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Department ofBotany

No. 214
October 2002

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In This Issue

Plant Biodiversity Meeting to Convene in India

Plant biodiversity in the new millennium faces an uncertain future resulting from unplanned exploitation of and damage to the natural resources that also brings about large scale deterioration in the environment. Bose Institute, Kolkata, India will host an international symposium on "Plant Biodiversity: Conservation and Evaluation" on 17-20 December 2002. The scientific session will address issues of exploration and benefit sharing; germplasm conservation; evaluation of plant genetic resource for useful secondary metabolites; genome analysis, molecular markers and bioprospecting for useful genes; biotechnological approaches; bio-informatics for database development; and strategy and action plan for biodiversity conservation in West Bengal.

Eminent scientists from India and abroad, frontline academics, policy makers, NGOs, plant biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries will participate and interact at this symposium. Dr. M. S. Swaminathan will inaugurate the symposium. Interested scientists, scholars, agriculturists, environmentalists are invited to participate. Presentations will include invited lectures and contributed papers mainly as posters.

For more information, contact Swati Sen-Mandi, Organizing Secretary, Department of Botany, Bose Institute, 93/1, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, India; Tel: 91-33-350-6619/2402/2403 Ext. 215; Fax: 91-33-350-6790; E-mail:

Job Opportunities

The Department of Earth and Environmental Science at the University of Pennsylvania seeks applications for a postdoctoral position. The successful candidate will work directly with F.N. Scatena in analyzing, synthesizing, and managing long-term hydrological and ecological data from humid tropical watersheds. The incumbent will also be involved with the Luquillo Long Term Ecological research program and have excellent opportunities to publish results from existing data sets. Applicants should have a Ph.D. in a related field and experience with time-series analysis, the management of large environmental data sets, and GIS. Applicants should submit resumes to: F.N. Scatena, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, 240 S. 33rd Street - Hayden Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19107-6316; E-mail: The University of Pennsylvania is an equal-opportunity employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.

New Publications

Medicinal plants are important natural resources and play a vital role in the maintenance of human health throughout the world, particularly in remote mountainous areas. They are of critical importance in poor communities where even relatively cheap western medicines remain prohibitively expensive. Knowledge of medicinal plants may be locally known and their efficacy is trusted and tested based on a long history of use. "Traditional Knowledge on Herbs and Medicinal Plants in Hindu Kush Himalayan Region of District Chitral, Pakistan," by Aziz Ali, examines the uses, knowledge, and conservation practices of medicinal plants in Northern Pakistan. Available from the Aga Khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP), the report provides traditional knowledge of 38 plant species. Specific objectives of the study include providing information of the traditional uses of medical plants; encouraging and empowering local people through research and scientific assessment; disseminating local knowledge to planners who are directly or indirectly involved with biodiversity conservation and management; and, discovering plants that may have possible market application, beyond the realm of the local. To receive a copy of the report, contact Aziz Ali at

Information Highway Hi-Lites

World Atlas of Biodiversity <> is an outstanding new Web site from the United Nations Environment Programmes World Conservation Monitoring Center (UNEP-WCMC). Like other GIS-based programs, the features of this Web site can be useful in demonstrating spatial patterns of environmental problems. Users can choose from dozens of map layers (derived from biodiversity and related data) to superimpose on geographical maps of the planet on a global, regional, or even local scale. Manipulating the maps is relatively straightforward. For example, to explore the correlation between human population density and bird extinctions in North America, drag a box around the continent, select Human Population Density and Bird Extinctions from the map layer menu, and then click Refresh Map. One does not have to be familiar with GIS programs to use this Web site, but a quick look at the Help page should clarify any confusion regarding the site's toolbar icons or other features.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2002.

Scientists from the Hawaii Biological Survey and Bishop Museum provide the online "Guidebook of Introduced Marine Species in Hawaii" <>. Although brief, the guide focuses on the most common introduced species with the hope that it will educate individuals about the threats posed by introduced species and encourage them to report occurrences of other unknown species. The Invertebrates section can be navigated through a species list of scientific names, or by viewing groups of photos. Each species has a page that includes description and habitat information, as well as photos of other similar organisms. Not as easy to navigate, the Algae section is hosted by the University of Hawaii. The entire Invertebrate section or individual species pages can be downloaded in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences

Current Literature

Adams, J.M., Piovesan, G., Strauss, S., and Brown, S. 2002. The case for genetic engineering of native and landscape trees against introduced pests and diseases. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):874-879.

Allen, A.P., Brown, J.H., and Gillooly, J.F. 2002. Global biodiversity, biochemical kinetics, and the energetic-equivalence rule. Science 297(5586):1545-1548.

Álvarez, M.D. 2002. Illicit crops and bird conservation priorities in Colombia. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1086-1096.

Amezaga, J.M., Santamaria, L., and Green, A.J. 2002. Biotic wetland connectivity - supporting a new approach for wetland policy. Acta Oecol. 23(3):213-222.

An, T., and Ziegler, S. 2001. Utilization of medicinal plants in Bach Ma National Park, Vietnam. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:3-5.

Anderson, C.E., Chapman, K.A., White, M.A., and Cornett, M.W. 2002. Effects of browsing control on establishment and recruitment of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) at Cathedral Grove, Lake Superior Highlands, Minnesota, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(3):202-210.

Anderson, D.C., and Ostler, W.K. 2002. Revegetation of degraded lands at US Department of Energy and US Department of Defense installations: strategies and successes. Arid Land Res. Manag. 16(3):197-212.

Armstrong, D.P., and Ewen, J.G. 2002. Dynamics and viability of a New Zealand robin population reintroduced to regenerating fragmented habitat. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1074-1085.

Aumeeruddy-Thomas, Y. 2001. Working with Tibetan doctors (amchis) for the conservation of medicinal plants and health care development at Shey Phoksundo National Park, Dolpa, Nepal. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:8-11.

Babbitt, B. 2002. What goes up, may come down. BioScience 52(8):656-658.

Balmer, O. 2002. Species lists in ecology and conservation: abundances matter. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1160-1161.

Balmford, A., Bruner, A., Cooper, P., Costanza, R., Farber, S., Green, R.E., Jenkins, M., Jefferiss, P., Jessamy, V., Madden, J., Munro, K., Myers, N., Naeem, S., Paavola, J., Rayment, M., Rosendo, S., Roughgarden, J., Trumper, K., and Turner, R.K. 2002. Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science 297(5583):950-953.

Barbosa, O., and Marquet, P.A. 2002. Effects of forest fragmentation on the beetle assemblage at the relict forest of Fray Jorge, Chile. Oecologia 132(2):296-306.

Beier, P., Van Drielen, M., and Kankam, B.O. 2002. Avifaunal collapse in West African forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1097-1111.

Beissinger, S.R. 2002. Unresolved problems in the condor recovery program: response to Risebrough. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1158-1159.

Belant, J.L., and Van Stappen, J.F. 2002. Island biogeography of mammals in Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(3):180-185.

Bell, J.J., and Barnes, D.K.A. 2002. Modelling sponge species diversity using a morphological predictor: a tropical test of a temperate model. J. Nature Conserv. 10(1):41-50.

Berg, Å., Gärdenfors, U., Hallingbäck, T., and Norén, M. 2002. Habitat preferences of red-listed fungi and bryophytes in woodland key habitats in southern Sweden - analyses of data from a national survey. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1479-1503.

Bernard, E., and Fenton, M.B. 2002. Species diversity of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in forest fragments, primary forests, and savannas in central Amazonia, Brazil. Can. J. Zool. 80(6):1124-1140.

Bhatia, P., Bhatia, N.P., and Ashwath, N. 2002. In vitro propagation of Stackhousia tryonii Bailey (Stackhousiaceae): a rare and serpentine-endemic species of central Queensland, Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1469-1477.

Boumans, R.M.J., Burdick, D.M., and Dionne, M. 2002. Modeling habitat change in salt marshes after tidal restoration. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):543-555.

Bowman, M.B. 2002. Legal perspectives on dam removal. BioScience 52(8):739-747.

Boyce, M.S., Kirsch, E.M., and Servheen, C. 2002. Bet-hedging applications for conservation. J. Bioscience 27(4):385-392.

Breininger, D.R., Duncan, B.W., and Dominy, N.J. 2002. Relationships between fire frequency and vegetation type in pine flatwoods of east-central Florida, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(3):186-193.

Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Rylands, A.B., Konstant, W.R., Flick, P., Pilgrim, J., Oldfield, S., Magin, G., and Hilton-Taylor, C. 2002. Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):909-923.

Brouwer, E., Bobbink, R., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2002. Restoration of aquatic macrophyte vegetation in acidified and eutrophied softwater lakes: an overview. Aquat. Bot. 73(4):405-431.

Bruna, E.M. 2002. Effects of forest fragmentation on Heliconia acuminata seedling recruitment in central Amazonia. Oecologia 132(2):235-243.

Bruna, E.M., Nardy, O., Strauss, S.Y., and Harrison, S. 2002. Experimental assessment of Heliconia acuminata growth in a fragmented Amazonian landscape. J. Ecology 90(4):639-649.

Burnside, N.G., Smith, R.F., and Waite, S. 2002. Habitat suitability modelling for calcareous grassland restoration on the South Downs, United Kingdom. J. Environ. Manage. 65(2):209-221.

Cadotte, M.W., Franck, R., Reza, L., and Lovett-Doust, J. 2002. Tree and shrub diversity and abundance in fragmented littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1417-1436.

Callejas, C., and Ochando, M.D. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships among Spanish Barbus species (Pisces, Cyprinidae) shown by RAPD markers. Heredity 89:36-43.

Callicott, J.B. 2002. Choosing appropriate temporal and spatial scales for ecological restoration. J. Bioscience 27(4):409-420.

Campbell, L.M. 2002. Science and sustainable use: views of marine turtle conservation experts. Ecol. Appl. 12(4):1229-1246.

Carignan, V., and Villard, M.A. 2002. Selecting indicator species to monitor ecological integrity: a review. Environ. Monit. Assess. 78(1):45-61.

Cassingham, K.M., Sills, E.O., Pattanayak, S.K., and Mansfield, C.A. 2002. North Carolina's natural heritage program: a case for public-private cooperation. J. Forestry 100(5):16-23.

Collins, T.M., Trexler, J.C., Nico, L.G., and Rawlings, T.A. 2002. Genetic diversity in a morphologically conservative invasive taxon: multiple introductions of swamp eels to the southeastern United States. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1024-1035.

Corbin, J. 2001. Conservation of species by protective marking. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:14-15.

Corliss, J.O. 2002. Biodiversity and biocomplexity of the protists and an overview of their significant roles in maintenance of our biosphere. Acta Protozool. 41(3):199-219.

Cornu, C.E., and Sadro, S. 2002. Physical and functional responses to experimental marsh surface elevation manipulation in Coos Bay's South Slough. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):474-486.

Cortés, E. 2002. Incorporating uncertainty into demographic modeling: application to shark populations and their conservation. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1048-1062.

Cox, J.J., Maehr, D.S., and Larkin, J.L. 2002. The biogeography of faunal place names in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1143-1150.

Cracraft, J. 2002. The seven great questions of systematic biology: an essential foundation for conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):127-144.

Craze, P.G., and Mauremootoo, J.R. 2002. A test of methods for estimating population size of the invasive land snail Achatina fulica in dense vegetation. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(4):653-660.

Crooks, S., Schutten, J., Sheern, G.D., Pye, K., and Davy, A.J. 2002. Drainage and elevation as factors in the restoration of salt marsh in Britain. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):591-602.

Cunningham, S.C., Babb, R.D., Jones, T.R., Taubert, B.D., and Vega, R. 2002. Reaction of lizard populations to a catastrophic wildfire in a central Arizona mountain range. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):193-201.

Cunningham, T. 2001. Return of the pepper-bark. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:21-22.

Curtin, C.G. 2002. Integration of science and community-based conservation in the Mexico/US borderlands. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):880-886.

de Warnaffe, G.D., and Devillez, F. 2002. Quantifying the ecological value of forests in order to integrate nature conservation in management planning: a multicriteria method. Ann. Forest Sci. 59(4):369-387.

Derraik, J.G.B., Closs, G.P., Dickinson, K.J.M., Sirvid, P., Barratt, B.I.P., and Patrick, B.H. 2002. Arthropod morphospecies versus taxonomic species: a case study with Araneae, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1015-1023.

Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., and Telles, M.P.D. 2002. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and the identification of operational units for conservation in continuous populations. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):924-935.

Du Toit, J.T. 2002. Wildlife harvesting guidelines for community-based wildlife management: a southern African perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1403-1416.

Edwards, R.J., Hubbs, C., and Garrett, G.P. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Gambusia amistadensis Peden, 1973 (Poeciliidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 64(4):460.

Eertman, R.H.M., Kornman, B.A., Stikvoort, E., and Verbeek, H. 2002. Restoration of the Sieperda tidal marsh in the Scheldt estuary, the Netherlands. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):438-449.

Ejrnaes, R., Aude, E., Nygaard, B., and Münier, B. 2002. Prediction of habitat quality using ordination and neural networks. Ecol. Appl. 12(4):1180-1187.

Ekstrom, J.M.M., Dones, J.P.G., Willis, J., Tobias, J., Dutson, G., and Barre, N. 2002. New information on the distribution, status and conservation of terrestrial bird species in Grande Terre, New Caledonia. Emu 102(2):197-207.

Ezcurra, C. 2002. The genus Justicia (Acanthaceae) in the southern region of South America. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):225-280.

Faith, D.P., and Walker, P.A. 2002. The role of trade-offs in biodiversity conservation planning: linking local management, regional planning and global conservation efforts. J. Bioscience 27(4):393-407.

Fox, G.A., and Kendall, B.E. 2002. Demographic stochasticity and the variance reduction effect. Ecology 83(7):1928-1934.

Franklin, T.M., and Burke, C.A. 2002. Drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(2):599-600.

Freyfogle, E.T., and Newton, J.L. 2002. Putting science in its place. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):863-873.

Garrett, G.P., Hubbs, C., and Edwards, R.J. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Cyprinodon bovinus Baird & Girard, 1853 (Cyprinodontidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 64(4):442.

Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Sarkar, S. 2002. Birds as surrogates for biodiversity: an analysis of a data set from southern Québec. J. Bioscience 27(4):347-360.

Gaston, K.J., Pressey, R.L., and Margules, C.R. 2002. Persistence and vulnerability: retaining biodiversity in the landscape and in protected areas. J. Bioscience 27(4):361-384.

Gazda, R.J., Meidinger, R.R., Ball, I.J., and Connelly, J.W. 2002. Relationships between Russian olive and duck nest success in southeastern Idaho. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(2):337-344.

Getznerm, M., and Jungmeier, M. 2002. Conservation policy and the regional economy: the regional economic impact of Natura 2000 conservation sites in Austria. J. Nature Conserv. 10(1):23-34.

Gippoliti, S., and Amori, G. 2002. Anthropochorous wild mammal taxa and conservation lists. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1162-1164.

Gituru, W.R., Wang, Q.F., Wang, Y., and Guo, Y.H. 2002. Pollination ecology, breeding system, and conservation of Caldesia grandis (Alismataceae), an endangered marsh plant in China. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 43(3):231-240.

Goldblatt, P., and Manning, J.C. 2002. Plant diversity of the Cape Region of southern Africa. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):281-302.

Gonzalez, A., and Chaneton, E.J. 2002. Heterotroph species extinction, abundance and biomass dynamics in an experimentally fragmented microecosystem. J. Anim. Ecol. 71(4):594-602.

Gray, A., Simenstad, C.A., Bottom, D.L., and Cornwell, T.J. 2002. Contrasting functional performance of juvenile salmon habitat in recovering wetlands of the Salmon River estuary, Oregon, USA. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):514-526.

Greenfield, K.C., Burger, L.W., Chamberlain, M.J., and Kurzejeski, E.W. 2002. Vegetation management practices on conservation reserve program fields to improve northern bobwhite habitat quality. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(2):527-538.

Gregory, S., Li, H., and Li, J. 2002. The conceptual basis for ecological responses to dam removal. BioScience 52(8):713-723.

Grill, A., Crnjar, R., Casula, P., and Menken, S. 2002. Applying the IUCN threat categories to island endemics: Sardinian butterflies (Italy). J. Nature Conserv. 10(1):51-60.

Grow, S., and Schwartzman, E. 2001. The status of Guaiacum species in trade. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:19-21.

Guo, J., Chen, Y., and Hu, J. 2002. Population viability analysis of giant pandas in the Yele Nature Reserve. J. Nature Conserv. 10(1):35-40.

Hansen, A.J., and Rotella, J.J. 2002. Biophysical factors, land use, and species viability in and around nature reserves. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1112-1122.

Hart, D.D. 2002. Roles for scientists in community-based ecological restoration. BioScience 52(8):643.

Hart, D.D., Johnson, T.E., Bushaw-Newton, K.L., Horwitz, R.J., Bednarek, A.T., Charles, D.F., Kreeger, D.A., and Velinsky, D.J. 2002. Dam removal: challenges and opportunities for ecological research and river restoration. BioScience 52(8):669-681.

Hart, D.D., and Poff, N.L. 2002. A special section on dam removal and river restoration. BioScience 52(8):653-655.

Huang, H., Han, X., Kang, L., Raven, P., Jackson, P.W., and Chen, Y. 2002. Conserving native plants in China. Science 297(5583):935-936.

Hubbs, C., Edwards, R.J., and Garrett, G.P. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Gambusia nobilis Baird & Girard, 1853 (Poeciliidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 64(4):428.

Humphrey, J.W., Davey, S., Peace, A.J., Ferris, R., and Harding, K. 2002. Lichens and bryophyte communities of planted and semi-natural forests in Britain: the influence of site type, stand structure and deadwood. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):165-180.

Jetz, W., and Rahbek, C. 2002. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness. Science 297(5586):1548-1551.

Jia, J., and Zhang, X. 2001. Assessment of resources and sustainable harvest of wild Cibotium barometz in China. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:25-27.

Johnson, S.E., and Graber, B.E. 2002. Enlisting the social sciences in decisions about dam removal. BioScience 52(8):731-738.

Jones, Z.F., and Bock, C.E. 2002. Conservation of grassland birds in an urbanizing landscape: a historical perspective. Condor 104(3):643-651.

Justus, J., and Sarkar, S. 2002. The principle of complementarity in the design of reserve networks to conserve biodiversity: a preliminary history. J. Bioscience 27(4):421-435.

Kauserud, H., and Schumacher, T. 2002. Population structure of the endangered wood decay fungus Phellinus nigrolimitatus (Basidiomycota). Can. J. Bot. 80(6):597-606.

Kintsch, J.A., and Urban, D.L. 2002. Focal species, community representation, and physical proxies as conservation strategies: a case study in the Amphibolite Mountains, North Carolina, USA. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):936-947.

Kiss, A. 2001. A Road Through Mali-Kuli. 1stBooks Library. Bloomington. 424 pp.

Klein, A.M., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Buchori, D., and Tscharntke, T. 2002. Effects of land-use intensity in tropical agroforestry systems on coffee flower-visiting and trap-nesting bees and wasps. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1003-1014.

Korkeamaki, E., and Suhonen, J. 2002. Distribution and habitat specialization of species affect local extinction in dragonfly Odonata populations. Ecography 25(4):459-465.

Krauss, S.L., Dixon, B., and Dixon, K.W. 2002. Rapid genetic decline in a translocated population of the endangered plant Grevillea scapigera. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):986-994.

Kvernevik, T.I., Zambri Mohd Akhir, M., and Studholme, J. 2002. A low-cost procedure for automatic seafloor mapping, with particular reference to coral reef conservation in developing nations. Hydrobiologia 474(1-3):67-79.

Lavania, U.C. 2002. Chromosome diversity in population: defining conservation units and their micro-identification through genomic in situ painting. Curr. Sci. 83(2):124-127.

Lee, C.E. 2002. Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. TREE 17(8):386-391.

Leite, E.J. 2002. State-of-knowledge on Astronium fraxinifolium Schott (Anacardiaceae) for genetic conservation in Brazil. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 5(1):63-77.

Lindig-Cisneros, R., and Zedler, J.B. 2002. Phalaris arundinacea seedling establishment: effects of canopy complexity in fen, mesocosm, and restoration experiments. Can. J. Bot. 80(6):617-624.

Little, S.J., Harcourt, R.G., and Clevenger, A.P. 2002. Do wildlife passages act as prey-traps? Biol. Conserv. 107(2):135-145.

Lloyd, K.M., Lee, W.G., and Wilson, J.B. 2002. Competitive abilities of rare and common plants: comparisons using Acaena (Rosaceae) and Chionochloa (Poaceae) from New Zealand. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):975-985.

Lockwood, J.L., Russell, G.J., Gittleman, J.L., Daehler, C.C., McKinney, M.L., and Purvis, A. 2002. A metric for analyzing taxonomic patterns of extinction risk. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1137-1142.

Lyke, J. 2001. Conservation status of Cimicifuga rubifolia, C. americana, and C. racemosa. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:22-24.

Mac Nally, R. 2002. Multiple regression and inference in ecology and conservation biology: further comments on identifying important predictor variables. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1397-1401.

Mack, R.N., and Erneberg, M. 2002. The United States naturalized flora: largely the product of deliberate introductions. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):176-189.

Mahoney, S.P., and Schaefer, J.A. 2002. Hydroelectric development and the disruption of migration in caribou. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):147-153.

Margules, C.R., Pressey, R.L., and Williams, P.H. 2002. Representing biodiversity: data and procedures for identifying priority areas for conservation. J. Bioscience 27(4):309-326.

Mathews, A., and Matthews, A. 2002. Distribution, population density, and status of sympatric cercopithecids in the Campo-Ma'an area, Southwestern Cameroon. Primates 43(3):155-168.

Matlack, G.R. 2002. Exotic plant species in Mississippi, USA: critical issues in management and research. Nat. Areas J. 22(3):241-247.

Mattson, D.J., and Merrill, T. 2002. Extirpations of grizzly bears in the contiguous United States, 1850-2000. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1123-1136.

McAlpine, C.A., Fensham, R.J., and Temple-Smith, D.E. 2002. Biodiversity conservation and vegetation clearing in Queensland: principles and thresholds. Rangeland J. 24(1):36-55.

McConnell, K., and Menges, E.S. 2002. Effects of fire and treatments that mimic fire on the Florida endemic scrub buckwheat (Eriogonum longifolium Nutt. var. gnaphalifolium Gand.). Nat. Areas J. 22(3):194-201.

McGeoch, M.A., Van Rensburg, B.J., and Botes, A. 2002. The verification and application of bioindicators: a case study of dung beetles in a savanna ecosystem. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(4):661-672.

McIntyre, S., and Martin, T.G. 2002. Managing intensive and extensive land uses to conserve grassland plants in sub-tropical eucalypt woodlands. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):241-252.

McKinney, M.L. 2002. Do human activities raise species richness? Contrasting patterns in United States plants and fishes. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 11(4):343-348.

McKinney, M.L. 2002. Why larger nations have disproportionate threat rates: area increases endemism and human population size. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1317-1325.

Melville, F., and Burchett, M. 2002. Genetic variation in Avicennia marina in three estuaries of Sydney (Australia) and implications for rehabilitation and management. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(6):469-479.

Mengak, M.T. 2002. Reproduction, juvenile growth and recapture rates of Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister) in Virginia. Am. Midl. Nat. 148(1):155-162.

Meza, A.D., Meyer, E.M., and Gonzalez, C.A.L. 2002. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) food habits in a tropical deciduous forest of Jalisco, Mexico. Am. Midl. Nat. 148(1):146-154.

Mkanda, F.X. 2002. Contribution by farmers' survival strategies to soil erosion in the Linthipe River Catchment: implications for biodiversity conservation in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1327-1359.

Moomaw, W.R. 2002. Lomborg's The Skeptical Environmentalist: refuting a scientific model without science. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):861-862.

Morgan, P.A., and Short, F.T. 2002. Using functional trajectories to track constructed salt marsh development in the Great Bay Estuary, Maine/New Hampshire, USA. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):461-473.

Moser, D.M., Gygax, A., Palese, R., Baumler, B., and Wyler, N. 2002. 63rd Swiss Floristic Notes (2001). Bot. Helvetica 112(1):69-76.

Moskovits, D.K., Fialkowski, C.J., Mueller, G.M., and Sullivan, T.A. 2002. Chicago wilderness: a new force in urban conservation. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):153-163.

Muriithi, S., and Kenyon, W. 2002. Conservation of biodiversity in the Arabuko Sokoke Forest, Kenya. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1437-1450.

Murphy, K.J. 2002. Plant communities and plant diversity in softwater lakes of northern Europe. Aquat. Bot. 73(4):287-324.

Müssner, R., and Plachter, H. 2002. Methodological standards for nature conservation: case-study landscape planning. J. Nature Conserv. 10(1):3-22.

Nabhan, G.P., Pynes, P., and Joe, T. 2002. Safeguarding species, languages, and cultures in the time of diversity loss: from the Colorado Plateau to global hotspots. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):164-175.

Neckles, H.A., Dionne, M., Burdick, D.M., Roman, C.T., Buchsbaum, R., and Hutchins, E. 2002. A monitoring protocol to assess tidal restoration of salt marshes on local and regional scales. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):556-563.

Nelson, M.L., McMahon, T.E., and Thurow, R.F. 2002. Decline of the migratory form in bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and implications for conservation. Environ. Biol. Fish. 64(1-3):321-332.

Nelson, N.J., Keall, S.N., Brown, D., and Daugherty, C.H. 2002. Establishing a new wild population of tuatara (Sphenodon guntheri). Conserv. Biol. 16(4):887-894.

Newton, A.C., Holden, E., Davy, L.M., Ward, S.D., Fleming, L.V., and Watling, R. 2002. Status and distribution of stipitate hydnoid fungi in Scottish coniferous forests. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):181-192.

Noss, R.F., Carroll, C., Vance-Borland, K., and Wuerthner, G. 2002. A multicriteria assessment of the irreplaceability and vulnerability of sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):895-908.

Nystrom, P., Birkedal, L., Dahlberg, C., and Bronmark, C. 2002. The declining spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus: calling site choice and conservation. Ecography 25(4):488-498.

Olson, D.M., and Dinerstein, E. 2002. The Global 200: priority ecoregions for global conservation. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):199-224.

Orr, D.W. 2002. The labors of Sisyphus. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):857-860.

Pahkala, M., Räsänen, K., Laurila, A., Johanson, U., Björn, L.O., and Merilä, J. 2002. Lethal and sublethal effects of UV-B/pH synergism on common frog embryos. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1063-1073.

Parkhurst, G.M., Shogren, J.F., Bastian, C., Kivi, P., Donner, J., and Smith, R.B.W. 2002. Agglomeration bonus: an incentive mechanism to reunite fragmented habitat for biodiversity conservation. Ecol. Econ. 41(2):305-328.

Pattanavibool, A., and Dearden, P. 2002. Fragmentation and wildlife in montane evergreen forests, northern Thailand. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):155-164.

Pereira, J.C., Schafer, H., and Paiva, J. 2002. New records of Veronica dabneyi Hochst. (Scrophulariaceae), an Azorean endemic plant not collected since 1938. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 139(3):311-315.

Perrings, C. 2002. Biological invasions in aquatic systems: the economic problem. Bull. Mar. Sci. 70(2):541-552.

Pethick, J. 2002. Estuarine and tidal wetland restoration in the United Kingdom: policy versus practice. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):431-437.

Pimm, S.L. 2002. The dodo went extinct (and other ecological myths). Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):190-198.

Pizzuto, J. 2002. Effects of dam removal on river form and process. BioScience 52(8):683-691.

Poff, N.L., and Hart, D.D. 2002. How dams vary and why it matters for the emerging science of dam removal. BioScience 52(8):659-668.

Polishchuk, L.V. 2002. Conservation priorities for Russian mammals. Science 297(5584):1123.

Prather, J.W., and Briggler, J.T. 2002. Use of small caves by Ozark big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii ingens) in Arkansas. Am. Midl. Nat. 148(1):193-197.

Prieditis, N. 2002. Evaluation frameworks and conservation system of Latvian forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1361-1375.

Pysek, P., Kucera, T., and Jarosik, V. 2002. Plant species richness of nature reserves: the interplay of area, climate and habitat in a central European landscape. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 11(4):279-289.

Raven, P.H. 2002. Science, sustainability, and the human prospect. Science 297(5583):954-958.

Reed, C.C. 2002. Penstemon grandiflorus Nutt. reproductive ecology: prediction of pollinator limitation from experiments and field studies. Nat. Areas J. 22(3):220-229.

Reed, J.K. 2002. Deep-water Oculina coral reefs of Florida: biology, impacts, and management. Hydrobiologia 471(1-3):43-55.

Reinhardt, K., and Köhler, G. 2002. Conservation of the red-winged grasshopper, Oedipoda germanica (Latr.): the influence of reproductive behaviour. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):221-228.

Risebrough, R.W. 2002. California condor recovery program: response to Beissinger. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1156-1157.

Rolfe, J. 2002. Economics of vegetation clearing in Queensland. Rangeland J. 24(1):152-169.

Roman, C.T., Raposa, K.B., Adamowicz, S.C., James-Pirri, M.J., and Catena, J.G. 2002. Quantifying vegetation and nekton response to tidal restoration of a New England salt marsh. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):450-460.

Rosa, I.L., Dias, T.L., and Baum, J.K. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Syngnathidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 64(4):378.

Rosenfeld, J.S. 2002. Functional redundancy in ecology and conservation. Oikos 98(1):156-162.

Rutledge, B.T., and Conner, L.M. 2002. Potential effects of groundcover restoration on breeding bird communities in longleaf pine stands. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(2):354-360.

Sánchez-Velásquez, L.R., Ezcurra, E., Martínez-Ramos, M., Álvarez-Buylla, E., and Lorente, R. 2002. Population dynamics of Zea diploperennis, an endangered perennial herb: effect of slash and burn practice. J. Ecology 90(4):684-692.

Sarkar, S. 2002. Conservation biology: the new consensus - preface. J. Bioscience 27(4):i-iv.

Sarkar, S., Aggarwal, A., Garson, J., Margules, C.R., and Zeidler, J. 2002. Place prioritization for biodiversity content. J. Bioscience 27(4):339-346.

Sarkar, S., and Margules, C. 2002. Operationalizing biodiversity for conservation planning. J. Bioscience 27(4):299-308.

Schatz, G.E. 2002. Taxonomy and herbaria in service of plant conservation: lessons from Madagascar's endemic families. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):145-152.

Schatz, G.E., and Richardson, P.M. 2002. Introduction: conservation and the future of life. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 89(2):125-126.

Schiegg, K., Walters, J.R., and Priddy, J.A. 2002. The consequences of disrupted dispersal in fragmented red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 71(4):710-721.

Schopp-Guth, A., and Fremuth, W. 2001. Sustainable use of medicinal plants and nature conservation in the Prespa National Park area, Albania. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:5-8.

Schtickzelle, N., Le Boulenge, E., and Baguette, M. 2002. Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: demographic processes in a patchy population. Oikos 97(3):349-360.

Sekercioglu, C.H. 2002. Effects of forestry practices on vegetation structure and bird community of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):229-240.

Shafroth, P.B., Friedman, J.M., Auble, G.T., Scott, M.L., and Braatne, J.H. 2002. Potential responses of riparian vegetation to dam removal. BioScience 52(8):703-712.

Shivji, M., Clarke, S., Pank, M., Natanson, L., Kohler, N., and Stanhope, M. 2002. Genetic identification of pelagic shark body parts for conservation and trade monitoring. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1036-1047.

Shuford, W.D., Warnock, N., Molina, K.C., and Sturm, K.K. 2002. The Salton Sea as critical habitat to migratory and resident waterbirds. Hydrobiologia 473(1-3):255-274.

Sidle, J.G., Johnson, D.H., Euliss, B.R., and Tooze, M. 2002. Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(2):405-411.

Simenstad, C.A., and Warren, R.S. 2002. Introduction to the special issue on dike/levee breach restoration of coastal marshes. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):i.

Sinclair, J.R., O'Brien, T.G., and Kinnaird, M.F. 2002. The selection of incubation sites by the Philippine Megapode, Megapodius cumingii, in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Emu 102(2):151-158.

Sinha, R.K. 2002. An alternative to dolphin oil as a fish attractant in the Ganges River system: conservation of the Ganges River dolphin. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):253-257.

Skonhoft, A., Yoccoz, N.G., Stenseth, N.C., Gaillard, J.M., and Loison, A. 2002. Management of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) moving between a protected core area and a hunting area. Ecol. Appl. 12(4):1199-1211.

Smith, G.F., and Klopper, R.R. 2002. A southern perspective on the All Species Project and the Global Taxonomic Imperative. Taxon 51(2):359-361.

Smith, L.M., and Haukos, D.A. 2002. Floral diversity in relation to playa wetland area and watershed disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):964-974.

Smith Olsen, C. 2001. Trade in the Himalayan medicinal plant product Kutki - new data. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:11-13.

Snaith, T.V., and Beazley, K.F. 2002. Moose (Alces alces americana [Gray Linnaeus Clinton] Peterson) as a focal species for reserve design in Nova Scotia, Canada. Nat. Areas J. 22(3):235-240.

Stanley, E.H., and Doyle, M.W. 2002. A geomorphic perspective on nutrient retention following dam removal. BioScience 52(8):693-701.

Sutherland, W.J. 2002. Openness in management. Nature 418(6900):834-835.

Svoboda, K.P., Hampson, J.B., and Hall, L. 2001. Boswellia from Somalia, a source of high quality frankincense. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:16-19.

Swanson, D.A., and Dettmers, R.P. 2002. Status of Ohio's breeding birds: identifying species of management concern. Ohio J. Sci. 102(3):43-50.

Tandon, V. 2001. Mainstreaming conservation of medicinal plants. Med. Plant Conserv. 7:13-14.

Tanner, C.D., Cordell, J.R., Rubey, J., and Tear, L.M. 2002. Restoration of freshwater intertidal habitat functions at Spencer Island, Everett, Washington. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):564-576.

Tazik, D.J., and Martin, C.O. 2002. Threatened and endangered species on US Department of Defense lands in the arid west, USA. Arid Land Res. Manag. 16(3):259-276.

Templeton, A.R. 2002. The Speke's gazelle breeding program as an illustration of the importance of multilocus genetic diversity in conservation biology: response to Kalinowski et al. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):1151-1155.

Thiollay, J.M. 2002. Bird diversity and selection of protected areas in a large neotropical forest tract. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1377-1395.

Thom, R.M., Zeigler, R., and Borde, A.B. 2002. Floristic development patterns in a restored Elk River estuarine marsh, Grays Harbor, Washington. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):487-496.

Todd, B.L., Coons, J.M., and Owen, H.R. 2002. Scarification technique affects germination of Stylisma pickeringii (Patterson bindweed), an Illinois endangered plant. Am. Midl. Nat. 148(1):190-192.

Valimaki, P., and Itamies, J. 2002. Occurrence and experimental introduction of Capricornia boisduvaliana (Duponchel, 1836) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Finland. Entomol. Fennica 13(2):89-97.

Valone, T.J., Meyer, M., Brown, J.H., and Chew, R.M. 2002. Timescale of perennial grass recovery in desertified arid grasslands following livestock removal. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):995-1002.

Van Dongen, S., and Scott, T. 2002. Effects of forest fragmentation and local habitat structure on densities of winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.). Belgian J. Zool. 132(2):165-170.

van Nouhuys, S., and Hanski, I. 2002. Colonization rates and distances of a host butterfly and two specific parasitoids in a fragmented landscape. J. Anim. Ecol. 71(4):639-650.

Vellend, M. 2002. A pest and an invader: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.) as a seed dispersal agent for honeysuckle shrubs (Lonicera L.). Nat. Areas J. 22(3):230-234.

Vernesi, C., Pecchioli, E., Caramelli, D., Tiedemann, R., Randi, E., and Bertorelle, G. 2002. The genetic structure of natural and reintroduced roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations in the Alps and central Italy, with reference to the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Europe. Mol. Ecol. 11(8):1285-1297.

Wanless, R.M., Cunningham, J., Hockey, P.A.R., Wanless, J., White, R.W., and Wiseman, R. 2002. The success of a soft-release reintroduction of the flightless Aldabra rail (Dryolimnas [cuvieri] aldabranus) on Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):203-210.

Warren, R.S., Fell, P.E., Rozsa, R., Brawley, A.H., Orsted, A.C., Olson, E.T., Swamy, V., and Niering, W.A. 2002. Salt marsh restoration in Connecticut: 20 years of science and management. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):497-513.

Wasko, A.P., and Galetti, P.M. 2002. RAPD analysis in the Neotropical fish Brycon lundii: genetic diversity and its implications for the conservation of the species. Hydrobiologia 474(1-3):131-137.

Whitelaw, E., and MacMullan, E. 2002. A framework for estimating the costs and benefits of dam removal. BioScience 52(8):724-730.

Wilcox, C., and Possingham, H. 2002. Do life history traits affect the accuracy of diffusion approximations for mean time to extinction? Ecol. Appl. 12(4):1163-1179.

Williams, P.B., and Orr, M.K. 2002. Physical evolution of restored breached levee salt marshes in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):527-542.

Williams, P.B., Orr, M.K., and Garrity, N.J. 2002. Hydraulic geometry: a geomorphic design tool for tidal marsh channel evolution in wetland restoration projects. Restor. Ecol. 10(3):577-590.

Williams, P.H., Margules, C.R., and Hilbert, D.W. 2002. Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area selection. J. Bioscience 27(4):327-338.

Wilson, B.A., Neldner, V.J., and Accad, A. 2002. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. Rangeland J. 24(1):6-35.

Witzell, W.N., Bass, A.L., Bresette, M.J., Singewald, D.A., and Gorham, J.C. 2002. Origin of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) at Hutchinson Island, Florida: evidence from mtDNA markers. Fishery Bull. 100(3):624-631.

Wolff, A., Dieuleveut, T., Martin, J.L., and Bretagnolle, V. 2002. Landscape context and little bustard abundance in a fragmented steppe: implications for reserve management in mosaic landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 107(2):211-220.

Wood, B.C., and Pullin, A.S. 2002. Persistence of species in a fragmented urban landscape: the importance of dispersal ability and habitat availability for grassland butterflies. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(8):1451-1468.

Xiang, Q.P., Fajon, A., Li, Z.Y., Fu, L.K., and Liu, Z.Y. 2002. Thuja sutchuenensis: a rediscovered species of the Cupressaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 139(3):305-310.

Young, K.R. 2002. Minding the children: knowledge transfer and the future of sustainable agriculture. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):855-856.

Zaczek, J.J., Groninger, J.W., and Van Sambeek, J.W. 2002. Stand dynamics in an old-growth hardwood forest, in southern Illinois, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(3):211-219.

Zhang, D.W., and Mehmood, S.R. 2002. Safe harbor for the red-cockaded woodpecker: private forest landowners share their views. J. Forestry 100(5):24-29.

Zurlini, G., Grossi, L., and Rossi, O. 2002. Spatial-accumulation pattern and extinction rates of Mediterranean flora as related to species confinement to habitats in preserves and larger areas. Conserv. Biol. 16(4):948-963.

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