 11(3):509-519.

Matson, C.W., Williamson, J.E., Huebinger, R.M., and Louis, E.E. 2001. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the two endemic genera of Madagascan Boids, Acrantophis and Sanzinia. Mol. Ecol. Notes 1(1-2):41-43.

Maudet, C., Miller, C., Bassano, B., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Gauthier, D., Obexer-Ruff, G., Michallet, J., Taberlet, P., and Luikart, G. 2002. Microsatellite DNA and recent statistical methods in wildlife conservation management: applications in alpine ibex [Capra ibex (ibex)]. Mol. Ecol. 11(3):421-436.

McDonald, A.W. 2001. Succession during the re-creation of a flood-meadow 1985-1999. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(2):167-176.

Meehan, A.J., and West, R.J. 2002. Experimental transplanting of Posidonia australis seagrass in Port Hacking, Australia, to assess the feasibility of restoration. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(1):25-31.

Moran, P. 2002. Current conservation genetics: building an ecological approach to the synthesis of molecular and quantitative genetic methods. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 11(1):30-55.

Morecroft, M.D., Bealey, C.E., Howells, E., Rennie, S., and Woiwod, I.P. 2002. Effects of drought on contrasting insect and plant species in the UK in the mid-1990s. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 11(1):7-22.

Morrison, J.A. 2002. Wetland vegetation before and after experimental purple loosestrife removal. Wetlands 22(1):159-169.

Moulaert, A., Mueller, J.P., Villarreal, M., Piedra, R., and Villalobos, L. 2002. Establishment of two indigenous timber species in dairy pastures in Costa Rica. Agroforestry Syst. 54(1):31-40.

Muhlfeld, C.C., Bennett, D.H., and Marotz, B. 2001. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 21(1):223-235.

Muotka, T., and Laasonen, P. 2002. Ecosystem recovery in restored headwater streams: the role of enhanced leaf retention. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(1):145-156.

Murren, C.J. 2002. Effects of habitat fragmentation on pollination: pollinators, pollinia viability and reproductive success. J. Ecology 90(1):100-107.

Mushet, D.M., Euliss, N.H., and Shaffer, T.L. 2002. Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA. Wetlands 22(1):126-138.

Naeem, S. 2002. Biodiversity equals instability? Nature 416(6876):23-24.

Naish, K.A., and Boulding, E.G. 2001. Trinucleotide microsatellite loci for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an invasive species in Europe and North America. Mol. Ecol. Notes 1(4):286-288.

Norment, C. 2002. On grassland bird conservation in the Northeast. Auk 119(1):271-279.

Norris, S.M., and Minckley, W.L. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Etheostoma lugoi Norris & Minckley, 1997 (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(3):280.

Norris, S.M., and Minckley, W.L. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Etheostoma segrex Norris & Minckley, 1997 (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(2):136.

Oertli, B., Joye, D.A., Castella, E., Juge, R., Cambin, D., and Lachavanne, J.B. 2002. Does size matter? The relationship between pond area and biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):59-70.

Olden, J.D., Jackson, D.A., and Peres-Neto, P.R. 2002. Predictive models of fish species distributions: a note on proper validation and chance predictions. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 131(2):329-336.

Olff, H., and Ritchie, M.E. 2002. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity. Landscape Urban Plan. 58(2-4):83-92.

Onaindia, M., Albizu, I., and Amezaga, I. 2001. Effect of time on the natural regeneration of salt marsh. Appl. Veg. Sci. 4(2):247-256.

Ortubay, S., Lozada, M., and Cussac, V. 2002. Aggressive behaviour between Gymnocharacinus bergi (Pisces, Characidae) and other neotropical fishes from a thermal stream in Patagonia. Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(3):341-346.

Panwar, J., and Vyas, A. 2002. AM fungi: a biological approach towards conservation of endangered plants in Thar desert, India. Curr. Sci. 82(5):576-578.

Pearce, I.S.K., and van der Wal, R. 2002. Effects of nitrogen deposition on growth and survival of montane Racomitrium lanuginosum heath. Biol. Conserv. 104(1):83-89.

Pearman, P.B. 2002. Developing regional conservation priorities using red lists: a hypothetical example from the Swiss lowlands. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(3):469-485.

Pereira, S.L., and Wajntal, A. 2001. Estimates of the genetic variability in a natural population of bare-faced curassow Crax fasciolata (Aves, Galliformes, Cracidae). Bird Conserv. Int. 11(4):301-308.

Perkins, D.W., and Vickery, P.D. 2001. Annual survival of an endangered passerine, the Florida grasshopper sparrow. Wilson Bull. 113(2):211-216.

Pfisterer, A.B., and Schmid, B. 2002. Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning. Nature 416(6876):84-86.

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