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Department ofBotany

No. 210
June 2002

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In This Issue

Plant Conservation Strategy Adopted

Delegates at the sixth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP6 - CBD) have adopted the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. The decision is a landmark in the history of the CBD. It is the first time that plant conservation issues have received such detailed scrutiny by the governments of the world (183 countries are parties to the Convention). It is also the first time that targets, albeit voluntary, have been set to guide, as well as monitor, progress by the Convention.

Parties noted that countries vary greatly in their wealth of plant diversity and capacity to conserve this diversity. They felt that accepting global targets was useful, as it allowed national conservation strategies and priorities to feed into an overall global target. They noted that capacity-building to increase plant conservation was necessary for biodiversity-rich countries to contribute to the targets.

While all of the 41 countries and regional blocks welcomed and supported the Strategy, they also noted the need for additional funding for its implementation. As a first gesture, Botanical Gardens Conservation International offered to second a staff member to the CBD Secretariat for two years to shepherd the Strategy and ensure action is undertaken. This gracious offer was warmly greeted by CBD Parties and opened up a new phase of private and governmental collaboration.

It is clear, however, that increased financial resources to implement the Strategy are needed. Ethiopia, speaking for the African group, called for Global Environment Facility funding for the strategy's implementation. It was also noted that donors should focus on the critical link between poverty alleviation and rural livelihoods, and the conservation of plant diversity.

If the Strategy is to reach its targets by 2010, every country will need to contribute whatever it can to promote plant conservation. As the delegation from New Zealand noted, plants are often overlooked compared to animals. If necessary, the targets will be reviewed and amended at future COPs. For now, they form the basis for improving the situation of more than 34,000 plant species identified as threatened in the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants.

IUCN has strongly supported this Strategy since its inception following the XVIth International Botanical Congress at St. Louis, Missouri, USA, in August 1999. Members of the IUCN/SSC Plant Conservation Committee (PCC), chaired by David Given, have been closely involved in the development of the Strategy and its targets.

Future Meetings

The International Society of Ethnobiology will hold its 8th International Congress in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between 16 and 20 September 2002. The theme is People and Biodiversity. The Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization and Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia will jointly host the Congress. In addition a two-day pre-congress workshop will focus on traditional technical knowledge ownership and access, and post-congress workshops will discuss quantitative methods of ethnobiology and culture and biological diversity. The meeting will address the following topics: ethnobiology and food security, sustainable development, access and benefit sharing, participatory biodiversity conservation, ethnomedicine and drug development, ethnobiology and the "reconstruction of Afghanistan," ethnobiology and regional development, intellectual property rights and ethnobiological research, long-term research and training on biocultural diversity, traditional knowledge protecting the values of indigenous and traditional peoples and local communities, and medicinal plant ethnoecology. The official language of the Congress will be English with possible simultaneous interpretation to French. Registration is $300US and $150US for students. For further information please visit the Web site <>. Send requests for the pre-registration form to Local Organizing Committee, 8th International Congress of the International Society of Ethnobiology, Attention: Dr. Fassil Kebebew, P.O. Box 30726, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia; E-mail: or; Tel: 251-9-2110997; Fax: 2511-1-627730.

Current Literature

Abbott, I. 2002. Origin and spread of the cat, Felis catus, on mainland Australia, with a discussion of the magnitude of its early impact on native fauna. Wildlife Res. 29(1):51-74.

Abuladze, A., and Shergalin, J. 2002. The golden eagle in North Caucasia and Transcaucasia. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):10-17.

Adams, M.S., Ballin, U., Gaumert, T., Hale, B.W., Kausch, H., and Kruse, R. 2001. Monitoring selected indicators of ecological change in the Elbe River since the fall of the Iron Curtain. Environ. Conserv. 28(4):333-344.

Aizen, M.A., Vazquez, D.P., and Smith-Ramirez, C. 2002. Natural history and conservation of plant-animal mutualisms in the temperate forest of southern South America. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(1):79-97.

Allan, J.D., Brenner, A.J., Erazo, J., Fernandez, L., Flecker, A.S., Karwan, D.L., Segnini, S., and Taphorn, D.C. 2002. Land use in watersheds of the Venezuelan Andes: a comparative analysis. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):527-538.

Amar, A., and Redpath, S.M. 2002. Determining the cause of the hen harrier decline on the Orkney Islands: an experimental test of two hypotheses. Anim. Conserv. 5:21-28.

Applegate, R.D., Flock, B.E., and Horak, G.J. 2002. Spring burning and grassland area: effects on Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii [Audubon]) and dickcissel (Spiza americana [Gmelin]) in eastern Kansas, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):160-162.

Arevalo, J.R. 2002. Distribution of trees and saplings at the edge of cross timbers forests, Oklahoma, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):99-107.

Armstrong, D. 2002. Focal and surrogate species: getting the language right. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):285-286.

Arroyo, J. 2002. Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae), the evolution of flower polymorphisms and conservation beyond the "red lists." Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(1):39-55.

Barnes, D.K.A. 2002. Invasions by marine life on plastic debris. Nature 416(6883):808-809.

Bechard, M.J., and McGrady, M.J. 2002. Status and conservation of golden eagles - preface. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):2.

Biswas, S., and Sankar, K. 2002. Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India. J. Zool. 256:411-420.

Bladon, R.V., Dickman, C.R., and Hume, I.D. 2002. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the demography, movements and social organisation of the eastern pygmy-possum (Cercartetus nanus) in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Res. 29(1):105-116.

Bless, R., and Riehl, R. 2002. Biology and egg morphology of the Dalmatian barbelgudgeon Aulopyge huegeli, an endangered endemic species in Croatia. Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(4):451-456.

Bonham, K.J., Mesibov, R., and Bashford, R. 2002. Diversity and abundance of some ground-dwelling invertebrates in plantation vs. native forests in Tasmania, Australia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 158(1-3):237-247.

Bonn, A., Hagen, K., and Wohlgemuth-Von Reiche, D. 2002. The significance of flood regimes for carabid beetle and spider communities in riparian habitats - a comparison of three major rivers in Germany. River Res. Appl. 18(1):43-64.

Bootsma, M.C., van den Broek, T., Barendregt, A., and Beltman, B. 2002. Rehabilitation of acidified floating fens by addition of buffered surface water. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):112-121.

Bouchet, P., Lozouet, P., Maestrati, P., and Heros, V. 2002. Assessing the magnitude of species richness in tropical marine environments: exceptionally high numbers of molluscs at a New Caledonia site. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 75(4):421-436.

Bourn, N.A.D., and Thomas, J.A. 2002. The challenge of conserving grassland insects at the margins of their range in Europe. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):285-292.

Boutin, S., and Hebert, D. 2002. Landscape ecology and forest management: developing an effective partnership. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):390-397.

Braaten, R.O., and Flaherty, M. 2001. Salt balances of inland shrimp ponds in Thailand: implications for land and water salinization. Environ. Conserv. 28(4):357-367.

Brendel, U.M., Eberhardt, R., and Wiesmann, K. 2002. Conservation of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the European Alps - a combination of education, cooperation, and modern techniques. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):20-24.

Brenton, R.K., and Klinger, R.C. 2002. Factors influencing the control of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) using Triclopyr on Santa Cruz Island, California, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):135-147.

Brito, D., and Fernandez, F.A.S. 2002. Patch relative importance to metapopulation viability: the neotropical marsupial Micoureus demerarae as a case study. Anim. Conserv. 5:45-51.

Brooks, S.S., Palmer, M.A., Cardinale, B.J., Swan, C.M., and Ribblett, S. 2002. Assessing stream ecosystem rehabilitation: limitations of community structure data. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):156-168.

Brower, L.P., Castilleja, G., Peralta, A., Lopez-Garcia, J., Bojorquez-Tapia, L., Diaz, S., Melgarejo, D., and Missrie, M. 2002. Quantitative changes in forest quality in a principal overwintering area of the monarch butterfly in Mexico, 1971-1999. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):346-359.

Brzosko, E., Ratkiewicz, M., and Wroblewska, A. 2002. Allozyme differentiation and genetic structure of the lady's slipper (Cypripedium calceolus) island populations in north-east Poland. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138(4):433-440.

Butler, J.R.A., and du Toit, J.T. 2002. Diet of free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in rural Zimbabwe: implications for wild scavengers on the periphery of wildlife reserves. Anim. Conserv. 5:29-37.

Cabin, R.J., Weller, S.G., Lorence, D.H., Cordell, S., and Hadway, L.J. 2002. Effects of microsite, water, weeding, and direct seeding on the regeneration of native and alien species within a Hawaiian dry forest preserve. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):181-190.

Capizzi, D., Battistini, M., and Amori, G. 2002. Analysis of the hazel dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius, distribution in a Mediterranean fragmented woodland. Italian J. Zool. 69(1):25-31.

Caro, T. 2002. Focal and surrogate species: getting the language right. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):286-287.

Carpenter, A.T., Murray, T.A., and Buxbaum, J. 2002. Inventorying and mapping invasive plants. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):163-165.

Chalfoun, A.D., Thompson, F.R., and Ratnaswamy, M.J. 2002. Nest predators and fragmentation: a review and meta-analysis. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):306-318.

Chaloupka, M.Y., and Limpus, C.J. 2002. Survival probability estimates for the endangered loggerhead sea turtle resident in southern Great Barrier Reef waters. Mar. Biol. 140(2):267-277.

Cinq-Mars, J., and Wiken, E. 2002. Using science, technology and innovation in support of conserving Canada's ecosystems and habitats. Forest Chron. 78(1):133-136.

Clarke, A.L., and Pacin, T. 2002. Domestic cat "colonies" in natural areas: a growing exotic species threat. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):154-159.

Clevenger, A.P., Wierzchowski, J., Chruszcz, B., and Gunson, K. 2002. GIS-generated, expert-based models for identifying wildlife habitat linkages and planning mitigation passages. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):503-514.

Clinchy, M., Haydon, D.T., and Smith, A.T. 2002. Pattern does not equal process: what does patch occupancy really tell us about metapopulation dynamics? Am. Nat. 159(4):351-362.

Collins, M.D., Vazquez, D.P., and Sanders, N.J. 2002. Species-area curves, homogenization and the loss of global diversity. Evol. Ecol. Res. 4(3):457-464.

Connelly, N.A., Knuth, B.A., and Kay, D.L. 2002. Public support for ecosystem restoration in the Hudson River Valley, USA. Environ. Manage. 29(4):467-476.

Cooper, C.B., and Walters, J.R. 2002. Experimental evidence of disrupted dispersal causing decline of an Australian passerine in fragmented habitat. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):471-478.

Cooper, D.S. 2002. Geographic associations of breeding bird distribution in an urban open space. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):205-210.

Corburn, J. 2001. Emissions trading and environmental justice: distributive fairness and the USA's Acid Rain Programme. Environ. Conserv. 28(4):323-332.

Couvet, D. 2002. Deleterious effects of restricted gene flow in fragmented populations. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):369-376.

Cromsigt, J.P.G.M., Hearne, J., Heitkonig, I.M.A., and Prins, H.H.T. 2002. Using models in the management of black rhino populations. Ecol. Model. 149(1-2):203-211.

Crooks, K.R. 2002. Relative sensitivities of mammalian carnivores to habitat fragmentation. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):488-502.

Daugherty, C.H., and Allendorf, F.W. 2002. The numbers that really matter. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):283-284.

David, B. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxias argenteus (Gmelin, 1789) (Galaxiidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(4):416.

Davidar, P., Yogananad, K., Ganesh, T., and Devy, S. 2002. Distributions of forest birds and butterflies in the Andaman islands, Bay of Bengal: nested patterns and processes. Ecography 25(1):5-16.

de Klerk, H.M., Crowe, T.M., Fjeldså, J., and Burgess, N.D. 2002. Patterns of species richness and narrow endemism of terrestrial bird species in the Afrotropical region. J. Zool. 256:327-342.

Delgado, P., Cuenca, A., Escalante, A.E., Molina-Freaner, F., and Pinero, D. 2002. Comparative genetic structure in pines: evolutionary and conservation consequences. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(1):27-37.

Dennis, B. 2002. Allee effects in stochastic populations. Oikos 96(3):389-401.

Deutschman, D.H. 2001. Design and analysis of biodiversity field experiments. Ecol. Res. 16(5):833-843.

Dick, T.M., Streever, W.J., and Osunkoya, O.O. 2002. Decomposition of Sarcocornia quinqueflora on an iron-smelting slag substrate. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):11-15.

Doadrio, I., Carmona, J.A., and Fernandez-Delgado, C. 2002. Morphometric study of the Iberian Aphanius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes), with description of a new species. Folia Zoolog. 51(1):67-79.

Dogan, M., and Akaydin, G. 2002. A new species of Acantholimon Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae) from Turkey. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138(3):365-368.

Dolek, M., and Geyer, A. 2002. Conserving biodiversity on calcareous grasslands in the Franconian Jura by grazing: a comprehensive approach. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):351-360.

Donazar, J.A., Negro, J.J., Palacios, C.J., Gangoso, L., Godoy, J.A., Ceballos, O., Hiraldo, F.N., and Capote, N. 2002. Description of a new subspecies of the Egyptian vulture (Accipitridae: Neophron percnopterus) from the Canary Islands. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):17-23.

Donovan, T.M., and Flather, C.H. 2002. Relationships among North American songbird trends, habitat fragmentation, and landscape occupancy. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):364-374.

Downing, A.L., and Leibold, M.A. 2002. Ecosystem consequences of species richness and composition in pond food webs. Nature 416(6883):837-841.

Downs, P.W., and Kondolf, G.M. 2002. Post-project appraisals in adaptive management of river channel restoration. Environ. Manage. 29(4):477-496.

Dudley, J.P., Ginsberg, J.R., Plumptre, A.J., Hart, J.A., and Campos, L.C. 2002. Effects of war and civil strife on wildlife and wildlife habitats. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):319-329.

Dukes, J.S. 2002. Species composition and diversity affect grassland susceptibility and response to invasion. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):602-617.

Dulvy, N.K., and Reynolds, J.D. 2002. Predicting extinction vulnerability in skates. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):440-450.

Dumortier, M., Butaye, J., Jacquemyn, H., Van Camp, N., Lust, N., and Hermy, M. 2002. Predicting vascular plant species richness of fragmented forests in agricultural landscapes in central Belgium. Forest Ecol. Manag. 158(1-3):85-102.

Dyer, A.R. 2002. Burning and grazing management in a California grassland: effect on bunchgrass seed viability. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):107-111.

Eason, G.W., and Fauth, J.E. 2001. Ecological correlates of anuran species richness in temporary pools: a field study in South Carolina, USA. Israel J. Zool. 47(4):347-365.

Ellis, W.A., Hale, P.T., and Carrick, F. 2002. Breeding dynamics of koalas in open woodlands. Wildlife Res. 29(1):19-25.

Engstrom, T.N., Shaffer, H.B., and McCord, W.P. 2002. Phylogenetic diversity of endangered and critically endangered southeast Asian softshell turtles (Trionychidae: Chitra). Biol. Conserv. 104(2):173-179.

Estrada, A., Castellanos, L., Garcia, Y., Franco, B., Munoz, D., Ibarra, A., Rivera, A., Fuentes, E., and Jimenez, C. 2002. Survey of the black howler monkey, Alouatta pigra, population at the Mayan site of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico. Primates 43(1):51-58.

Fahrig, L. 2002. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the extinction threshold: a synthesis. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):346-353.

Fairbanks, D.H.K., Kshatriya, M., van Jaarsveld, A.S., and Underhill, L.G. 2002. Scales and consequences of human land transformation on South African avian diversity and structure. Anim. Conserv. 5:61-74.

Fearnside, P.M. 2001. Environmentalists split over Kyoto and Amazonian deforestation. Environ. Conserv. 28(4):295-299.

Ferguson, S.H., and Larivière, S. 2002. Can comparing life histories help conserve carnivores? Anim. Conserv. 5:1-12.

Fleishman, E., and Mac Nally, R. 2002. Topographic determinants of faunal nestedness in Great Basin butterfly assemblages: applications to conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):422-429.

Fredrickson, R., and Hedrick, P. 2002. Body size in endangered Mexican wolves: effects of inbreeding and cross-lineage matings. Anim. Conserv. 5:39-43.

Freemark, K.E., Boutin, C., and Keddy, C.J. 2002. Importance of farmland habitats for conservation of plant species. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):399-412.

Fuller, T.K., Carrillo, E., and Saenz, J.C. 2002. Survival of protected white-lipped peccaries in Costa Rica. Can. J. Zool. 80(3):586-589.

Furman, A., and Ozgul, A. 2002. Distribution of cave-dwelling bats and conservation status of underground habitats in the Istanbul area. Ecol. Res. 17(1):69-77.

Gabbe, A.P., Robinson, S.K., and Brawn, J.D. 2002. Tree-species preferences of foraging insectivorous birds: implications for floodplain forest restoration. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):462-470.

Galina-Tessaro, P., Grismer, L.L., Hollingsworth, B.D., and Ortega-Rubio, A. 2002. Distribution and conservation of lizards in the Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 47(1):40-55.

Gamboa, G.J., Greig, E.I., and Thom, M.C. 2002. The comparative biology of two sympatric paper wasps, the native Polistes fuscatus and the invasive Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insect. Soc. 49(1):45-49.

Gerwing, J.J., and Vidal, E. 2002. Changes in liana abundance and species diversity eight years after liana cutting and logging in an eastern Amazonian forest. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):544-548.

Girondot, M., Tucker, A.D., Rivalan, P., Godfrey, M.H., and Chevalier, J. 2002. Density-dependent nest destruction and population fluctuations of Guianan leatherback turtles. Anim. Conserv. 5:75-84.

Gladstone, W. 2002. The potential value of indicator groups in the selection of marine reserves. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):211-220.

Goverde, M., Schweizer, K., Baur, B., and Erhardt, A. 2002. Small-scale habitat fragmentation effects on pollinator behaviour: experimental evidence from the bumblebee Bombus veteranus on calcareous grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):293-299.

Gravlund, P. 2002. Molecular phylogeny of Tornier's cat snake (Crotaphopeltis tornieri), endemic to East African mountain forests: biogeography, vicariance events and problematic species boundaries. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 40(1):46-56.

Grotkopp, E., Rejmanek, M., and Rost, T.L. 2002. Toward a causal explanation of plant invasiveness: seedling growth and life-history strategies of 29 pine (Pinus) species. Am. Nat. 159(4):396-419.

Grove, S.J. 2002. The influence of forest management history on the integrity of the saproxylic beetle fauna in an Australian lowland tropical rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):149-171.

Gustafsson, L. 2002. Presence and abundance of red-listed plant species in Swedish forests. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):377-388.

Haila, Y. 2002. A conceptual genealogy of fragmentation research: from island biogeography to landscape ecology. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):321-334.

Harding, E.K. 2002. Modelling the influence of seasonal inter-habitat movements by an ecotone rodent. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):227-237.

Harig, A.L., and Fausch, K.D. 2002. Minimum habitat requirements for establishing translocated cutthroat trout populations. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):535-551.

He, D.W., and Chen, J.S. 2001. Issues, perspectives and need for integrated watershed management in China. Environ. Conserv. 28(4):368-377.

Hector, A., Dobson, K., Minns, A., Bazeley-White, E., and Lawton, J.H. 2001. Community diversity and invasion resistance: an experimental test in a grassland ecosystem and a review of comparable studies. Ecol. Res. 16(5):819-831.

Hey, D.L. 2002. Nitrogen farming: harvesting a different crop. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):1-10.

Hilbeck, A. 2001. Implications of transgenic, insecticidal plants for insect and plant biodiversity. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 4(1):43-61.

Houseman, G.R., and Anderson, R.C. 2002. Effects of jack pine plantation management on barrens flora and potential Kirtland's warbler nest habitat. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):27-36.

Huang, C.M., Wei, F.W., Li, M., Quan, G.Q., and Li, H.H. 2002. Current status and conservation of white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) in China. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):221-225.

Hughes, J.B., Daily, G.C., and Ehrlich, P.R. 2002. Conservation of tropical forest birds in countryside habitats. Ecol. Lett. 5(1):121-129.

Humphrey, L.D., and Schupp, E.W. 2002. Seedling survival from locally and commercially obtained seeds on two semiarid sites. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):88-95.

Ives, A.R., and Hughes, J.B. 2002. General relationships between species diversity and stability in competitive systems. Am. Nat. 159(4):388-395.

Jackson, W. 2002. When strength through exhaustion fails. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):291.

Ji, W., and Leberg, P. 2002. A GIS-based approach for assessing the regional conservation status of genetic diversity: an example from the southern Appalachians. Environ. Manage. 29(4):531-544.

Kahmen, S., Poschlod, P., and Schreiber, K.F. 2002. Conservation management of calcareous grasslands. Changes in plant species composition and response of functional traits during 25 years. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):319-328.

Kernaghan, G., Hambling, B., Fung, M., and Khasa, D. 2002. In vitro selection of boreal ectomycorrhizal fungi for use in reclamation of saline-alkaline habitats. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):43-51.

Kitazawa, T., and Ohsawa, M. 2002. Patterns of species diversity in rural herbaceous communities under different management regimes, Chiba, central Japan. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):239-249.

Kochert, M.N., and Steenhof, K. 2002. Golden eagles in the US and Canada: status, trends, and conservation challenges. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):32-40.

Koskinen, M.T., Sundell, P., Piironen, J., and Primmer, C.R. 2002. Genetic assessment of spatiotemporal evolutionary relationships and stocking effects in grayling (Thymallus thymallus, Salmonidae). Ecol. Lett. 5(2):193-205.

Kozlowski, T.T. 2002. Physiological ecology of natural regeneration of harvested and disturbed forest stands: implications for forest management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 158(1-3):195-221.

Kursar, T.A., and Grauel, W. 2002. Logging from rivers may control human invasions. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):285.

Lambeck, R.J. 2002. Focal species and restoration ecology: response to Lindenmayer et al. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):549-551.

Larkin, J.L., Maehr, D.S., Cox, J.J., Wichrowski, M.W., and Crank, R.D. 2002. Factors affecting reproduction and population growth in a restored elk Cervus elaphas nelsoni population. Wildlife Biol. 8(1):49-54.

Laurance, W.F., Albernaz, A.K.M., and Da Costa, C. 2001. Is deforestation accelerating in the Brazilian Amazon? Environ. Conserv. 28(4):305-311.

Lawler, S.P. 2001. Rice fields as temporary wetlands: a review. Israel J. Zool. 47(4):513-528.

Lawrence, M.J. 2002. A comprehensive collection and regeneration strategy for ex situ conservation. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 49(2):199-209.

Lens, L., Van Dongen, S., and Matthysen, E. 2002. Fluctuating asymmetry as an early warning system in the critically endangered Taita thrush. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):479-487.

Lesica, P., and Hanna, D. 2002. Monitoring composition of foothills grassland using frequency of indicator species. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):148-153.

Li, D.Q., and Jiang, Z.G. 2002. Population viability analysis for the Przewalski's gazelle. Russian J. Ecol. 33(2):115-120.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Manning, A.D., Smith, P.L., Possingham, H.P., Fischer, J., Oliver, I., and McCarthy, M.A. 2002. The focal-species approach and landscape restoration: a critique. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):338-345.

Liu, Z.X., and Sheng, H.L. 2002. Effect of habitat fragmentation and isolation on the population of alpine musk deer. Russian J. Ecol. 33(2):121-124.

Lopez-Pujol, J., Bosch, M., Simon, J., and Blanche, C. 2002. Allozyme variation and population structure of the very narrow endemic Seseli farrenyi (Apiaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138(3):305-314.

Lovins, L.H. 2002. Design failure and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):292-293.

Madarish, D., and Schuler, T.M. 2002. Effects of forest management practices on the federally endangered running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. ex. A. Eaton). Nat. Areas J. 22(2):120-128.

Madders, M., and Walker, D. 2002. Golden eagles in a multiple land-use environment: a case study in conflict management. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):55-61.

May, J.T., and Brown, L.R. 2002. Fish communities of the Sacramento River Basin: implications for conservation of native fishes in the Central Valley, California. Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(4):373-388.

McGarigal, K., and Cushman, S.A. 2002. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):335-345.

McKinney, M.L. 2002. Effects of national conservation spending and amount of protected area on species threat rates. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):539-543.

McMillan, M.A., and Larson, D.W. 2002. Effects of rock climbing on the vegetation of the Niagara Escarpment in southern Ontario, Canada. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):389-398.

Millar, J.G. 2002. The protection of eagles and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):29-31.

Miller, J.R., and Hobbs, R.J. 2002. Conservation where people live and work. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):330-337.

Montalvo, A.M., McMillan, P.A., and Allen, E.B. 2002. The relative importance of seeding method, soil ripping, and soil variables on seeding success. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):52-67.

Morrison, S.A., and Bolger, D.T. 2002. Lack of an urban edge effect on reproduction in a fragmentation-sensitive sparrow. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):398-411.

Mortimer, S.R., Booth, R.G., Harris, S.J., and Brown, V.K. 2002. Effects of initial site management on the Coleoptera assemblages colonising newly established chalk grassland on ex-arable land. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):301-313.

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Obregón-Barboza, H., Maeda-Martínez, A.M., García-Velazco, H., and Dumont, H.J. 2002. Branchinecta oterosanvicentei n. sp. (Branchiopoda: Anostraca), a new fairy shrimp from the Chihuahuan desert, with a proposal for the conservation of the Branchinectidae of Mexico. Hydrobiologia 467(1-3):45-56.

Olson, R.A., and Whitson, T.D. 2002. Restoring structure in late-successional sagebrush communities by thinning with tebuthiuron. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):146-155.

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Piper, W.H., Meyer, M.W., Klich, M., Tischler, K.B., and Dolsen, A. 2002. Floating platforms increase reproductive success of common loons. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):199-203.

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Poschlod, P., and WallisDeVries, M.F. 2002. The historical and socioeconomic perspective of calcareous grasslands - lessons from the distant and recent past. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):361-376.

Preston, B.L., and Shackelford, J. 2002. Multiple stressor effects on benthic biodiversity of Chesapeake Bay: implications for ecological risk assessment. Ecotoxicology 11(2):85-99.

Prinzing, A., Durka, W., Klotz, S., and Brandl, R. 2002. Which species become aliens? Evol. Ecol. Res. 4(3):385-405.

Pulido, F.J. 2002. Plant reproductive biology and conservation: the case of temperate and subtropical oak forest regeneration. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(1):5-15.

Rao, M., Rabinowitz, M., and Khaing, S.T. 2002. Status review of the protected-area system in Myanmar, with recommendations for conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):360-368.

Reed, R.N., and Shine, R. 2002. Lying in wait for extinction: ecological correlates of conservation status among Australian elapid snakes. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):451-461.

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Rogers, C.S., and Beets, J. 2001. Degradation of marine ecosystems and decline of fishery resources in marine protected areas in the US Virgin Islands. Environ. Conserv. 28(4):312-322.

Rorabaugh, J.C., Sredl, M.J., Miera, V., and Drost, C.A. 2002. Continued invasion by an introduced frog (Rana berlandieri): southwestern Arizona, southeastern California, and Rio Colorado, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 47(1):12-20.

Rozdilsky, I.D., Chave, J., Levin, S.A., and Tilman, D. 2001. Towards a theoretical basis for ecosystem conservation. Ecol. Res. 16(5):983-995.

Rubin, E.S., Boyce, W.M., Stermer, C.J., and Torres, S.G. 2002. Bighorn sheep habitat use and selection near an urban environment. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):251-263.

Rukke, B.A. 2002. Fungivorous beetles in basidiocarps of Fomes fomentarius respond differently to microhabitat variables. Eur. J. Entomol. 99(1):43-52.

Ruxton, G.D., Thomas, S., and Wright, J.W. 2002. Bells reduce predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus). J. Zool. 256:81-83.

Sah, J.P., and Heinen, J.T. 2001. Wetland resource use and conservation attitudes among indigenous and migrant peoples in Ghodaghodi Lake area, Nepal. Environ. Conserv. 28(4):345-356.

Salvatori, V., Okarma, H., Ionescu, O., Dovhanych, Y., Find'o, S., and Boitani, L. 2002. Hunting legislation in the Carpathian Mountains: implications for the conservation and management of large carnivores. Wildlife Biol. 8(1):3-10.

Sanders, S.M., and McGraw, J.B. 2002. Distribution, abundance, and population dynamics of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) in an Indiana Nature Preserve, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):129-134.

Schelhas, J. 2001. The USA national parks in international perspective: have we learned the wrong lesson? Environ. Conserv. 28(4):300-304.

Schmiegelow, F.K.A., and Mönkkönen, M. 2002. Habitat loss and fragmentation in dynamic landscapes: avian perspectives from the boreal forest. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):375-389.

Schnittler, M., Lado, C., and Stephenson, S.L. 2002. Rapid biodiversity assessment of a tropical myxomycete assemblage - Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve, Ecuador. Fungal Divers. 9:135-167.

Schonrogge, K., Barr, B., Wardlaw, J.C., Napper, E., Gardner, M.G., Breen, J., Elmes, G.W., and Thomas, J.A. 2002. When rare species become endangered: cryptic speciation in myrmecophilous hoverflies. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 75(3):291-300.

Schuler, T.M., Ford, W.M., and Collins, R.J. 2002. Successional dynamics and restoration implications of a montane coniferous forest in the central Appalachians, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):88-98.

Seavy, N.E., and Apodaca, C.K. 2002. Raptor abundance and habitat use in a highly-disturbed-forest landscape in western Uganda. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):51-57.

Seigel, R.A., and Dodd, C.K. 2002. Translocations of amphibians: proven management method or experimental technique? Conserv. Biol. 16(2):552-554.

Severo, J.B., López-López, E., and Stanley, K.A.B. 2002. Spatial and temporal variation patterns of a waterfowl community in a reservoir system of the Central Plateau, Mexico. Hydrobiologia 467(1-3):123-131.

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Sloan, N.A. 2002. History and application of the wilderness concept in marine conservation. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):294-305.

Smith, J.A., and Gross, C.L. 2002. The pollination ecology of Grevillea beadleana McGillivray, an endangered shrub from northern New South Wales, Australia. Ann. Botany 89(1):97-108.

Smith, S.M., McCormick, P.V., Leeds, J.A., and Garrett, P.B. 2002. Constraints of seed bank species composition and water depth for restoring vegetation in the Florida Everglades, USA. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):138-145.

Stahl, P.D., Perryman, B.L., Sharmasarkar, S., and Munn, L.C. 2002. Topsoil stockpiling versus exposure to traffic: a case study on in situ uranium wellfields. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):129-137.

Stambaugh, M.C., Muzika, R.M., and Guyette, R.P. 2002. Disturbance characteristics and overstory composition of an old-growth shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) forest in the Ozark Highlands, Missouri, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):108-119.

Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2002. Insect communities and biotic interactions on fragmented calcareous grasslands - a mini review. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):275-284.

Stockwell, C.A. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Cyprinodon tularosa Miller & Echelle, 1975 (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 63(4):404.

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Svenning, J.C. 2002. A review of natural vegetation openness in north-western Europe. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):133-148.

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Thévenon, S., and Couvet, D. 2002. The impact of inbreeding depression on population survival depending on demographic parameters. Anim. Conserv. 5:53-60.

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Traveset, A. 2002. Consequences of the disruption of plant-animal mutualisms for the distribution of plant species in the Balearic Islands. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(1):117-126.

Traveset, A. 2002. Workshop: Theoretical aspects of reproductive biology of plants and its relevance to conservation. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(1):3-4.

Travis, S.E., Proffitt, C.E., Lowenfeld, R.C., and Mitchell, T.W. 2002. A comparative assessment of genetic diversity among differently-aged populations of Spartina alterniflora on restored versus natural wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):37-42.

Trenham, P.C., and Marsh, D.M. 2002. Amphibian translocation programs: reply to Seigel and Dodd. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):555-556.

Tscharntke, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Kruess, A., and Thies, C. 2002. Characteristics of insect populations on habitat fragments: a mini review. Ecol. Res. 17(2):229-239.

Tscharntke, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Kruess, A., and Thies, C. 2002. Contribution of small habitat fragments to conservation of insect communities of grassland-cropland landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):354-363.

Valiente-Banuet, A. 2002. Vulnerability of pollination systems of columnar cacti of Mexico. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(1):99-104.

Vallauri, D.R., Aronson, J., and Barbero, M. 2002. An analysis of forest restoration 120 years after reforestation on badlands in the southwestern Alps. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):16-26.

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van Swaay, C.A.M. 2002. The importance of calcareous grasslands for butterflies in Europe. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):315-318.

Vessby, K., Söderström, B., Glimskär, A., and Svensson, B. 2002. Species-richness correlations of six different taxa in Swedish seminatural grasslands. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):430-439.

Vickery, P.D. 2002. Effects of the size of prescribed fire on insect predation of northern blazing star, a rare grassland perennial. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):413-421.

Villa, F., Tunesi, L., and Agardy, T. 2002. Zoning marine protected areas through spatial multiple-criteria analysis: the case of the Asinara Island National Marine Reserve of Italy. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):515-526.

Villard, M.A. 2002. Habitat fragmentation: major conservation issue or intellectual attractor? Ecol. Appl. 12(2):319-320.

Virgos, E. 2002. Factors affecting wild boar (Sus scrofa) occurrence in highly fragmented Mediterranean landscapes. Can. J. Zool. 80(3):430-435.

Waclawek, K., and Mizera, T. 2002. The status of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Poland. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):25-28.

WallisDeVries, M.F., Poschlod, P., and Willems, J.H. 2002. Challenges for the conservation of calcareous grasslands in northwestern Europe: integrating the requirements of flora and fauna. Biol. Conserv. 104(3):265-273.

Watson, J., and Whitfield, P. 2002. A conservation framework for the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Scotland. J. Raptor Res. 36(1):41-49.

Watts, C.H., and Gibbs, G.W. 2002. Revegetation and its effect on the ground-dwelling beetle fauna of Matiu-Somes Island, New Zealand. Restor. Ecol. 10(1):96-106.

Webb, J.K., Brook, B.W., and Shine, R. 2002. What makes a species vulnerable to extinction? Comparative life-history traits of two sympatric snakes. Ecol. Res. 17(1):59-67.

Wedekind, C. 2002. Manipulating sex ratios for conservation: short-term risks and long-term benefits. Anim. Conserv. 5:13-20.

Wellnitz, T., MacRury, N., Child, A., and Benson, D. 2002. Spreading the wealth: graduate students and educational outreach. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):560-563.

Welsh, S.A., Mangold, M.F., Skjeveland, J.E., and Spells, A.J. 2002. Distribution and movement of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 25(1):101-104.

Whittingham, M.J., and Markland, H.M. 2002. The influence of substrate on the functional response of an avian granivore and its implications for farmland bird conservation. Oecologia 130(4):637-644.

Willerding, C., and Poschlod, P. 2002. Does seed dispersal by sheep affect the population genetic structure of the calcareous grassland species Bromus erectus? Biol. Conserv. 104(3):329-337.

Willerslev, E., Hansen, A.J., Nielsen, K.K., and Adsersen, H. 2002. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galápagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. Ecography 25(1):109-119.

Williams, C. 2002. The false dichotomy. Nat. Areas J. 22(2):87.

Willson, M.F. 2002. The fallacy of the superfluous male. Conserv. Biol. 16(2):557-559.

Woolf, A., Nielsen, C.K., Weber, T., and Gibbs-Kieninger, T.J. 2002. Statewide modeling of bobcat, Lynx rufus, habitat in Illinois, USA. Biol. Conserv. 104(2):191-198.

Woolnough, A.P., and Foley, W.J. 2002. Rapid evaluation of pasture quality for a critically endangered mammal, the northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii). Wildlife Res. 29(1):91-100.

Yako, L.A., Mather, M.E., and Juanes, F. 2002. Mechanisms for migration of anadromous herring: an ecological basis for effective conservation. Ecol. Appl. 12(2):521-534.

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