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Department ofBotany

No. 215
November 2002

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In This Issue

Updated List of Threatened Species Shows Significant Changes

The World Conservation Union (IUCN) has released an updated Red List of Threatened Species, one of the key tools used to determine the status of the Earth's biodiversity. Since the release of the last edition in September 2000, a number of significant changes have occurred. Over 400 new species assessments have been included, with 124 species entering one of the threatened categories. There are now 11,167 species threatened with extinction, with several new additions and notable shifts in status.

The Red List is based on information supplied by a network of 7,000 experts on plants and animals working in almost every country of the world, and data from a number of partner organizations, including BirdLife International, Conservation International, The Ocean Conservancy, and NatureServe.

The Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is now considered Critically Endangered. Inhabiting the open dry steppe grasslands and semi-arid deserts of Central Asia, this species has undergone major population declines as a result of poaching for meat and for export of horns that are used in traditional medicine. In 2000, the population had decreased from over one million to less than 200,000. Current surveys indicate that less than 50,000 animals now remain in the wild.

The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is close to becoming the first wild cat species to go extinct for at least 2,000 years. This Critically Endangered species occurs in Mediterranean woodland and maquis thicket. Habitat fragmentation by agricultural development has resulted in population decline. Human control of the abundant rabbit population in Europe resulted in the disappearance of the lynx's principal prey. With the main food source decimated, the lynx population has crashed.

Mexican and Brazilian cactus assessments have been added to the list, bringing the total number of threatened plant species up to 5,714. The true count of threatened plant species is much higher as only approximately 4 percent of the world's described plants have been evaluated. Trees make up the majority of the listed plant species, since these have been relatively thoroughly assessed.

Seven species have been added to the list as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild, bringing the total to 811 species. These species include the sea mink (Mustela macrodon) which was last seen in 1860, and the Réunion Island sheldgoose (Mascarenachen kervazoi) which became extinct around 1710.

Mammillaria glochidiata is one of two endemic Mexican cactus species declared Extinct in the Wild. A very small population of this cactus, estimated at 50 individuals and confined to a single location, was found in 1991. A visit in 1993 showed a reduction in population size to about 15 individuals. During two later visits, including an extensive search of the canyon in which it occurred, no plants were found.

Two species previously assessed as Extinct have been rediscovered - the Lord Howe Island stick insect (Dryococelus australis) and the Bavarian pine vole (Microtus bavaricus). The stick insect was believed to have become extinct in 1920 after the introduction of rats to Lord Howe Island, but was rediscovered in 2001. It is estimated that the island currently supports fewer than 50 mature individuals, and thus is considered Critically Endangered. No specimens of the pine vole were recorded after 1962, but a small population of this species was found in 2000, just across the German-Austrian border. Further research is required to determine the population size of this species.

"On the Red List, all species are treated with equal importance - the humble Bavarian pine vole stands alongside the African rhino," said IUCN Director General, Achim Steiner. "It provides the international benchmark to help guide effective biodiversity conservation."

Indonesia, India, Brazil and China are among the countries with the most threatened mammals and birds, while plant species are declining rapidly in South and Central America, Central and West Africa, and Southeast Asia. Habitat loss and degradation affect 89 percent of all threatened birds, 83 percent of mammals, and 91 percent of threatened plants assessed.

The 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the first of an annual update of the Red List database which is housed on its own, searchable website <>. The figures will change annually as new species assessments are included, currently-listed species are re-assessed, and species undergo taxonomic revisions.

Job Opportunities

The Center for Tropical Forest Science-Arnold Arboretum (CTFS-AA) Asia Program of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) coordinates a network of long-term research programs in the tropical forests of eight Asian countries. Postdoctoral fellows are sought in forest ecology and the evolution and biogeography of forest communities. Strong analytical background preferred; established record of research and scholarly publication in tropical forest ecology or evolution required. Field experience is not essential. The positions are based at Harvard University. Send CV and names of three references to: Stuart Davies, CTFS-AA Asia Program, The Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, 22 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA; E-mail: <>. The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute are equal opportunity/affirmative action employers.

Current Literature

Abdoun, F., and Beddiaf, M. 2002. Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus: distribution, decline and regeneration on the Tassili n'Aijer, Central Sahara. C.R. Biologies 325(5):617-627.

Abrams, P.A. 2002. Will small population sizes warn us of impending extinctions? Am. Nat. 160(3):293-305.

Adams, W.M. 2002. Goodbye Malthus, hello humankind. Oryx 36(3):213-214.

Andrés, C., and Ojeda, F. 2002. Effects of afforestation with pines on woody plant diversity of Mediterranean heathlands in southern Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1511-1520.

Arnold, A.E., and Asquith, N.M. 2002. Herbivory in a fragmented tropical forest: patterns from islands at Lago Gatun, Panama. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1663-1680.

Ashton, E.C., and Macintosh, D.J. 2002. Preliminary assessment of the plant diversity and community ecology of the Sematan mangrove forest, Sarawak, Malaysia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 166(1-3):111-129.

Austin, C.M., and Ryan, S.G. 2002. Allozyme evidence for a new species of freshwater crayfish of the genus Cherax Erichson (Decapoda: Parastacidae) from the south-west of Western Australia. Invertebr. Syst. 16(3):357-367.

Awad, A.A., Griffiths, C.L., and Turpie, J.K. 2002. Distribution of South African marine benthic invertebrates applied to the selection of priority conservation areas. Divers. Distrib. 8(3):129-145.

Baird, R.W. 2001. Status of harbour seals, Phoca vitulina, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):663-675.

Baird, R.W. 2001. Status of killer whales, Orcinus orca, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):676-701.

Bancroft, G.T., Gawlik, D.E., and Rutchey, K. 2002. Distribution of wading birds relative to vegetation and water depths in the northern Everglades of Florida, USA. Waterbirds 25(3):265-277.

Barbieri, R., Stoumboudi, M.T., and Economou, A.N. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Valencia letourneuxi Sauvage, 1880 (Valenciidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 65(1):46.

Barnes, R.F.W. 2002. The bushmeat boom and bust in West and Central Africa. Oryx 36(3):236-242.

Beamish, R.J., Youson, J.H., and Chapman, L.A. 2001. Status of the Morrison Creek western brook lamprey, Lampetra Richardsoni, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):573-578.

Beasley, I., Chooruk, S., and Piwpong, N. 2002. The status of the Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, in Songkhla Lake, southern Thailand. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:75-83.

Bérubé, M., Urbán, J., Dizon, A.E., Brownell, R.L., and Palsbøll, P.J. 2002. Genetic identification of a small and highly isolated population of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the Sea of Cortez, México. Conserv. Genet. 3(2):183-190.

Boon, P.J., Holmes, N.T.H., Maitland, P.S., and Fozzard, I.R. 2002. Developing a new version of SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation). Aquat. Conserv. 12(4):439-455.

Bowyer, J.C., Newell, G.R., and Eldridge, M.D.B. 2002. Genetic effects of habitat contraction on Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo (Dendrolagus lumholtzi) in the Australian Wet Tropics. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):61-69.

Broderick, A.C., Glen, F., Godley, B.J., and Hays, G.C. 2002. Estimating the number of green and loggerhead turtles nesting annually in the Mediterranean. Oryx 36(3):227-235.

Brook, B.W., Griffiths, A.D., and Puckey, H.L. 2002. Modelling strategies for the management of the critically endangered Carpentarian rock-rat (Zyzomys palatalis) of northern Australia. J. Environ. Manage. 65(4):355-368.

Broughton, D.A., and McAdam, J.H. 2002. A Red Data List for the Falkland Islands vascular flora. Oryx 36(3):279-287.

Brown, B.J., Mitchell, R.J., and Graham, S.A. 2002. Competition for pollination between an invasive species (purple loosestrife) and a native congener. Ecology 83(8):2328-2336.

Buitrago, J., and Guada, H.J. 2002. The hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Venezuela. Interciencia 27(8):392.

Bulte, E.H., and Horan, R.D. 2002. Does human population growth increase wildlife harvesting? An economic assessment. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):574-580.

Burg, T.M., Wilcox, J.L., and Martin, A. 2002. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in pupfish (genus Cyprinodon). Conserv. Genet. 3(2):197-204.

Burgess, N.D., Rahbek, C., Larsen, F.W., Williams, P., and Balmford, A. 2002. How much of the vertebrate diversity of sub-Saharan Africa is catered for by recent conservation proposals? Biol. Conserv. 107(3):327-339.

Calmé, S., Desrochers, A., and Savard, J.P.L. 2002. Regional significance of peatlands for avifaunal diversity in southern Québec. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):273-281.

Campbell, R.R. 2001. Rare and endangered fishes and marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish and Marine Mammal Subcommittee Status Reports XIV. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):564-572.

Campbell, V.V., Rowe, G., Beebee, T.J.C., and Hutchings, M.J. 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite primers for the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Brown (Orchidaceae). Conserv. Genet. 3(2):209-210.

Chinea, J.D. 2002. Tropical forest succession on abandoned farms in the Humacao Municipality of eastern Puerto Rico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 167(1-3):195-207.

Croxton, P.J., Carvell, C., Mountford, J.O., and Sparks, T.H. 2002. A comparison of green lanes and field margins as bumblebee habitat in an arable landscape. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):365-374.

Dallas, J.F., Marshall, F., Piertney, S.B., Bacon, P.J., and Racey, P.A. 2002. Spatially restricted gene flow and reduced microsatellite polymorphism in the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in Britain. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):15-29.

Davenport, T.R.B. 2002. Tanzania's new national park to protect orchids. Oryx 36(3):224.

de Klerk, H.M., Crowe, T.M., Fjeldså, J., and Burgess, N.D. 2002. Biogeographical patterns of endemic terrestrial Afrotropical birds. Divers. Distrib. 8(3):147-162.

de León, G.P.P., García-Prieto, L., and Razo-Mendivil, U. 2002. Species richness of helminth parasites in Mexican amphibians and reptiles. Divers. Distrib. 8(4):211-218.

de los Monteros, R.L.E. 2002. Evaluating ecotourism in natural protected areas of La Paz Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico: ecotourism or nature-based tourism? Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1539-1550.

Dick, J.T.A., Platvoet, D., and Kelly, D.W. 2002. Predatory impact of the freshwater invader Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59(6):1078-1084.

Dolar, M.L.L., Perrin, W.F., Gaudiano, J.P., Yaptinchay, A.A.S.P., and Tan, J.M.L. 2002. Preliminary report on a small estuarine population of Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris in the Philippines. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:155-160.

Dolev, A., Saltz, D., Bar-David, S., and Yom-Tov, Y. 2002. Impact of repeated releases on space-use patterns of Persian fallow deer. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):737-746.

Domingo-Roura, X. 2002. Genetic distinction of marten species by fixation of a microsatellite region. J. Mammal. 83(3):907-912.

Duchesne, P., and Bernatchez, L. 2002. An analytical investigation of the dynamics of inbreeding in multi-generation supportive breeding. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):47-60.

Edge, T.A., and Gilhen, J. 2001. Updated status report on the endangered Atlantic whitefish, Coregonus huntsmani. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):635-652.

Everard, M., and Powell, A. 2002. Rivers as living systems. Aquat. Conserv. 12(4):329-337.

Fenton, M.B., Taylor, P.J., Jacobs, D.S., Richardson, E.J., Bernard, E., Bouchard, S., Debaeremaeker, K.R., ter Hofstede, H., Hollis, L., Lausen, C.L., Lister, J.S., Rambaldini, D., Ratcliffe, J.M., and Reddy, E. 2002. Researching little-known species: the African bat Otomops martiensseni (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1583-1606.

Feria, T.P., and Peterson, A.T. 2002. Prediction of bird community composition based on point-occurrence data and inferential algorithms: a valuable tool in biodiversity assessments. Divers. Distrib. 8(2):49-56.

Ferreira, M.T., Albuquerque, A., Aguiar, F.C., and Sidorkewicz, N. 2002. Assessing reference sites and ecological quality of river plant assemblages from an Iberian basin using a multivariate approach. Arch. Hydrobiol. 155(1):121-145.

Findlay, S.E.G., Kiviat, E., Nieder, W.C., and Blair, E.A. 2002. Functional assessment of a reference wetland set as a tool for science, management and restoration. Aquat. Sci. 64(2):107-117.

Fineschi, S., Anzidei, M., Cafasso, D., Cozzolino, S., Garfi, G., Pastorelli, R., Salvini, D., Taurchini, D., and Vendramin, G.G. 2002. Molecular markers reveal a strong genetic differentiation between two European relic tree species: Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boissier and Z. sicula Di Pasquale, Garfi & Quézel (Ulmaceae). Conserv. Genet. 3(2):145-153.

Frutos, S.D., and Van den Bussche, R.A. 2002. Genetic diversity and gene flow in nine-banded armadillos in Paraguay. J. Mammal. 83(3):815-823.

Galeuchet, D.J., Holderegger, R., Rutishauser, R., and Schneller, J.J. 2002. Isozyme diversity and reproduction of Typha minima populations on the upper River Rhine. Aquat. Bot. 74(1):19-32.

Geslin, T., Lefeuvre, J.C., Le Pajolec, Y., Questiau, S., and Eybert, M.C. 2002. Salt exploitation and landscape structure in a breeding population of the threatened bluethroat (Luscinia svecica) in salt-pans in western France. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):283-289.

Ghazoul, J. 2002. Flowers at the front line of invasion? Ecol. Entomol. 27(5):638-640.

Gifford, A.L.S., Ferdy, J.B., and Molofsky, J. 2002. Genetic composition and morphological variation among populations of the invasive grass, Phalaris arundinacea. Can. J. Bot. 80(7):779-785.

Githaiga-Mwicigi, J.M.W., Fairbanks, D.H.K., and Midgley, G. 2002. Hierarchical processes define spatial pattern of avian assemblages restricted and endemic to the arid Karoo, South Africa. J. Biogeogr. 29(8):1067-1087.

Gonzalez, L.M., Cedenilla, M.A., de Larrinoa, P.F., Layna, J.F., and Aparicio, F. 2002. Changes in the breeding variables of the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) colony of Cabo Blanco Peninsula after a mass mortality episode. Mammalia 66(2):173-182.

González-Iturbe, J.A., Olmsted, I., and Tun-Dzul, F. 2002. Tropical dry forest recovery after long term Henequen (sisal, Agave fourcroydes Lem.) plantation in northern Yucatan, Mexico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 167(1-3):67-82.

Goodchild, C.D. 2001. The status of the Mira River population of lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):623-634.

Grandjean, F., Bouchon, D., and Souty-Grosset, C. 2002. Systematics of the European endangered crayfish species Austropotamobius pallipes (Decapoda: Astacidae) with a re-examination of the status of Austropotamobius berndhauseri. J. Crustracean Biol. 22(3):677-681.

Greenslade, P. 2002. Assessing the risk of exotic Collembola invading subantarctic islands: prioritising quarantine management. Pedobiologia 46(3-4):338-344.

Greenwood, K.S., and Thorp, J.H. 2001. Aspects of ecology and conservation of sympatric, prosobranch snails in a large river. Hydrobiologia 455:229-236.

Greig, C., Robertson, J.M., and Banks, M.A. 2002. Rapid PCR-based species tests for threatened sympatric salmonids. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):83-86.

Griffiths, T. 2002. How many trees make a forest? Cultural debates about vegetation change in Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 50(4):375-389.

Guo, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Chen, G., Hu, J., and Wu, Y. 2002. A mathematical model for the population of giant pandas and bamboo in Yele Nature Reserve of Xiangling Mountains. J. Nature Conserv. 10(2):69-74.

Hamer, A.J., Lane, S.J., and Mahony, M.J. 2002. The role of introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in excluding the native green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) from original habitats in south-eastern Australia. Oecologia 132(3):445-452.

Hampe, A., and Arroyo, J. 2002. Recruitment and regeneration in populations of an endangered South Iberian Tertiary relict tree. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):263-271.

Hänfling, B., Carvalho, G.R., and Brandl, R. 2002. mt-DNA sequences and possible invasion pathways of the Chinese mitten crab. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 238:307-310.

Hatfield, T. 2001. Status of the stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp., in Hadley Lake, Lasqueti Island, British Columbia. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):579-583.

Hatfield, T. 2001. Status of the stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp., in the Vananda Creek watershed of Texada Island, British Columbia. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):584-590.

Hatfield, T., and Ptolemy, J. 2001. Status of the stickleback species pair, Gasterosteus spp., in Paxton Lake, Texada Island, British Columbia. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):591-596.

Hauser, T.P. 2002. Frost sensitivity of hybrids between wild and cultivated carrots. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):75-78.

Heckel, G., Zbinden, M., Mazzi, D., Kohler, A., Reckeweg, G., Bakker, T.C.M., and Largiadèr, C.R. 2002. Microsatellite markers for the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) and their applicability in a freshwater and an anadromous population. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):79-81.

Heidinga, L., and Wilson, S.D. 2002. The impact of an invading alien grass (Agropyron cristatum) on species turnover in native prairie. Divers. Distrib. 8(5):249-258.

Heist, E.J., Nicholson, E.H., Sipiorski, J.T., and Keeney, D.B. 2002. Microsatellite markers for the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Conserv. Genet. 3(2):205-207.

Hellborg, L., Walker, C.W., Rueness, E.K., Stacy, J.E., Kojola, I., Valdmann, H., Vilà, C., Zimmermann, B., Jakobsen, K.S., and Ellegren, H. 2002. Differentiation and levels of genetic variation in northern European lynx (Lynx lynx) populations revealed by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Conserv. Genet. 3(2):97-111.

Hendrix, P.F., and Bohlen, P.J. 2002. Exotic earthworm invasions in North America: ecological and policy implications. BioScience 52(9):801-811.

Hilderbrand, R.H. 2002. Simulating supplementation strategies for restoring and maintaining stream resident cutthroat trout populations. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 22(3):879-887.

Hill, M.F., Hastings, A., and Botsford, L.W. 2002. The effects of small dispersal rates on extinction times in structured metapopulation models. Am. Nat. 160(3):389-402.

Holm, E., Dumont, P., Leclerc, J., Roy, G., and Crossman, E.J. 2001. Status of the bridle shiner, Notropis bifrenatus, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):614-622.

Hölzel, N., Haub, C., Ingelfinger, M.P., Otte, A., and Pilipenko, V.N. 2002. The return of the steppe - large-scale restoration of degraded land in southern Russia during the post-Soviet era. J. Nature Conserv. 10(2):75-86.

Hosack, D.A., Miller, P.S., Hervert, J.J., and Lacy, R.C. 2002. A population viability analysis for the endangered Sonoran pronghorn, Antilocapra americana sonoriensis. Mammalia 66(2):207-229.

Houston, J. 2001. Status of the weed shiner, Notropis texanus, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):608-613.

Hubbs, C., Edwards, R.J., and Garrett, G.P. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Gambusia gaigei Hubbs, 1929 (Poeciliidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 65(1):82.

Hulme, P.D., Merrell, B.G., Torvell, L., Fisher, J.M., Small, J.L., and Pakeman, R.J. 2002. Rehabilitation of degraded Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull-dominated wet heath by controlled sheep grazing. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):351-363.

Hunter, J.C., and Mattice, J.A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(3):220-227.

Imai, C., Sakai, H., Katsura, K., Honto, W., Hida, Y., and Takazawa, T. 2002. Growth model for the endangered cyprinid fish Tribolodon nakamurai based on otolith analyses. Fish. Sci. 68(4):843-848.

Impey, A.J., Côté, I.M., and Jones, C.G. 2002. Population recovery of the threatened endemic Rodrigues fody (Foudia flavicans) (Aves, Ploceidae) following reforestation. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):299-305.

Izhaki, I., Shmueli, M., Arad, Z., Steinberg, Y., and Crivelli, A. 2002. Satellite tracking of migratory and ranging behavior of immature great white pelicans. Waterbirds 25(3):295-304.

Jamieson, G.S. 2001. Review of the status of the northern abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):555-563.

Janis, M.W., and Clark, J.D. 2002. Responses of Florida panthers to recreational deer and hog hunting. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):839-848.

Jefferson, T.A., Curry, B.E., and Kinoshita, R. 2002. Mortality and morbidity of Hong Kong finless porpoises, with emphasis on the role of environmental contaminants. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:161-171.

Jefferson, T.A., Hung, S.K., Law, L., Torey, M., and Tregenza, N. 2002. Distribution and abundance of finless porpoises in Hong Kong and adjacent waters of China. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:43-55.

Jefferson, T.A., and Smith, B.D. 2002. Facultative freshwater Cetaceans of Asia: their ecology and conservation - preface. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:1.

Jimenez, I. 2002. Heavy poaching in prime habitat: the conservation status of the West Indian manatee in Nicaragua. Oryx 36(3):272-278.

Kaiser, J. 2002. ESA and Society for Ecological Restoration meeting: an ecological oasis in the desert. Science 297(5587):1635-1637.

Kammer, P.M. 2002. Floristic changes in subalpine grasslands after 22 years of artificial snowing. J. Nature Conserv. 10(2):109-124.

Kelley, C., Garson, J., Aggarwal, A., and Sarkar, S. 2002. Place prioritization for biodiversity reserve network design: a comparison of the SITES and ResNet software packages for coverage and efficiency. Divers. Distrib. 8(5):297-306.

Kennedy, D. 2002. Making a case for conservation - response. Science 297(5589):1996.

Knaepkens, G., Bruyndoncx, L., Bervoets, L., and Eens, M. 2002. The presence of artificial stones predicts the occurrence of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) in a regulated lowland river in Flanders (Belgium). Ecol. Freshw. Fish 11(3):203-206.

Kreb, D. 2002. Density and abundance of the Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, in the Mahakam River of East Kalimantan, Indonesia: a comparison of survey techniques. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:85-95.

Krupa, A.P., Jehle, R., Dawson, D.A., Gentle, L.K., Gibbs, M., Arntzen, J.W., and Burke, T. 2002. Microsatellite loci in the crested newt (Triturus cristatus) and their utility in other newt taxa. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):87-89.

Kumba, F.F., Kaurivi, J.Z.U., and Katjivena, H. 2002. A project of indigenous communities in Namibia to cultivate Harpagophytum procumbens. Med. Plant Conserv. 8:24-27.

Kurttila, M., Uuttera, J., Mykrä, S., Kurki, S., and Pukkala, T. 2002. Decreasing the fragmentation of old forests in landscapes involving multiple ownership in Finland: economic, social and ecological consequences. Forest Ecol. Manag. 166(1-3):69-84.

Lachance, S. 2001. Report on the situation of the redfin pickerel, Esox americanus americanus, in Canada. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):597-607.

Lagos-Witte, S. 2002. Conservation of medicinal plants in Central America and the Caribbean: a GEF project begins. Med. Plant Conserv. 8:21-24.

Laird, S.A., and Pierce, A.R. 2002. Strategies to promote sustainable and ethical raw material sourcing in the botanicals industry: results from an industry survey. Med. Plant Conserv. 8:9-14.

Lange, D. 2002. The role of east and southeast Europe in the medicinal and aromatic plants' trade. Med. Plant Conserv. 8:14-18.

Larson, S., Jameson, R., Bodkin, J., Staedler, M., and Bentzen, P. 2002. Microsatellite DNA and mitochondrial DNA variation in remnant and translocated sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations. J. Mammal. 83(3):893-906.

Ledig, F.T., Hodgskiss, P.D., and Jacob-Cervantes, V. 2002. Genetic diversity, mating system, and conservation of a Mexican subalpine relict, Picea mexicana Martínez. Conserv. Genet. 3(2):113-122.

Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S., Gruszka, P., Ojaveer, H., Olenin, S., and Panov, V. 2002. The Baltic - a sea of invaders. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59(7):1175-1188.

Lesage, V., and Hammill, M.O. 2001. The status of the grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, in the northwest Atlantic. Can. Field-Natural. 115(4):653-662.

Liebherr, J.K., and Song, H.J. 2002. Distinct ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages within a New York State wetland complex. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110(1):127-141.

Lipow, S.R., Bernhardt, P., and Vance, N. 2002. Comparative rates of pollination and fruit set in widely separated populations of a rare orchid (Cypripedium fasciculatum). Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(5):775-782.

Lode, T. 2002. An endangered species as indicator of freshwater quality: fractal diagnosis of fragmentation within a European mink, Mustela lutreola, population. Arch. Hydrobiol. 155(1):163-176.

Loman, J. 2002. Rana temporaria metamorph production and population dynamics in the field. Effects of tadpole density, predation and pond drying. J. Nature Conserv. 10(2):95-108.

Luiselli, L., and Akani, G.C. 2002. An investigation into the composition, complexity and functioning of snake communities in the mangroves of south-eastern Nigeria. Afr. J. Ecol. 40(3):220-227.

Luoto, M., Kuussaari, M., and Toivonen, T. 2002. Modelling butterfly distribution based on remote sensing data. J. Biogeogr. 29(8):1027-1037.

Manjkhola, S., and Dhar, U. 2002. Conservation and utilization of Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don) Johnston - a high value Himalayan medicinal plant. Curr. Sci. 83(4):484-488.

Mann, S.L., Steidl, R.J., and Dalton, V.M. 2002. Effects of cave tours on breeding Myotis velifer. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):618-624.

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Marston, M., and Villalard-Bohnsack, M. 2002. Genetic variability and potential sources of Grateloupia doryphora (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), an invasive species in Rhode Island waters (USA). J. Phycol. 38(4):649-658.

Mattingly, H.T., and Galat, D.L. 2002. Distributional patterns of the threatened Niangua darter, Etheostoma nianguae, at three spatial scales, with implications for species conservation. Copeia 2002(3):573-585.

May, T.W. 2002. Where are the short-range endemics among Western Australian macrofungi? Aust. Syst. Bot. 15(4):501-511.

McGraw, W.S., and Oates, J.F. 2002. Evidence for a surviving population of Miss Waldron's red colobus. Oryx 36(3):223.

McLaughlin, J.F., Hellmann, J.J., Boggs, C.L., and Ehrlich, P.R. 2002. The route to extinction: population dynamics of a threatened butterfly. Oecologia 132(4):538-548.

McMahon, R.F. 2002. Evolutionary and physiological adaptations of aquatic invasive animals: r selection versus resistance. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59(7):1235-1244.

Meretsky, V.J., North, E.G., and Stevens, L.E. 2002. Kanab ambersnail and other terrestrial snails in south central Utah. West. N. Am. Naturalist 62(3):307-315.

Miller, A.G., Atkinson, R., al Khulaidi, A.W., and Taleeb, N. 2002. Nesocrambe, a new genus of Cruciferae (Brassiceae) from Soqotra, Yemen. Willdenowia 32(1):61-67.

Miller, M.W., Bourque, A.S., and Bohnsack, J.A. 2002. An analysis of the loss of acroporid corals at Looe Key, Florida, USA: 1983-2000. Coral Reefs 21(2):179-182.

Minckley, W.L., Miller, R.R., and Norris, S.M. 2002. Three new pupfish species, Cyprinodon (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae), from Chihuahua, Mexico, and Arizona, USA. Copeia 2002(3):687-705.

Montgomery, C.A. 2002. Ranking the benefits of biodiversity: an exploration of relative values. J. Environ. Manage. 65(3):313-326.

Moore, J., Gibson, R., and Jones, H.D. 2001. Terrestrial nemerteans thirty years on. Hydrobiologia 456:1-6.

Morrison, L.W. 2002. Long-term impacts of an arthropod-community invasion by the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Ecology 83(8):2337-2345.

Myking, T. 2002. Evaluating genetic resources of forest trees by means of life history traits - a Norwegian example. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1681-1696.

Nakata, K., Hamano, T., Hayashi, K.I., and Kawai, T. 2002. Lethal limits of high temperature for two crayfishes, the native species Cambaroides japonicus and the alien species Pacifastacus leniusculus in Japan. Fish. Sci. 68(4):763-767.

Ndang'ang'a, P.K., du Plessis, M.A., Ryan, P.G., and Bennun, L.A. 2002. Grassland decline in Kinangop Plateau, Kenya: implications for conservation of Sharpe's longclaw (Macronyx sharpei). Biol. Conserv. 107(3):341-350.

Neigel, J.E. 2002. Is FST obsolete? Conserv. Genet. 3(2):167-173.

Oli, M.K., Jacobson, H.A., and Leopold, B.D. 2002. Pattern of space use by female black bears in the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA. J. Nature Conserv. 10(2):87-94.

Olsen, J., Wink, M., Sauer-Gurth, H., and Trost, S. 2002. A new Ninox owl from Sumba, Indonesia. Emu 102(3):223-231.

Pacheco, N.M., Congdon, B.C., and Friesen, V.L. 2002. The utility of nuclear introns for investigating hybridization and genetic introgression: a case study involving Brachyramphus murrelets. Conserv. Genet. 3(2):175-182.

Parody, J.M., and Parker, T.H. 2002. Biogeographic variation in nest placement: a case study with conservation implications. Divers. Distrib. 8(1):11-19.

Parren, M.P.E., de Leede, B.M., and Bongers, F. 2002. A proposal for a transnational forest network area for elephants in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. Oryx 36(3):249-256.

Paschke, M., Abs, C., and Schmid, B. 2002. Relationship between population size, allozyme variation, and plant performance in the narrow endemic Cochlearia bavarica. Conserv. Genet. 3(2):131-144.

Paul, E. 2002. Science: the newest political football in the endangered species game. BioScience 52(9):792.

Phillips, J.A., and Price, I.R. 2002. How different is Mediterranean Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales: Chlorophyta) to other populations of the species? Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 238:61-71.

Pierce, S.K. 2002. Making a case for conservation. Science 297(5589):1995-1996.

Pither, R., and Kellman, M. 2002. Tree species diversity in small, tropical riparian forest fragments in Belize, Central America. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1623-1636.

Pontes, A.R.M., and Chivers, D.J. 2002. Abundance, habitat use and conservation of the olingo Bassaricyon sp in Maraca Ecological Station, Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 37(2):105-109.

Poulin, B., and Lefebvre, G. 2002. Effect of winter cutting on the passerine breeding assemblage in French Mediterranean reedbeds. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1567-1581.

Poulin, B., Lefebvre, G., and Mauchamp, A. 2002. Habitat requirements of passerines and reedbed management in southern France. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):315-325.

Poulsen, B.O. 2002. Avian richness and abundance in temperate Danish forests: tree variables important to birds and their conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1551-1566.

Provencher, L., Gobris, N.M., Brennan, L.A., Gordon, D.R., and Hardesty, J.L. 2002. Breeding bird response to midstory hardwood reduction in Florida sandhill longleaf pine forests. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):641-661.

Quattro, J.M., Greig, T.W., Coykendall, D.K., Bowen, B.W., and Baldwin, J.D. 2002. Genetic issues in aquatic species management: the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the southeastern United States. Conserv. Genet. 3(2):155-166.

Randi, E., and Lucchini, V. 2002. Detecting rare introgression of domestic dog genes into wild wolf (Canis lupus) populations by Bayesian admixture analyses of microsatellite variation. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):31-45.

Raven, P.J., Holmes, N.T.H., Charrier, P., Dawson, F.H., Naura, M., and Boon, P.J. 2002. Towards a harmonized approach for hydromorphological assessment of rivers in Europe: a qualitative comparison of three survey methods. Aquat. Conserv. 12(4):405-424.

Riley, J. 2002. Mammals on the Sangihe and Talaud Islands, Indonesia, and the impact of hunting and habitat loss. Oryx 36(3):288-296.

Robertson, H.G. 2002. Comparison of leaf litter ant communities in woodlands, lowland forests and montane forests of north-eastern Tanzania. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1637-1652.

Roby, D.D., Collis, K., Lyons, D.E., Craig, D.P., Adkins, J.Y., Myers, A.M., and Suryan, R.M. 2002. Effects of colony relocation on diet and productivity of Caspian terns. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):662-673.

Rosero-Bixby, L., Maldonado-Ulloa, T., and Bonilla-Carrion, R. 2002. Forests and population on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 50(2):585-598.

Rubin, E.S., Boyce, W.M., and Caswell-Chen, E.R. 2002. Modeling demographic processes in an endangered population of bighorn sheep. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):796-810.

Ruggiero, M.V., Turk, R., and Procaccini, G. 2002. Genetic identity and homozygosity in North-Adriatic populations of Posidonia oceanica: an ancient, post-glacial clone? Conserv. Genet. 3(1):71-74.

Rushton, S.P., Gurnell, J., Lurz, P.W.W., and Fuller, R.M. 2002. Modeling impacts and costs of gray squirrel control regimes on the viability of red squirrel populations. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):683-697.

Russell, K.R., Hanlin, H.G., Wigley, T.B., and Guynn, D.C. 2002. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland forest management. J. Wildlife Manag. 66(3):603-617.

Schmetterling, D.A., and Bernd-Cohen, T. 2002. Native species conservation through education: the Adopt-A-Trout program Montana. Fisheries 27(9):10-15.

Schmitt, E.F., Sluka, R.D., and Sullivan-Sealey, K.M. 2002. Evaluating the use of roving diver and transect surveys to assess the coral reef fish assemblage off southeastern Hispaniola. Coral Reefs 21(2):216-223.

Schmitt, T., and Seitz, A. 2002. Influence of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):291-297.

Segelbacher, G., and Storch, I. 2002. Capercaillie in the Alps: genetic evidence of metapopulation structure and population decline. Mol. Ecol. 11(9):1669-1677.

Serio-Silva, J.C., and Rico-Gray, V. 2002. Interacting effects of forest fragmentation and howler monkey foraging on germination and disperal of fig seeds. Oryx 36(3):266-271.

Sinclair, E.A., Costello, B., Courtenay, J.M., and Crandall, K.A. 2002. Detecting a genetic bottleneck in Gilbert's Potoroo (Potorous gilbertii) (Marsupialia: Potoroidae), inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Conserv. Genet. 3(2):191-196.

Smith, B.D., and Hobbs, L. 2002. Status of Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris in the upper reaches of the Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:67-73.

Smith, B.D., and Jefferson, T.A. 2002. Status and conservation of facultative freshwater cetaceans in Asia. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 10:173-187.

Sommer, T.R., Conrad, L., O'Leary, G., Feyrer, F., and Harrell, W.C. 2002. Spawning and rearing of splittail in a model floodplain wetland. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 131(5):966-974.

Sork, V.L., Davis, F.W., Smouse, P.E., Apsit, V.J., Dyer, R.J., Fernandez, J.F., and Kuhn, B. 2002. Pollen movement in declining populations of California Valley oak, Quercus lobata: where have all the fathers gone? Mol. Ecol. 11(9):1657-1668.

Speth, J.G. 2002. A new green regime - attacking the root causes of global environmental deterioration. Environment 44(7):16-25.

Srivastava, D.S. 2002. The role of conservation in expanding biodiversity research. Oikos 98(2):351-360.

Stevens, D.K., Donald, P.F., Evans, A.D., Buckingham, D.L., and Evans, J. 2002. Territory distribution and foraging patterns of cirl buntings (Emberiza cirlus) breeding in the UK. Biol. Conserv. 107(3):307-313.

Sutherland, W.J. 2002. Science, sex and the kakapo. Nature 419(6904):265-266.

Tarnaud, L., and Simmen, B. 2002. A major increase in the population of brown lemurs on Mayotte since the decline reported in 1987. Oryx 36(3):297-300.

Tisdell, C., and Wilson, C. 2002. Ecotourism for the survival of sea turtles and other wildlife. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1521-1538.

Troumbis, A.Y., Galanidis, A., and Kokkoris, G.D. 2002. Components of short-term invasibility in experimental Mediterranean grasslands. Oikos 98(2):239-250.

Upreti, B.R., and Upreti, Y.G. 2002. Factors leading to agro-biodiversity loss in developing countries: the case of Nepal. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1607-1621.

Vallianatos, M., Lougheed, S.C., and Boag, P.T. 2002. Conservation genetics of the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) in central and eastern North America. Conserv. Genet. 3(1):1-13.

Vandebona, H., Goonesekere, N.C.W., Tiedemann, R., Ratnasooriya, W.D., and Gunasekera, M.B. 2002. Sequence variation at two mitochondrial genes in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population of Sri Lanka. Mamm. Biol. 67(4):193-205.

Verdú, J.R., and Galante, E. 2002. Climatic stress, food availability and human activity as determinants of endemism patterns in the Mediterranean region: the case of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) in the Iberian Peninsula. Divers. Distrib. 8(5):259-274.

Votava, E.J., Nabhan, G.P., and Bosland, P.W. 2002. Genetic diversity and similarity revealed via molecular analysis among and within an in situ population and ex situ accessions of chiltepín (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum). Conserv. Genet. 3(2):123-129.

Wacher, T., el Din, S.B., Mikhail, G., and el Din, M.B. 2002. New observations of the 'extinct' Barbary sheep Ammotragus lervia ornata in Egypt. Oryx 36(3):301-304.

Walker, J., Diamond, M., and Naura, M. 2002. The development of physical quality objectives for rivers in England and Wales. Aquat. Conserv. 12(4):381-390.

Walter, S. 2002. Certification and benefit-sharing mechanisms in the field of non-wood forest products - an overview. Med. Plant Conserv. 8:3-9.

Waltert, M., Lien, Faber, K., and Muhlenberg, M. 2002. Further declines of threatened primates in the Korup Project Area, south-west Cameroon. Oryx 36(3):257-265.

Webster, P. 2002. Bid to save Kamchatka's wildlife. Science 297(5588):1787-1788.

Weis, J.S., Edwards, J., Enger, E.D., Gall, G.A., Jarrar, H.J., Lauritsen, D.D., Pixley, E.Y., Poulson, T.L., Samuels, E., Shafer, C.L., Temple, P.J., Weis, P., and Young, J.E. 2002. Biology, environment, and conservation in South Africa. BioScience 52(9):781-789.

Welk, E., Schubert, K., and Hoffmann, M.H. 2002. Present and potential distribution of invasive garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in North America. Divers. Distrib. 8(4):219-233.

White, H. 2002. Two mountain gorillas shot by poachers and a baby gorilla missing in Rwanda. Oryx 36(3):225-226.

Whitehouse, A.M., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2002. Retrospective assessment of long-term conservation management of elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Oryx 36(3):243-248.

Whitfield, P.E., Gardner, T., Vives, S.P., Gilligan, M.R., Courtenay, W.R., Ray, G.C., and Hare, J.A. 2002. Biological invasion of the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans along the Atlantic coast of North America. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 235:289-297.

Wilde, G.R. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Notropis girardi Hubbs & Ortenburger, 1929 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 65(1):98.

Williams, V.L. 2002. Hawkers of health: Johannesburg's street traders of traditional medicine, South Africa. Med. Plant Conserv. 8:18-21.

Wilsey, B.J., and Polley, H.W. 2002. Reductions in grassland species evenness increase dicot seedling invasion and spittle bug infestation. Ecol. Lett. 5(5):676-684.

Wohlgemuth, T., Bürgi, M., Scheidegger, C., and Schutz, M. 2002. Dominance reduction of species through disturbance - a proposed management principle for central European forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 166(1-3):1-15.

Wörheide, G., Hooper, J.N.A., and Degnan, B.M. 2002. Phylogeography of western Pacific Leucetta 'chagosensis' (Porifera: Calcarea) from ribosomal DNA sequences: implications for population history and conservation of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (Australia). Mol. Ecol. 11(9):1753-1768.

Wu, J.L., and Skelton-Groth, K. 2002. Targeting conservation efforts in the presence of threshold effects and ecosystem linkages. Ecol. Econ. 42(1-2):313-331.

Wynberg, R. 2002. A decade of biodiversity conservation and use in South Africa: tracking progress from the Rio Earth Summit to the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development. S. Afr. J. Sci. 98(5-6):233-243.

Yau, F.C.F., Wong, K.L., Shaw, P.C., But, P.P.H., and Wang, J. 2002. Authentication of snakes used in Chinese medicine by sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR). Biodivers. Conserv. 11(9):1653-1662.

Zaldivar-Riveron, A., and de Oca, A.N.M. 2002. Variation in the rare lizard Barisia rudicollis (Wiegmann) (Anguidae) with description of a new species from central Mexico. Herpetologica 58(3):313-326.

Zerbe, S. 2002. Restoration of natural broad-leaved woodland in Central Europe on sites with coniferous forest plantations. Forest Ecol. Manag. 167(1-3):27-42.

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