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Department ofBotany

No. 212
August 2002

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In This Issue

New Conifer Species Discovered in Vietnam

An international team of botanists have discovered an unusual conifer in a remote area of northern Vietnam, which has been identified as a new genus and species previously unknown to science. The tree was found growing on inaccessible cliffs in an area among the most botanically rich habitats in Vietnam. It was discovered in Ha Giang province, near Vietnam's northern border with China, by botanists from the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in Hanoi, together with colleagues from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the Missouri Botanical Garden, and the Komarov Botanical Institute in St. Petersberg, Russia.

This is the first new genus of conifer to be found since the discovery, in 1994, of Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) in Australia, and before that, the discovery of the Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) in Sichuan province of China in 1948. The tree has been named Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, which translates to Golden Vietnamese Cypress. Its nearest relative is the Nootka Cypress (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) from the U.S. Pacific Northwest, which has now been transferred to the new genus and becomes Xanthocyparis nootkatensis.

The new species is distinctive in that mature trees have two different types of foliage–needles and scale leaves. The yellowish-brown, hard timber is prized by local citizens, as the local people had known about the trees for a long time. Some specimens still grow on the steep, rocky slopes of isolated mountain peaks, but only a few hundred remain. The site where the trees occur is an area of high biodiversity, surrounded by intensively managed farmland. The species has been classified as Critically Endangered. A formal description of the new species will be published in the journal Novon.

New Publications

There is an undervalued reservoir of diversity of African leafy vegetables. These vegetables are extremely important for food security, nutrition and poverty alleviation throughout Africa. The reservoir, however, is under threat because the vegetables are being displaced in many areas. There is a decline in the production, utilization and diversity of these vegetables. The decline will have a significant impact on the nutritional status of households and incomes of women farmers who are the primary producers, transformers and sellers of these plants. In response to this threat, the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) convened several workshops where national plant genetic resources programs could identify priority species and carry out actions to stem this threat. The results of those actions are contained in the book "The Biodiversity of Traditional Leafy Vegetables," edited by J.A. Chweya and P.B. Eyzaguirre. This book is the latest step forward in the commitment IPGRI has to the conservation and sustainable utilization of genetic resources in Africa. The book contains authored chapters by national scientists on the diversity and uses of leafy traditional vegetables in Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Senegal and Zimbabwe. The conclusions outline ways that the great potential of Africa's plant genetic resources that can be used to improve the welfare of African communities. Available for US$24, the book can be purchased by contacting IPGRI, Via dei Tre Denari 472/a, 00057 Maccarese (Fiumicino), Rome, Italy; Tel: (39) 06 6118.1; Fax: (39) 06 61979661; E-mail:, or by visiting the IPGRI Web site <>. Scientists from developing countries may receive free copies of the book by writing to IPGRI.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

This U.S. Geological Survey database provides information on Nonindigenous Aquatic Species <> for resource professionals and the general public. Distribution maps and species information for a variety of aquatic vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant species includes photos, description of the life cycle, native and non-native habitat range, and potential impacts the non-native species has on its habitat. The site is easy to navigate; users can find information by species name, state, or drainage basin. A number of links are provided for further information.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2002.

AlgaeBase <> is an organization "committed to providing free access over the internet to information on algae." Users may search this database for algae species of interest by scientific or common name. Results are cross referenced with synonyms, and some species include photos. A nice feature of this site is that the images can be searched separately to assist those who are only interested in results that include photos.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences

The Cat Specialist Group Web site <> provides data on wild cats and the threats that each species faces. The group, part of the Species Survival Commission of IUCN (the World Conservation Union), consists of the world's leading scientists and wildlife managers involved with the 36 species of wild cats. The information on the Web site is well organized, both by region and species, and by category of vulnerability. For most species, the site also includes a number of great photos of wild cats.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences

Current Literature

Adam, P. 2002. Saltmarshes in a time of change. Environ. Conserv. 29(1):39-61.

Akaydin, G., and Dogan, M. 2002. A new species of Acantholimon Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae) from the western Taurus Mountains, Turkey. Israel J. Plant Sci. 50(1):67-71.

Altan, Y. 2001. Some interesting endemic plants collected from the east and the northeast of Turkey and their threatened categories. Pakistan J. Bot. 33(2):157-166.

Araújo, M.B., Williams, P.H., and Turner, A. 2002. A sequential approach to minimise threats within selected conservation areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(6):1011-1024.

Armstrong, A.J. 2002. Insects and the determination of priority areas for biodiversity conservation in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Afr. Entomol. 10(1):11-27.

Arrabal, R., Amancio, F., Carneiro, L.A., Neves, L.J., and Mansur, E. 2002. Micropropagation of endangered endemic Brazilian bromeliad Cryptanthus sinuosus (L.B. Smith) for in vitro preservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(6):1081-1089.

Arthur, J.L., Haight, R.G., Montgomery, C.A., and Polasky, S. 2002. Analysis of the threshold and expected coverage approaches to the probabilistic reserve site selection problem. Environ. Model Assess. 7(2):81-89.

Azovsky, A.I. 2002. Size-dependent species-area relationships in benthos: is the world more diverse for microbes? Ecography 25(3):273-282.

Bardat, J., and Hugonnot, V. 2002. The communities of Dicranum viride (Sull. & Lesq.) Lindb. in France. Cryptogamie Bryol. 23(2):123-147.

Barker, G.M. 2002. Phylogenetic diversity: a quantitative framework for measurement of priority and achievement in biodiversity conservation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 76(2):165-194.

Barlocher, F., and Graca, M.A.S. 2002. Exotic riparian vegetation lowers fungal diversity but not leaf decomposition in Portuguese streams. Freshwater Biol. 47(6):1123-1135.

Barnes, R.F.W. 2002. The problem of precision and trend detection posed by small elephant populations in West Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 40(2):179-185.

Baskin, Y. 2002. The greening of horticulture: new codes of conduct aim to curb plant invasions. BioScience 52(6):464-471.

Beeton, A.M. 2002. Large freshwater lakes: present state, trends, and future. Environ. Conserv. 29(1):21-38.

Bekessy, S.A., Allnutt, T.R., Premoli, A.C., Lara, A., Ennos, R.A., Burgman, M.A., Cortes, M., and Newton, A.C. 2002. Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic monkey puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs. Heredity 88:243-249.

Benoit, M.P., and Bretagnolle, V. 2002. Seabirds of the southern Lagoon of New Caledonia; distribution, abundance and threats. Waterbirds 25(2):202-213.

Blumstein, D.T., Mari, M., Daniel, J.C., Ardron, J.G., Griffin, A.S., and Evans, C.S. 2002. Olfactory predator recognition: wallabies may have to learn to be wary. Anim. Conserv. 5:87-93.

Boone, R.B., Coughenour, M.B., Galvin, K.A., and Ellis, J.E. 2002. Addressing management questions for Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania, using the Savanna modelling system. Afr. J. Ecol. 40(2):138-150.

Bowman, J., Cappuccino, N., and Fahrig, L. 2002. Patch size and population density: the effect of immigration behavior. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):9. <>

Brigham, C.A., Power, A.G., and Hunter, A. 2002. Evaluating the internal consistency of recovery plans for federally endangered species. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):648-654.

Broadhurst, L., and Coates, D. 2002. Genetic diversity within and divergence between rare and geographically widespread taxa of the Acacia acuminata Benth. (Mimosaceae) complex. Heredity 88:250-257.

Brook, B.W., Tonkyn, D.W., O'Grady, J.J., and Frankham, R. 2002. Contribution of inbreeding to extinction risk in threatened species. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):16. <>

Browder, J.O. 2002. Conservation and development projects in the Brazilian Amazon: lessons from the community initiative program in Rondonia. Environ. Manage. 29(6):750-762.

Brown, A.C., and McLachlan, A. 2002. Sandy shore ecosystems and the threats facing them: some predictions for the year 2025. Environ. Conserv. 29(1):62-77.

Burbidge, A.A., and Manly, B.F.J. 2002. Mammal extinctions on Australian islands: causes and conservation implications. J. Biogeogr. 29(4):465-473.

Cairns, J. 2002. Environmental monitoring for the preservation of global biodiversity: the role in sustainable use of the planet. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 9(2):135-150.

Campbell, S.P., Clark, J.A., Crampton, L.H., Guerry, A.D., Hatch, L.T., Hosseini, P.R., Lawler, J.J., and O'Connor, R.J. 2002. An assessment of monitoring efforts in endangered species recovery plans. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):674-681.

Carauta, J.P.P., Diaz, B.E., Coimbra, A.F., and Vieira, M.C.W. 2001. Biota em risco de extinção. II. Exemplos de Ficus (Moraceae). Albertoa 6:37-42.

Carbayo, F., Leal-Zanchet, A.M., and Vieira, E.M. 2002. Terrestrial flatworm (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Terricola) diversity versus man-induced disturbance in an ombrophilous forest in southern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(6):1091-1104.

Carrete, M., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Martínez, J.E., Sánchez, M.Á., and Calvo, J.F. 2002. Factors influencing the decline of a Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus population in southeastern Spain: demography, habitat or competition? Biodivers. Conserv. 11(6):975-985.

Casagrandi, R., and Rinaldi, S. 2002. A theoretical approach to tourism sustainability. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):13. <>

Chalfoun, A.D., Ratnaswamy, M.J., and Thompson, F.R. 2002. Songbird nest predators in forest-pasture edge and forest interior in a fragmented landscape. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):858-867.

Chambers, L.K., and Dickman, C.R. 2002. Habitat selection of the long-nosed bandicoot, Perameles nasuta (Mammalia, Peramelidae), in a patchy urban environment. Austral Ecol. 27(3):334-342.

Chave, J., Wiegand, K., and Levin, S. 2002. Spatial and biological aspects of reserve design. Environ. Model Assess. 7(2):115-122.

Chown, S.L., McGeoch, M.A., and Marshall, D.J. 2002. Diversity and conservation of invertebrates on the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands. Afr. Entomol. 10(1):67-82.

Clark, J.A., and Harvey, E. 2002. Assessing multi-species recovery plans under the Endangered Species Act. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):655-662.

Comiskey, E.J., Bass, O.L., Gross, L.J., McBride, R.T., and Salinas, R. 2002. Panthers and forests in South Florida: an ecological perspective. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):18. <>

Costa, F., and Magnusson, W. 2002. Selective logging effects on abundance, diversity, and composition of tropical understory herbs. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):807-819.

Crouse, D.T., Mehrhoff, L.A., Parkin, M.J., Elam, D.R., and Chen, L.Y. 2002. Endangered species recovery and the SCB study: a US Fish and Wildlife Service perspective. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):719-723.

Cuartas-Calle, C.A. 2001. Distribución parcial del tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, Callitrichidae) en el Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Neotrop. Primates 9(3):107-111.

Cumming, G. 2002. Habitat shape, species invasions, and reserve design: insights from simple models. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):3. <>

Custance, D.M., Whiten, A., and Fredman, T. 2002. Social learning and primate reintroduction. Int. J. Primatol. 23(3):479-499.

Dalebout, M.L., Lento, G.M., Cipriano, F., Funahashi, N., and Baker, C.S. 2002. How many protected minke whales are sold in Japan and Korea? A census by microsatellite DNA profiling. Anim. Conserv. 5:143-152.

Danell, K., and Aava-Olsson, B. 2002. Endemic mammalian genera: are they really unique? J. Biogeogr. 29(4):457-464.

Davidson, R.S., and Armstrong, D.P. 2002. Estimating impacts of poison operations on non-target species using mark-recapture analysis and simulation modelling: an example with saddlebacks. Biol. Conserv. 105(3):375-381.

Davis, A.L.V. 2002. Dung beetle diversity in South Africa: influential factors, conservation status, data inadequacies and survey design. Afr. Entomol. 10(1):53-65.

de Blois, S., Domon, G., and Bouchard, A. 2002. Factors affecting plant species distribution in hedgerows of southern Quebec. Biol. Conserv. 105(3):355-367.

Delannoy, C.A., and Tossas, A.G. 2002. Breeding biology and nest site characteristics of Puerto Rican broad-winged hawks at the Rio Abajo Forest. Caribbean J. Sci. 38(1-2):20-26.

Drake, L.A., Ruiz, G.M., Galil, B.S., Mullady, T.L., Friedman, D.O., and Dobbs, F.C. 2002. Microbial ecology of ballast water during a transoceanic voyage and the effects of open-ocean exchange. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 233:13-20.

Dukes, J.S. 2002. Comparison of the effect of elevated CO2 on an invasive species (Centaurea solstitialis) in monoculture and community settings. Plant Ecol. 160(2):225-234.

Ehrlich, P.R. 2002. Complexity and conservation: an ecological perspective - response. BioScience 52(6):461-462.

Engstrom, T.N., Meylan, P.A., and Meylan, A.B. 2002. Origin of juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in a tropical developmental habitat in Caribbean Panama. Anim. Conserv. 5:125-133.

Enquist, C.A.F. 2002. Predicted regional impacts of climate change on the geographical distribution and diversity of tropical forests in Costa Rica. J. Biogeogr. 29(4):519-534.

Etkin, N.L. 2002. Local knowledge of biotic diversity and its conservation in rural Hausaland, northern Nigeria. Econ. Bot. 56(1):73-88.

Fausch, K.D., Torgersen, C.E., Baxter, C.V., and Li, H.W. 2002. Landscapes to riverscapes: bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream fishes. BioScience 52(6):483-498.

Fensham, R.J., Fairfax, R.J., and Holman, J.E. 2002. Response of a rare herb (Trioncinia retroflexa) from semi-arid tropical grassland to occasional fire and grazing. Austral Ecol. 27(3):284-290.

Feyera, S., Beck, E., and Luttge, U. 2002. Exotic trees as nurse-trees for the regeneration of natural tropical forests. Trees-Struct. Funct. 16(4-5):245-249.

Fischer, F., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2002. Demography of a West African kob (Kobus kob kob) population. Afr. J. Ecol. 40(2):130-137.

Fisher, B.L., and Robertson, H.G. 2002. Comparison and origin of forest and grassland ant assemblages in the high plateau of Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biotropica 34(1):155-167.

Frid, A., and Dill, L.M. 2002. Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of predation risk. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):11. <>

Gao, L.Z., Ge, S., Hong, D.Y., Lin, R.S., Tao, G.D., and Xu, Z.F. 2002. Allozyme variation and conservation genetics of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) in Yunnan, China. Euphytica 124(3):273-281.

Garrigan, D., Marsh, P.C., and Dowling, T.E. 2002. Long-term effective population size of three endangered Colorado River fishes. Anim. Conserv. 5:95-102.

Garrity, D.P., Amoroso, V.B., Koffa, S., Catacutan, D., Buenavista, G., Fay, P., and Dar, W. 2002. Landcare on the poverty-protection interface in an Asian watershed. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):12. <>

Gerber, L.R., and Hatch, L.T. 2002. Are we recovering? An evaluation of recovery criteria under the US Endangered Species Act. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):668-673.

Gilbert, G.S., Ferrer, A., and Carranza, J. 2002. Polypore fungal diversity and host density in a moist tropical forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(6):947-957.

Godley, B.J., Richardson, S., Broderick, A.C., Coyne, M.S., Glen, F., and Hays, G.C. 2002. Long-term satellite telemetry of the movements and habitat utilisation by green turtles in the Mediterranean. Ecography 25(3):352-362.

Goodman, S.M., and Weigt, L.A. 2002. The generic and species relationships of the reputed endemic Malagasy genus Pseudocossyphus (family Turdidae). Ostrich 73(1-2):26-35.

Grevilliot, F., and Muller, S. 2002. Grassland ecotopes of the upper Meuse as references for habitats and biodiversity restoration: a synthesis. Landscape Ecol. 17(Supp. 1):19-33.

Groves, C.R., Jensen, D.B., Valutis, L.L., Redford, K.H., Shaffer, M.L., Scott, J.M., Baumgartner, J.V., Higgins, J.V., Beck, M.W., and Anderson, M.G. 2002. Planning for biodiversity conservation: putting conservation science into practice. BioScience 52(6):499-512.

Halffter, G., and Arellano, L. 2002. Response of dung beetle diversity to human-induced changes in a tropical landscape. Biotropica 34(1):144-154.

Hamer, M.L., and Slotow, R.H. 2002. Conservation application of existing data for South African millipedes (Diplopoda). Afr. Entomol. 10(1):29-42.

Harcourt, A.H., Coppeto, S.A., and Parks, S.A. 2002. Rarity, specialization and extinction in primates. J. Biogeogr. 29(4):445-456.

Hargrove, W.W., Hoffman, F.M., and Schwartz, P.M. 2002. A fractal landscape realizer for generating synthetic maps. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(1):2. <>

Harris, J.A., and Hobbs, R.J. 2001. Clinical practice for ecosystem health: the role of ecological restoration. Ecosyst. Health 7(4):195-202.

Harvell, C.D., Mitchell, C.E., Ward, J.R., Altizer, S., Dobson, A.P., Ostfeld, R.S., and Samuel, M.D. 2002. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296(5576):2158-2162.

Harvey, E., Hoekstra, J.M., O'Connor, R.J., and Fagan, W.F. 2002. Recovery plan revisions: progress or due process? Ecol. Appl. 12(3):682-689.

Hatch, L., Uriarte, M., Fink, D., Aldrich-Wolfe, L., Allen, R.G., Webb, C., Zamudio, K., and Power, A. 2002. Jurisdiction over endangered species' habitat: the impacts of people and property on recovery planning. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):690-700.

Hazlett, B.A., Acquistapace, P., and Gherardi, F. 2002. Differences in memory capabilities in invasive and native crayfish. J. Crustracean Biol. 22(2):439-448.

Hecnar, S.J., Casper, G.S., Russell, R.W., Hecnar, D.R., and Robinson, J.N. 2002. Nested species assemblages of amphibians and reptiles on islands in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J. Biogeogr. 29(4):475-489.

Hedenäs, L., Bisang, I., Tehler, A., Hamnede, M., Jaederfelt, K., and Odelvik, G. 2002. A herbarium-based method for estimates of temporal frequency changes: mosses in Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 105(3):321-331.

Heggenes, J., Røed, K.H., HØyheim, B., and Rosef, L. 2002. Microsatellite diversity assessment of brown trout (Salmo trutta) population structure indicate limited genetic impact of stocking in a Norwegian alpine lake. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 11(2):93-100.

Hoekstra, J.M., Clark, J.A., Fagan, W.F., and Boersma, P.D. 2002. A comprehensive review of Endangered Species Act recovery plans. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):630-640.

Hoekstra, J.M., Fagan, W.F., and Bradley, J.E. 2002. A critical role for critical habitat in the recovery planning process? Not yet. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):701-707.

Hopkins, G.W., Thacker, J.I., Dixon, A.F.G., Waring, P., and Telfer, M.G. 2002. Identifying rarity in insects: the importance of host plant range. Biol. Conserv. 105(3):293-307.

Hylander, K., Jonsson, B.G., and Nilsson, C. 2002. Evaluating buffer strips along boreal streams using bryophytes as indicators. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):797-806.

Jayakumar, S., Arockiasamy, D.I., and Britto, S.J. 2002. Conserving forests in the Eastern Ghats through remote sensing and GIS - a case study in Kolli hills. Curr. Sci. 82(10):1259-1267.

Jehle, R., and Arntzen, J.W. 2002. Microsatellite markers in amphibian conservation genetics. Herp. J. 12(1):1-9.

Johnson, C.N., Delean, S., and Balmford, A. 2002. Phylogeny and the selectivity of extinction in Australian marsupials. Anim. Conserv. 5:135-142.

Johnson, M., and Oring, L.W. 2002. Are nest exclosures an effective tool in plover conservation? Waterbirds 25(2):184-190.

Jones, A.G., Chown, S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2002. Terrestrial invertebrates of Gough Island: an assemblage under threat? Afr. Entomol. 10(1):83-91.

Jones, K.B., Neale, A.C., Wade, T.G., Wickham, J.D., Cross, C.L., Edmonds, C.M., Loveland, T.R., Nash, M.S., Riitters, K.H., and Smith, E.R. 2001. The consequences of landscape change on ecological resources: an assessment of the United States mid-Atlantic Region, 1973-1993. Ecosyst. Health 7(4):229-242.

Jones, R.C., McNally, J., and Rossetto, M. 2002. Isolation of microsatellite loci from a rainforest tree, Elaeocarpus grandis (Elaeocarpaceae), and amplification across closely related taxa. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(2):179-181.

Kareiva, P.M. 2002. Applying ecological science to recovery planning. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):629.

Keedwell, R.J., Maloney, R.F., and Murray, D.P. 2002. Predator control for protecting kaki (Himantopus novaezelandiae) - lessons from 20 years of management. Biol. Conserv. 105(3):369-374.

Kennish, M.J. 2002. Environmental threats and environmental future of estuaries. Environ. Conserv. 29(1):78-107.

Kessler, M. 2002. Species richness and ecophysiological types among Bolivian bromeliad communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(6):987-1010.

Khan, N.Y., Munawar, M., and Price, A.R.G. (eds). 2002. The Gulf Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. Backhuys Publishers. Leiden, Netherlands. 510 pp.

Kingsland, S.E. 2002. Creating a science of nature reserve design: perspectives from history. Environ. Model Assess. 7(2):61-69.

Koskinen, M.T., Nilsson, J., Veselov, A.J., Potutkin, A.G., Ranta, E., and Primmer, C.R. 2002. Microsatellite data resolve phylogeographic patterns in European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, Salmonidae. Heredity 88:391-401.

Kraft, C.E., Sullivan, P.J., Karatayev, A.Y., Burlakova, Y.E., Nekola, J.C., Johnson, L.E., and Padilla, D.K. 2002. Landscape patterns of an aquatic invader: assessing dispersal extent from spatial distributions. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):749-759.

Lawler, J.J., Campbell, S.P., Guerry, A.D., Kolozsvary, M.B., O'Connor, R.J., and Seward, L.C.N. 2002. The scope and treatment of threats in endangered species recovery plans. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):663-667.

Le Goff, M.C., and Rogers, A.D. 2002. Characterization of 10 microsatellite loci for the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(2):164-166.

Lehane, B.M., Giller, P.S., O'Halloran, J., Smith, C., and Murphy, J. 2002. Experimental provision of large woody debris in streams as a trout management technique. Aquat. Conserv. 12(3):289-311.

Li, M.H. 2002. Fluctuating asymmetry and intersexuality in the shore crab Grapsus albolineatus near a coastal landfill site in northern Taiwan. Bull. Mar. Sci. 70(1):75-88.

Li, Y.M., Stanford, C.B., and Yang, Y.H. 2002. Winter feeding tree choice in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellanae) in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Int. J. Primatol. 23(3):657-675.

Lichstein, J.W., Simons, T.R., and Franzreb, K.E. 2002. Landscape effects on breeding songbird abundance in managed forests. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):836-857.

Litt, A., and Cheek, M. 2002. Korupodendron songweanum, a new genus and species of Vochysiaceae from West-Central Africa. Brittonia 54(1):13-17.

Loi, P., Barboni, B., and Ptak, G. 2002. Cloning advances and challenges for conservation - response from Pasqualino Loi, Barbara Barboni and Grazyna Ptak. Trends Biotechnol. 20(6):233.

Lu, S.S., and Samways, M.J. 2002. Behavioural ecology of the Karkloof blue butterfly Orachrysops ariadne (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) relevant to its conservation. Afr. Entomol. 10(1):137-147.

Lu, S.S., and Samways, M.J. 2002. Conservation management recommendations for the Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Afr. Entomol. 10(1):149-159.

Luck, G.W. 2002. The habitat requirements of the rufous treecreeper (Climacteris rufa). 1. Preferential habitat use demonstrated at multiple spatial scales. Biol. Conserv. 105(3):383-394.

Luck, G.W. 2002. The habitat requirements of the rufous treecreeper (Climacteris rufa). 2. Validating predictive habitat models. Biol. Conserv. 105(3):395-403.

Lund, M.P., and Rahbek, C. 2002. Cross-taxon congruence in complementarity and conservation of temperate biodiversity. Anim. Conserv. 5:163-171.

Lundquist, C.J., Diehl, J.M., Harvey, E., and Botsford, L.W. 2002. Factors affecting implementation of recovery plans. Ecol. Appl. 12(3):713-718.

Mac Nally, R., Bennett, A.F., Brown, G.W., Lumsden, L.F., Yen, A., Hinkley, S., Lillywhite, P., and Ward, D.A. 2002. How well do ecosystem-based planning units represent different components of biodiversity? Ecol. Appl. 12(3):900-912.

Macdonald, D.W., Sidorovich, V.E., Anisomova, E.I., Sidorovich, N.V., and Johnson, P.J. 2002. The impact of American mink Mustela vison and European mink Mustela lutreola on water voles Arvicola terrestris in Belarus. Ecography 25(3):295-302.

Malcolm, S.A., and ReVelle, C. 2002. Rebuilding migratory flyways using directed conditional covering. Environ. Model Assess. 7(2):129-138.

McDonnell, M.D., Possingham, H.P., Ball, I.R., and Cousins, E.A. 2002. Mathematical methods for spatially cohesive reserve design. Environ. Model Assess. 7(2):107-114.

McGeoch, M.A. 2002. Insect conservation in South Africa: an overview. Afr. Entomol. 10(1):1-10.

McGeoch, M.A., and Samways, M.J. 2002. Arthropod diversity and conservation in southern Africa. Afr. Entomol. 10(1):II.

McMahon, S., and Cadotte, M. 2002. Complexity and conservation: an ecological perspective. BioScience 52(6):460-461.

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