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Department ofBotany

No. 213
September 2002

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In This Issue

Interior Secretary Proposes Ban on Importation of Snakehead Fish

Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton announced a proposal to ban importation and interstate transportation of live snakeheads in the United States. Snakeheads are voracious fish indigenous to Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Africa. Norton's proposal would add the family of snakeheads, comprised of 28 species, to the Federal list of "injurious wildlife" under the Lacey Act, which authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to list nonindigenous wild animals deemed to be "injurious, or potentially injurious, to the health and welfare of people as well as to the interests of agriculture, forestry, and horticulture, or to the welfare or survival of wildlife or wildlife resources of the United States."

"These fish are like something from a bad horror movie," said Secretary Norton. "A number of these species can survive in the wild in freshwater almost anywhere in the United States. They can eat virtually any small animal in their path. They can travel across land and live out of water for at least three days. They reproduce quickly. We simply must do everything we can to prevent them from entering our waters, either accidentally or intentionally."

Three species of the fish have been found in open waters in California, Florida, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. Thirteen states currently prohibit possession of live snakeheads; nevertheless, there is continuing evidence of illegal activity involving these fish even in states where they are prohibited.

No federal law now prohibits the importation of snakeheads. If the proposed rule is adopted, inspectors will have the authority to stop and seize shipments of live snakehead fish or their viable eggs. Under the proposal, live snakeheads or their eggs could be imported or transported across state lines by permit only for scientific, medical, educational, or zoological purposes.

Snakeheads are widely available. They are sold in live food fish markets and some restaurants in Boston and New York, where the fish are legal. Snakeheads have also been sold through some aquarium fish retailers via the internet. Biologists believe that the availability of the snakehead increases the probability of more releases into open water, and of the real possibility that the snakehead could become established in waterways stretching from Florida to the Canadian border.

Future Meetings

The inaugural meeting of the International Biogeography Society (IBS) - "Frontiers of Biogeography" - will be held at the Oasis Resort, Mesquite, Nevada on 4-8 January 2003. With this meeting, IBS will be launched as an international and interdisciplinary society contributing to the advancement of all studies of the geography of nature. Biogeography is now broadly recognized as a unifying field that provides a holistic understanding of the relationships between the earth and its biota. Our abilities to develop more general theories of the diversity of life and to conserve biological diversity may well rest on insights from the field of biogeography. IBS was founded as a non-profit organization in 2000. The meeting environment will maximize opportunities for biogeographers from a wide range of disciplines to interact with one another. Biogeographers from around the world will deliver invited oral presentations, organized into five symposia (Dynamics of Species Diversity, Phylogeography and Diversification, Paleobiogeography, Biogeography of the Sea, and Biogeography Theory and Conservation Practice). Meeting participants are also invited to submit titles and abstracts for contributed poster presentations. The contributed posters will be an integral part of the meeting, equal in their importance to the invited symposia. To contribute a poster, an abstract must be submitted no later than 1 October 2002. Visit the IBS Website <> for additional information on the society and the meeting.

Current Literature

Afuang, L.E., Redor, R.L., and Banks, C.B. 2002. Increasing community awareness of frogs in the Philippines. Oryx 36(1):14-15.

Altrichter, M., and Almeida, R. 2002. Exploitation of white-lipped peccaries Tayassu pecari (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. Oryx 36(2):126-132.

Aravena, J.C., Carmona, M.R., Perez, C.A., and Armesto, J.J. 2002. Changes in tree species richness, stand structure and soil properties in a successional chronosequence in northern Chiloe Island, Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(2):339-360.

Armstrong, D.P., Davidson, R.S., Dimond, W.J., Perrott, J.K., Castro, I., Ewen, J.G., Griffiths, R., and Taylor, J. 2002. Population dynamics of reintroduced forest birds on New Zealand islands. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):609-621.

Arnett, A.E., and Louda, S.M. 2002. Re-test of Rhinocyllus conicus host specificity, and the prediction of ecological risk in biological control. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):251-257.

Ausden, M., and Hirons, G.J.M. 2002. Grassland nature reserves for breeding wading birds in England and the implications for the ESA agri-environment scheme. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):279-291.

Balian, L.V., Ghasabian, M.G., Adamian, M.S., and Klem, D. 2002. Changes in the waterbird community of the Lake Sevan-Lake Gilli area, Republic of Armenia: a case for restoration. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):157-163.

Ball, S. 2002. The Cambridge Mpingo Project. Oryx 36(2):116.

Banko, P.C., Oboyski, P.T., Slotterback, J.W., Dougill, S.J., Goltz, D.M., Johnson, L., Laut, M.E., and Murray, T.C. 2002. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):789-808.

Barsoum, N. 2001. Relative contributions of sexual and asexual regeneration strategies in Populus nigra and Salix alba during the first years of establishment on a braided gravel bed river. Evol. Ecol. 15(4-6):255-279.

Barton, A.M. 2002. Intense wildfire in southeastern Arizona: transformation of a Madrean oak-pine forest to oak woodland. Forest Ecol. Manag. 165(1-3):205-212.

Berg, A., Jonsson, M., Lindberg, T., and Kallebrink, K.G. 2002. Population dynamics and reproduction of northern lapwings Vanellus vanellus in a meadow restoration area in central Sweden. Ibis 144(3):E131-E140.

Blackburn, T.M., and Gaston, K.J. 2002. Extrinsic factors and the population sizes of threatened birds. Ecol. Lett. 5(4):568-576.

Blake, S. 2002. Forest buffalo prefer clearings to closed-canopy forest in the primary forest of northern Congo. Oryx 36(1):81-86.

Blaustein, A.R., and Kiesecker, J.M. 2002. Complexity in conservation: lessons from the global decline of amphibian populations. Ecol. Lett. 5(4):597-608.

Blumstein, D.T. 2002. Moving to suburbia: ontogenetic and evolutionary consequences of life on predator-free islands. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):685-692.

Bohn, B.A., and Kershner, J.L. 2002. Establishing aquatic restoration priorities using a watershed approach. J. Environ. Manage. 64(4):355-363.

Bonacic, C., Macdonald, D.W., Galaz, J., and Sibly, R.M. 2002. Density dependence in the camelid Vicugna vicugna: the recovery of a protected population in Chile. Oryx 36(2):118-125.

Bond, E.M., and Chase, J.M. 2002. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning at local and regional spatial scales. Ecol. Lett. 5(4):467-470.

Bonnin, I., Colas, B., Bacles, C., Holl, A.C., Hendoux, F., Destine, B., and Viard, F. 2002. Population structure of an endangered species living in contrasted habitats: Parnassia palustris (Saxifragaceae). Mol. Ecol. 11(6):979-990.

Borello, W.D., and Borello, R.M. 2002. The breeding status and colony dynamics of cape vulture Gyps coprotheres in Botswana. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(1):79-97.

Bouza, N., Caujapé-Castells, J., González-Pérez, M.A., Batista, F., and Sosa, P.A. 2002. Population structure and genetic diversity of two endangered endemic species of the Canarian laurel forest: Dorycnium spectabile (Fabaceae) and Isoplexis chalcantha (Scrophulariaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(4):619-630.

Bowen-Jones, E., and Entwistle, A. 2002. Identifying appropriate flagship species: the importance of culture and local contexts. Oryx 36(2):189-195.

Branco, C.D.C., de Almeida, R., and de Albuquerque, U.P. 2002. Use and conservation of medicinal plants and animals in Pernambuco State (northeast Brasil): a case study. Interciencia 27(6):276.

Brenner, G.J., Oboyski, P.T., and Banko, P.C. 2002. Parasitism of Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Sophora chrysophylla (Fabaceae) along an elevation gradient of dry subalpine forest on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 78(2):101-109.

Buij, R., Wich, S.A., Lubis, A.H., and Sterck, E.H.M. 2002. Seasonal movements in the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) and consequences for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):83-87.

Burgess, N., Doggart, N., and Lovett, J.C. 2002. The Uluguru Mountains of eastern Tanzania: the effect of forest loss on biodiversity. Oryx 36(2):140-152.

Campbell, D.J., and Atkinson, I.A.E. 2002. Depression of tree recruitment by the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans Peale) on New Zealand's northern offshore islands. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):19-35.

Camphuysen, C.J., Berrevoets, C.M., Cremers, H.J.W.M., Dekinga, A., Dekker, R., Ens, B.J., van der Have, T.M., Kats, R.K.H., Kuiken, T., Leopold, M.F., van der Meer, J., and Piersma, T. 2002. Mass mortality of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Dutch Wadden Sea, winter 1999/2000: starvation in a commercially exploited wetland of international importance. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):303-317.

Cao, R., Ma, H., Wang, Y.C., Morigen, Tian, Y., and Duan, F.Z. 2002. Community, ecological and reproduction properties of an endangered plant species: Helianthemum ordosicum. Ambio 31(3):258-259.

Capula, M., Luiselli, L., Bologna, M.A., and Ceccarelli, A. 2002. The decline of the Aeolian wall lizard, Podarcis raffonei: causes and conservation proposals. Oryx 36(1):66-72.

Carlsen, T.M., Espeland, E.K., and Pavlik, B.M. 2002. Reproductive ecology and the persistence of an endangered plant. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1247-1268.

Carmack, E.C., and MacDonald, R.W. 2002. Oceanography of the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea: a setting for marine life. Arctic 55:29-45.

Caro, T.M. 2002. Factors affecting the small mammal community inside and outside Katavi National Park, Tanzania. Biotropica 34(2):310-318.

Cavieres, L.A., Arroyo, M.T.K., Posadas, P., Marticorena, C., Matthei, O., Rodríguez, R., Squeo, F.A., and Arancio, G. 2002. Identification of priority areas for conservation in an arid zone: application of parsimony analysis of endemicity in the vascular flora of the Antofagasta region, northern Chile. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1301-1311.

Cerrillo, M.I., Dana, E.D., Castro, H., Rodriguez-Tamayo, M.L., and Mota, J.F. 2002. Selection of priority areas for the conservation of gypsophilous flora in southeast Iberian Peninsula. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(2):395-408.

Chettri, N., Sharma, E., Deb, D.C., and Sundriyal, R.C. 2002. Impact of firewood extraction on tree structure, regeneration and woody biomass productivity in a trekking corridor of the Sikkim Himalaya. Mtn. Res. Dev. 22(2):150-158.

Clark, J.A., and May, R.M. 2002. Taxonomic bias in conservation research. Science 297(5579):191-192.

Clode, D., and MacDonald, D.W. 2002. Invasive predators and the conservation of island birds: the case of American mink Mustela vison and terns Sterna spp. in the Western Isles, Scotland. Bird Study 49:118-123.

Clout, M.N., Elliott, G.P., and Robertson, B.C. 2002. Effects of supplementary feeding on the offspring sex ratio of kakapo: a dilemma for the conservation of a polygynous parrot. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):13-18.

Coloma, L.A. 2002. Two new species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) from Ecuador. Herpetologica 58(2):229-252.

Conrad, K.F., Woiwod, I.P., and Perry, J.N. 2002. Long-term decline in abundance and distribution of the garden tiger moth (Arctia caja) in Great Britain. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):329-337.

Contreras, C., and Valverde, T. 2002. Evaluation of the conservation status of a rare cactus (Mammillaria crucigera) through the analysis of its population dynamics. J. Arid Environ. 51(1):89-102.

Coomes, D.A., Allen, R.B., Scott, N.A., Goulding, C., and Beets, P. 2002. Designing systems to monitor carbon stocks in forests and shrublands. Forest Ecol. Manag. 164(1-3):89-108.

Costa, F.R.C., Senna, C., and Nakkazono, E.M. 2002. Effects of selective logging on populations of two tropical understory herbs in an Amazonian forest. Biotropica 34(2):289-296.

Crook, B.J.S., and Mann, B.Q. 2002. A critique of and recommendations for a subsistence fishery, Lake St Lucia, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1223-1235.

Crooks, J.A. 2002. Characterizing ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions: the role of ecosystem engineers. Oikos 97(2):153-166.

Curio, E. 2002. Prioritisation of Philippine Island avifaunas for conservation: a new combinatorial measure. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):373-380.

Cuthbert, R., and Davis, L.S. 2002. Adult survival and productivity of Hutton's shearwaters. Ibis 144(3):423-432.

Davis, S., Prendergast, H.D.V., and Stickler, T. 2002. Recycling is no good for sustainable development. Oryx 36(2):103-104.

Davison, A., Birks, J.D.S., Brookes, R.C., Braithwaite, T.C., and Messenger, J.E. 2002. On the origin of faeces: morphological versus molecular methods for surveying rare carnivores from their scats. J. Zool. 257:141-143.

Diaz, I.A., Sarmiento, C., Ulloa, L., Moreira, R., Navia, R., Veliz, E., and Pena, C. 2002. Terrestrial vertebrates of the Rio Clarillo National Reserve, central Chile: representation and conservation. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(2):433-448.

Dickson, D.L., and Gilchrist, H.G. 2002. Status of marine birds of the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Arctic 55:46-58.

Donázar, J.A., Palacios, C.J., Gangoso, L., Ceballos, O., González, M.J., and Hiraldo, F. 2002. Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):89-97.

Drake, D.R., Mulder, C.P.H., Towns, D.R., and Daugherty, C.H. 2002. The biology of insularity: an introduction. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):563-569.

Draulans, D., and Van Krunkelsven, E. 2002. The impact of war on forest areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 36(1):35-40.

Dudley, J.P., and Woodford, M.H. 2002. Bioweapons, biodiversity,and ecocide: potential effects of biological weapons on biological diversity. BioScience 52(7):583-592.

Duffy, K.J., van Os, R., Vos, S., van Aarde, J., Ellish, G., and Stretch, A.M.B. 2002. Estimating impact of reintroduced elephant on trees in a small reserve. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 32(1):23-29.

Dunne, J.A., Williams, R.J., and Martinez, N.D. 2002. Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: robustness increases with connectance. Ecol. Lett. 5(4):558-567.

Dybas, C.L. 2002. Florida's Indian River Lagoon: an estuary in transition. BioScience 52(7):554-559.

Dyer, S.J., O'Neill, J.P., Wasel, S.M., and Boutin, S. 2002. Quantifying barrier effects of roads and seismic lines on movements of female woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta. Can. J. Zool. 80(5):839-845.

Dzwonko, Z., and Gawronski, S. 2002. Effect of litter removal on species richness and acidification of a mixed oak-pine woodland. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):389-398.

England, P.R., Usher, A.V., Whelan, R.J., and Ayre, D.J. 2002. Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure of fragmented populations of the rare, fire-dependent shrub Grevillea macleayana. Mol. Ecol. 11(6):967-977.

Englund, R.A. 2002. The loss of native biodiversity and continuing nonindigenous species introductions in freshwater, estuarine, and wetland communities of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Estuaries 25(3):418-430.

Entwistle, A., O'Keefe, E., Coulson, N., and Dyikanova, C. 2002. Community and business forum - success for participation and dialogue. Oryx 36(1):13-14.

Erasmus, B.F.N., Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Chown, S.L., Kshatriya, M., and Wessels, K.J. 2002. Vulnerability of South African animal taxa to climate change. Global Change Biol. 8(7):679-693.

Eriksen, M., Bjureke, K.E., and Dhillion, S.S. 2002. Mycorrhizal plants of traditionally managed boreal grasslands in Norway. Mycorrhiza 12(3):117-123.

Estrada, A., Rivera, A., and Coates-Estrada, R. 2002. Predation of artificial nests in a fragmented landscape in the tropical region of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):199-209.

Fama, P., Jousson, O., Zaninetti, L., Meinesz, A., Dini, F., Di Giuseppe, G., Millar, A.J.K., and Pawlowski, J. 2002. Genetic polymorphism in Caulerpa taxifolia (Ulvophyceae) chloroplast DNA revealed by a PCR-based assay of the invasive Mediterranean strain. J. Evol. Biol. 15(4):618-624.

Farjon, A., Hiep, N.T., Harder, D.K., Loc, P.K., and Averyanov, L. 2002. A new genus and species in Cupressaceae (Coniferales) from northern Vietnam, Xanthocyparis vietnamensis. Novon 12(2):179-189.

Feunteun, E. 2002. Management and restoration of European eel population (Anguilla anguilla): an impossible bargain. Ecol. Eng. 18(5):575-591.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2002. Small patches can be valuable for biodiversity conservation: two case studies on birds in southeastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):129-136.

Fisher, J.B., and Jayachandran, K. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance seedling growth in two endangered plant species from south Florida. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(4):559-566.

Forys, E.A., and Allen, C.R. 2002. Functional group change within and across scales following invasions and extinctions in the everglades ecosystem. Ecosystems 5(4):339-347.

Garbutt, R.A., and Sparks, T.H. 2002. Changes in the botanical diversity of a species rich ancient hedgerow between two surveys (1971-1998). Biol. Conserv. 106(2):273-278.

Garty, J., Levin, T., Cohen, Y., and Lehr, H. 2002. Biomonitoring air pollution with the desert lichen Ramalina maciformis. Physiol. Plantarum 115(2):267-275.

Gaubert, P., Veron, G., Colyn, M., Dunham, A., Shultz, S., and Tranier, M. 2002. A reassessment of the distribution of the rare Genetta johnstoni (Viverridae, Carnivora) with some newly discovered specimens. Mammal Rev. 32(2):132-144.

Gerber, L.R., Kareiva, P.M., and Bascompte, J. 2002. The influence of life history attributes and fishing pressure on the efficacy of marine reserves. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):11-18.

Gibb, H., and Hochuli, D.F. 2002. Habitat fragmentation in an urban environment: large and small fragments support different arthropod assemblages. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):91-100.

Gillespie, G.R. 2002. Impacts of sediment loads, tadpole density, and food type on the growth and development of tadpoles of the spotted tree frog Litoria spenceri: an in-stream experiment. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):141-150.

Giuliano, W.M., and Daves, S.E. 2002. Avian response to warm-season grass use in pasture and hayfield management. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):1-9.

Govaerts, R. 2001. How many species of seed plants are there? Taxon 50(4):1085-1090.

Gros, P.M. 2002. The status and conservation of the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in Tanzania. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):177-185.

Hagen, D. 2002. Propagation of native Arctic and alpine species with a restoration potential. Polar Res. 21(1):37-47.

Hamer, A.J., Lane, S.J., and Mahony, M.J. 2002. Management of freshwater wetlands for the endangered green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea): roles of habitat determinants and space. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):413-424.

Hamilton, S.J., Holley, K.M., and Buhl, K.J. 2002. Hazard assessment of selenium to endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus). Sci. Total Environ. 291(1-3):111-121.

Hansen, D.M., Olesen, J.M., and Jones, C.G. 2002. Trees, birds and bees in Mauritius: exploitative competition between introduced honey bees and endemic nectarivorous birds? J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):721-734.

Hanson, S.R., Osgood, D.T., and Yozzo, D.J. 2002. Nekton use of a Phragmites australis marsh on the Hudson River, New York, USA. Wetlands 22(2):326-337.

Hayes, K. 2002. Update on coltan mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 36(1):12-13.

Heiduck, S. 2002. The use of disturbed and undisturbed forest by masked titi monkeys Callicebus personatus melanochir is proportional to food availability. Oryx 36(2):133-139.

Hellmich, J., and Idaghdour, Y. 2002. The great bustard Otis tarda population in Morocco 1998-2001. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(1):19-33.

Henry, C.P., Amoros, C., and Roset, N. 2002. Restoration ecology of riverine wetlands: a 5-year post-operation survey on the Rhône River, France. Ecol. Eng. 18(5):543-554.

Herbert, J., Hollingsworth, P.M., Gardner, M.F., Mill, R.R., Thomas, P.J., and Jaffre, T. 2002. Conservation genetics and phylogenetics of New Caledonian Retrophyllum (Podocarpaceae) species. New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(2):175-188.

Holzapfel, S., Faville, M.Z., and Gemmill, C.E.C. 2002. Genetic variation of the endangered holoparasite Dactylanthus taylorii (Balanophoraceae) in New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):663-676.

Honnay, O., Verheyen, K., Butaye, J., Jacquemyn, H., Bossuyt, B., and Hermy, M. 2002. Possible effects of habitat fragmentation and climate change on the range of forest plant species. Ecol. Lett. 5(4):525-530.

Hu, H.J., and Jiang, Z.G. 2002. Trial release of Père David's deer Elaphurus davidianus in the Dafeng Reserve, China. Oryx 36(2):196-199.

Imam, E., Yahya, H.S.A., and Malik, I. 2002. A successful mass translocation of commensal rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta in Vrindaban, India. Oryx 36(1):87-93.

Irmler, U., Heller, K., Meyer, H., and Reinke, H.D. 2002. Zonation of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneida) in salt marshes at the North and the Baltic Sea and the impact of the predicted sea level increase. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1129-1147.

Jacobs, O.S., and Biggs, R. 2002. The impact of the African elephant on marula trees in the Kruger National Park. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 32(1):13-22.

Jaksic, F.M., Iriarte, J.A., and Jimenez, J.E. 2002. The raptors of Torres del Paine National Park, Chile: biodiversity and conservation. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 75(2):449-461.

Jeganathan, P., Green, R.E., Bowden, C.G.R., Norris, K., Pain, D., and Rahmani, A. 2002. Use of tracking strips and automatic cameras for detecting Critically Endangered Jerdon's coursers Rhinoptilus bitorquatus in scrub jungle in Andhra Pradesh, India. Oryx 36(2):182-188.

Jenkins, R.K.B., Corti, G.R., Fanning, E., and Roettcher, K. 2002. Management implications of antelope habitat use in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Oryx 36(2):161-169.

Kammesheidt, L. 2002. Perspectives on secondary forest management in tropical humid lowland America. Ambio 31(3):243-250.

Kanai, Y., Ueta, M., Germogenov, N., Nagendran, M., Mita, N., and Higuchi, H. 2002. Migration routes and important resting areas of Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus) between northeastern Siberia and China as revealed by satellite tracking. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):339-346.

Keith, M., and Van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2002. Revisiting Green Data species lists. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1313-1316.

Keller, G.S., and Yahner, R.H. 2002. Butterfly communities in two Pennsylvania national parks. Northeastern Nat. 9(2):235-242.

Keller, L.F., Grant, P.R., Grant, B.R., and Petren, K. 2002. Environmental conditions affect the magnitude of inbreeding depression in survival of Darwin's finches. Evolution 56(6):1229-1239.

Keppel, G. 2002. Low genetic variation in a Pacific cycad: conservation concerns for Cycas seemannii (Cycadaceae). Oryx 36(1):41-49.

Keppel, G., Lee, S.W., and Hodgskiss, P.D. 2002. Evidence for long isolation among populations of a Pacific cycad: genetic diversity and differentiation in Cycas seemannii A.Br. (Cycadaceae). J. Heredity 93(2):133-139.

Killeen, I.J., and Light, J.M. 2002. The status, distribution and ecology of Paludinella littorina (delle Chiaje, 1828) (Gastropoda: Assimineidae) in the British Isles. J. Conchology 37:551-563.

Koivula, M., Kukkonen, J., and Niemelä, J. 2002. Boreal carabid-beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages along the clear-cut originated succession gradient. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1269-1288.

Kruess, A., and Tscharntke, T. 2002. Contrasting responses of plant and insect diversity to variation in grazing intensity. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):293-302.

Kwon, J.A., and Morden, C.W. 2002. Population genetic structure of two rare tree species (Colubrina oppositifolia and Alphitonia ponderosa, Rhamnaceae) from Hawaiian dry and mesic forests using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Mol. Ecol. 11(6):991-1001.

Landsberg, J., James, C.D., Maconochie, J., Nicholls, A.O., Stol, J., and Tynan, R. 2002. Scale-related effects of grazing on native plant communities in an arid rangeland region of South Australia. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(3):427-444.

Laurance, W.F., Albernaz, A.K.M., Schroth, G., Fearnside, P.M., Bergen, S., Venticinque, E.M., and Da Costa, C. 2002. Predictors of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):737-748.

Lawesson, J.E., and Wind, P. 2002. Oak dune forests in Denmark and their ecology. Forest Ecol. Manag. 164(1-3):1-14.

Lawrence, J.M., and Samways, M.J. 2002. Influence of hilltop vegetation Type on an African butterfly assemblage and its conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1163-1171.

Lefeuvre, J.C., and Bouchard, V. 2002. From a civil engineering project to an ecological engineering project: an historical perspective from the Mont Saint Michel bay (France). Ecol. Eng. 18(5):593-606.

Lens, L., and Van Dongen, S. 2002. Fluctuating asymmetry as a bio-indicator in isolated populations of the Taita thrush: a Bayesian perspective. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):809-819.

Leonard, L.A., Wren, P.A., and Beavers, R.L. 2002. Flow dynamics and sedimentation in Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis marshes of the Chesapeake Bay. Wetlands 22(2):415-424.

Leu, M., and Thompson, C.W. 2002. The potential importance of migratory stopover sites as flight feather molt staging areas: a review for neotropical migrants. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):45-56.

Li, Q.M., Xu, Z.F., and He, T.H. 2002. Ex situ genetic conservation of endangered Vatica guangxiensis (Dipterocarpaceae) in China. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):151-156.

Lim, B.K., Peterson, A.T., and Engstrom, M.D. 2002. Robustness of ecological niche modeling algorithms for mammals in Guyana. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1237-1246.

Lindsay, A.R., Gillum, S.S., and Meyer, M.W. 2002. Influence of lakeshore development on breeding bird communities in a mixed northern forest. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):1-11.

Løkkeborg, S., and Robertson, G. 2002. Seabird and longline interactions: effects of a bird-scaring streamer line and line shooter on the incidental capture of northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):359-364.

Lumsden, L.F., Bennett, A.F., and Silins, J.E. 2002. Location of roosts of the lesser long-eared bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi and Gould's wattled bat Chalinolobus gouldii in a fragmented landscape in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):237-249.

Lumsden, L.F., Bennett, A.F., and Silins, J.E. 2002. Selection of roost sites by the lesser long-eared bat (Nyctophilus geoffroyi) and Gould's wattled bat (Chalinolobus gouldii) in south-eastern Australia. J. Zool. 257:207-218.

Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A., and Sherwin, W.B. 2002. Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biol. Conserv. 106(1):101-113.

MacKinnon, K. 2002. World Bank assistance to transboundary reserves. Oryx 36(2):115.

Maehr, D.S., Land, E.D., Shindle, D.B., Bass, O.L., and Hoctor, T.S. 2002. Florida panther dispersal and conservation. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):187-197.

Martinez-Vilalta, J., Bertolero, A., Bigas, D., Paquet, J.Y., and Martinez-Vilalta, A. 2002. Habitat selection of passerine birds nesting in the Ebro Delta reedbeds (NE Spain): management implications. Wetlands 22(2):318-325.

Matola, S. 2002. Mesoamerican biological corridor threatened by hydroelectric dam. Oryx 36(1):12.

Mattner, J., Zawko, G., Rossetto, M., Krauss, S.L., Dixon, K.W., and Sivasithamparam, K. 2002. Conservation genetics and implications for restoration of Hemigenia exilis (Lamiaceae), a serpentine endemic from Western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):37-45.

Mauchamp, A., Chauvelon, P., and Grillas, P. 2002. Restoration of floodplain wetlands: opening polders along a coastal river in Mediterranean France, Vistre marshes. Ecol. Eng. 18(5):619-632.

Maunder, M., Page, W., Mauremootoo, J., Payendee, R., Mungroo, Y., Maljkovic, A., Vericel, C., and Lyte, B. 2002. The decline and conservation management of the threatened endemic palms of the Mascarene Islands. Oryx 36(1):56-65.

Meehan, H.J., McConkey, K.R., and Drake, D.R. 2002. Potential disruptions to seed dispersal mutualisms in Tonga, Western Polynesia. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):695-712.

Meek, B., Loxton, D., Sparks, T., Pywell, R., Pickett, H., and Nowakowski, M. 2002. The effect of arable field margin composition on invertebrate biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):259-271.

Meik, J.M., Jeo, R.M., Mendelson, J.R., and Jenks, K.E. 2002. Effects of bush encroachment on an assemblage of diurnal lizard species in central Namibia. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):29-36.

Mew, J. 2002. Awacachi Corridor links Awá Ethnic Reserve and the Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve. Oryx 36(2):116.

Mickleburgh, S. 2002. Flagship species fund. Oryx 36(2):115-116.

Mickleburgh, S.P., Hutson, A.M., and Racey, P.A. 2002. A review of the global conservation status of bats. Oryx 36(1):18-34.

Miller, M.W., and Gerstner, C.L. 2002. Reefs of an uninhabited Caribbean island: fishes, benthic habitat, and opportunities to discern reef fishery impact. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):37-44.

Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2002. Is bushmeat just another conservation bandwagon? Oryx 36(1):1-2.

Mitsch, W.J., Lefeuvre, J.C., and Bouchard, V. 2002. Ecological engineering applied to river and wetland restoration. Ecol. Eng. 18(5):529-541.

Montambault, J., and Alonso, L. 2002. High biodiversity discovered in remote region of Guyana. Oryx 36(2):113-114.

Morris, P.A., Hill, N.M., Reekie, E.G., and Hewlin, H.L. 2002. Lakeshore diversity and rarity relationships along interacting disturbance gradients: catchment area, wave action and depth. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):79-90.

Muller, S. 2002. Appropriate agricultural management practices required to ensure conservation and biodiversity of environmentally sensitive grassland sites designated under Natura 2000. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 89(3):261-266.

Muller, S. 2002. Diversity of management practices required to ensure conservation of rare and locally threatened plant species in grasslands: a case study at a regional scale (Lorraine, France). Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1173-1184.

Naeem, S. 2002. Ecosystem consequences of biodiversity loss: the evolution of a paradigm. Ecology 83(6):1537-1552.

Nardi, G., Di Russo, C., and Latella, L. 2002. Populations of Nepa cinerea (Heteroptera: Nepidae) from hypogean sulfurous water in the Lepini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy). Entomol. News 113(2):125-130.

Nelson, N.J., Keall, S.N., Pledger, S., and Daugherty, C.H. 2002. Male-biased sex ratio in a small tuatara population. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):633-640.

Nkosi, B.S. 2002. Community education for biological diversity conservation in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland. J. Biol. Educ. 36(3):113-115.

Norris, D.R., Theberge, M.T., and Theberge, J.B. 2002. Forest composition around wolf (Canis lupus) dens in eastern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 80(5):866-872.

Oindo, B.O. 2002. Patterns of herbivore species richness in Kenya and current ecoclimatic stability. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1205-1221.

Olson, D. 2002. International Elephant Foundation: conservation projects for 2002. Oryx 36(2):117.

Paillisson, J.M., Reeber, S., and Marion, L. 2002. Bird assemblages as bio-indicators of water regime management and hunting disturbance in natural wet grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):115-127.

Parungao, M.M., Fryar, S.C., and Hyde, K.D. 2002. Diversity of fungi on rainforest litter in North Queensland, Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1185-1194.

Pérez-Arteaga, A., Gaston, K.J., and Kershaw, M. 2002. Population trends and priority conservation sites for Mexican duck Anas diazi. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(1):35-52.

Pérez-Arteaga, A., Gaston, K.J., and Kershaw, M. 2002. Undesignated sites in Mexico qualifying as wetlands of international importance. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):47-57.

Pfab, M.F. 2002. An integrative approach for the conservation and management of South Africa's floristic diversity at the provincial level. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1195-1204.

Piirto, D.D., and Rogers, R.R. 2002. An ecological basis for managing giant sequoia ecosystems. Environ. Manage. 30(1):110-128.

Pitts-Singer, T.L., Hanula, J.L., and Walker, J.L. 2002. Insect pollinators of three rare plants in a Florida longleaf pine forest. Fl. Entomol. 85(2):308-316.

Pokorný, J., and Hauser, V. 2002. The restoration of fish ponds in agricultural landscapes. Ecol. Eng. 18(5):555-574.

Poysa, H., and Poysa, S. 2002. Nest-site limitation and density dependence of reproductive output in the common goldeneye Bucephala clangula: implications for the management of cavity-nesting birds. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(3):502-510.

Pressey, R.L., Whish, G.L., Barrett, T.W., and Watts, M.E. 2002. Effectiveness of protected areas in north-eastern New South Wales: recent trends in six measures. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):57-69.

Rae, J.G., and Ebert, T.A. 2002. Demography of the endangered fragrant prickly apple cactus, Harrisia fragrans. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(4):631-640.

Randrianasolo, A., Miller, J.S., and Consiglio, T.K. 2002. Application of IUCN criteria and Red List categories to species of five Anacardiaceae genera in Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1289-1300.

Ricotta, C., Ferrari, M., and Avena, G. 2002. Using the scaling behaviour of higher taxa for the assessment of species richness. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):131-133.

Riera, N., Traveset, A., and García, O. 2002. Breakage of mutualisms by exotic species: the case of Cneorum tricoccon L. in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean Sea). J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):713-719.

Riley, J. 2002. Population sizes and the status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(1):53-78.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2002. Optimisation in reserve selection procedures - why not? Biol. Conserv. 107(1):123-129.

Romey, W.L., and Knisley, C.B. 2002. Microhabitat segregation of two Utah sand dune tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Southwest. Nat. 47(2):169-174.

Roshier, D.A., Robertson, A.I., and Kingsford, R.T. 2002. Responses of waterbirds to flooding in an arid region of Australia and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):399-411.

Ross, K.A., Fox, B.J., and Fox, M.D. 2002. Changes to plant species richness in forest fragments: fragment age, disturbance and fire history may be as important as area. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):749-765.

Russell, K.R., Guynn, D.C., and Hanlin, H.G. 2002. Importance of small isolated wetlands for herpetofaunal diversity in managed, young growth forests in the coastal plain of South Carolina. Forest Ecol. Manag. 163(1-3):43-59.

Russo, D., Jones, G., and Migliozzi, A. 2002. Habitat selection by the Mediterranean horseshoe nat, Rhinolophus euryale (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in a rural area of southern Italy and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):71-81.

Sambou, B., Goudiaby, A., Ervik, F., Diallo, D., and Camara, M.C. 2002. Palm wine harvesting by the Bassari threatens Borassus aethiopum populations in north-western Guinea. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(7):1149-1161.

Samways, M.J. 2002. Red-Listed Odonata of Africa. Odonatologica 31(2):151-170.

Sanders, M.D., and Maloney, R.F. 2002. Causes of mortality at nests of ground-nesting birds in the Upper Waitaki Basin, South Island, New Zealand: a 5-year video study. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):225-236.

Sauer, J.R., and Link, W.A. 2002. Hierarchical modeling of population stability and species group attributes from survey data. Ecology 83(6):1743-1751.

Scarff, F.R., and Bradley, J.S. 2002. Ecosystem function and species loss - a microcosm study. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):641-651.

Schwartz, M.W., Jurjavcic, N.L., and O'Brien, J.M. 2002. Conservation's disenfranchised urban poor. BioScience 52(7):601-606.

Seddon, P.J., and Ismail, K. 2002. Influence of ambient temperature on diurnal activity of Arabian oryx: implications for reintroduction site selection. Oryx 36(1):50-55.

Silla, F., Fraver, S., Lara, A., Allnutt, T.R., and Newton, A. 2002. Regeneration and stand dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides (Cupressaceae) forests of southern Chile's Central Depression. Forest Ecol. Manag. 165(1-3):213-224.

Similä, M., Kouki, J., Martikainen, P., and Uotila, A. 2002. Conservation of beetles in boreal pine forests: the effects of forest age and naturalness on species assemblages. Biol. Conserv. 106(1):19-27.

Singh, M., Singh, M., Kumar, M.A., Kumara, H.N., Sharma, A.K., and Kaumanns, W. 2002. Distribution, population structure, and conservation of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Anaimalai Hills, Western Ghats, India. Am. J. Primatol. 57(2):91-102.

Smith, M. 2002. Some ideas for activities involving the construction of computer-based identification keys. J. Biol. Educ. 36(3):135-137.

Smolders, A.J.P., Tomassen, H.B.M., Lamers, L.P.M., Lomans, B.P., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2002. Peat bog restoration by floating raft formation: the effects of groundwater and peat quality. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(3):391-401.

Stein, J.L., Stein, J.A., and Nix, H.A. 2002. Spatial analysis of anthropogenic river disturbance at regional and continental scales: identifying the wild rivers of Australia. Landscape Urban Plan. 60(1):1-25.

Stout, J.C., Kells, A.R., and Goulson, D. 2002. Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):425-434.

Strong, A.M., and Sherry, T.W. 2001. Body condition of Swainson's warblers wintering in Jamaica and the conservation value of Caribbean dry forests. Wilson Bull. 113(4):410-418.

Surget-Groba, Y., Heulin, B., Ghielmi, S., Guillaume, C.P., and Vogrin, N. 2002. Phylogeography and conservation of the populations of Zootoca vivipara carniolica. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):365-372.

Suter, J., and Byler, D. 2002. Developments in nature conservation in Liberia. Oryx 36(2):112-113.

Sverdrup-Thygeson, A., and Ims, R.A. 2002. The effect of forest clearcutting in Norway on the community of saproxylic beetles on aspen. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):347-357.

Tabarelli, M., and Peres, C.A. 2002. Abiotic and vertebrate seed dispersal in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: implications for forest regeneration. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):165-176.

Teal, J.M., and Weinstein, M.P. 2002. Ecological engineering, design, and construction considerations for marsh restorations in Delaware Bay, USA. Ecol. Eng. 18(5):607-618.

Telfer, M.G., Preston, C.D., and Rothery, P. 2002. A general method for measuring relative change in range size from biological atlas data. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):99-109.

Thiollay, J.M., and Rahman, Z. 2002. The raptor community of Central Sulawesi: habitat selection and conservation status. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):111-122.

Thompson, B.C., Matusik-Rowan, P.L., and Boykin, K.G. 2002. Prioritizing conservation potential of arid-land montane natural springs and associated riparian areas. J. Arid Environ. 50(4):527-547.

Todd, C.R., Jenkins, S., and Bearlin, A.R. 2002. Lessons about extinction and translocation: models for eastern barred bandicoots (Perameles gunnii) at Woodlands Historic Park, Victoria, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 106(2):211-223.

Tomkovich, P.S., Syroechkovski, E.E., Lappo, E.G., and Zockler, C. 2002. First indications of a sharp population decline in the globally threatened spoon-billed sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(1):1-18.

Towns, D.R. 2002. Korapuki Island as a case study for restoration of insular ecosystems in New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):593-607.

Trainor, C. 2002. Rediscovery of the Damar flycatcher Ficedula henrici on Damar Island, Indonesia, after 103 years. Oryx 36(1):14.

Turner, C., and Raines, P. 2002. Rebel army need not be a barrier to conservation. Nature 418(6894):125.

van den Hoff, J., Burton, H.R., Hindell, M.A., Sumner, M.D., and McMahon, C.R. 2002. Migrations and foraging of juvenile southern elephant seals from Macquarie Island within CCAMLR managed areas. Antarct. Sci. 14(2):134-145.

Velando, A., and Freire, J. 2002. Population modelling of European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) at their southern limit: conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 107(1):59-69.

Vulinec, K. 2002. Dung beetle communities and seed dispersal in primary forest and disturbed land in Amazonia. Biotropica 34(2):297-309.

Waitkuwait, W.E., and Suter, J. 2002. The exceptional conservation potential of Sapo National Park, Liberia. Oryx 36(1):11-12.

Wang, G.M., Hobbs, N.T., Singer, F.J., Ojima, D.S., and Lubow, B.C. 2002. Impacts of climate changes on elk population dynamics in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Climatic Change 54(1-2):205-223.

Wardle, D.A. 2002. Islands as model systems for understanding how species affect ecosystem properties. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):583-591.

Watson, D.M. 2002. A conceptual framework for studying species composition in fragments, islands and other patchy ecosystems. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):823-834.

Webb, J.K., Brook, B.W., and Shine, R. 2002. Collectors endanger Australia's most threatened snake, the broad-headed snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Oryx 36(2):170-181.

West, A.D., Goss-Custard, J.D., Stillman, R.A., Caldow, R.W.G., Durell, S.E.A.L.D., and McGrorty, S. 2002. Predicting the impacts of disturbance on shorebird mortality using a behaviour-based model. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):319-328.

White, H., and Lanjouw, A. 2002. The eruption of Nyiragongo Volcano in DRC. Oryx 36(2):112.

Whitehouse, A.M. 2002. Tusklessness in the elephant population of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. J. Zool. 257:249-254.

Wielgus, R.B. 2002. Minimum viable population and reserve sizes for naturally regulated grizzly bears in British Columbia. Biol. Conserv. 106(3):381-388.

Wilkinson, N.I., Langston, R.H.W., Gregory, R.D., Gibbons, D.W., and Marquiss, M. 2002. Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus abundance and habitat use in Scotland, in winter 1998-99. Bird Study 49:177-185.

Winston, M.R. 2002. Distribution and abundance of the goldstripe darter (Etheostoma parvipinne) in Missouri. Southwest. Nat. 47(2):187-194.

Wiser, S.K., Drake, D.R., Burrows, L.E., and Sykes, W.R. 2002. The potential for long-term persistence of forest fragments on Tongatapu, a large island in western Polynesia. J. Biogeogr. 29(5-6):767-787.

Woodford, M.H., Butynski, T.M., and Karesh, W.B. 2002. Habituating the great apes: the disease risks. Oryx 36(2):153-160.

Wu, X.B., Wang, Y.Q., Zhou, K.Y., Zhu, W.Q., Nie, J.S., Wang, C.L., and Xie, W.S. 2002. Genetic variation in captive population of chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Biol. Conserv. 106(3):435-441.

Yagami, T., Yokoyama, R., and Goto, A. 2002. Genetic fragmentation of populations of the fluvial sculpin Cottus nozawae (Pisces: Cottidae) at the southern margin of its native range. Can. J. Zool. 80(5):873-881.

Yan, N.D., Girard, R., and Boudreau, S. 2002. An introduced invertebrate predator (Bythotrephes) reduces zooplankton species richness. Ecol. Lett. 5(4):481-485.

Young, A.G., Hill, J.H., Murray, B.G., and Peakall, R. 2002. Breeding system, genetic diversity and clonal structure in the sub-alpine forb Rutidosis leiolepis F. Muell. (Asteraceae). Biol. Conserv. 106(1):71-78.

Ziegler, S., Nikolaus, G., and Hutterer, R. 2002. High mammalian diversity in the newly established National Park of Upper Niger, Republic of Guinea. Oryx 36(1):73-80.

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