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Department ofBotany

No. 217
January 2003

[PDF Print Version]

In This Issue

Threatened Plant Species of Southern Africa are Identified

Published by the Southern African Botanical Diversity Network (SABONET), Southern African Plant Red Data Lists, edited by Janice Golding, presents plant Red Data Lists for ten southern African countries - Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. About 4,100 plant species for this vast region are classified here into various categories of extinction risk according to internationally used principles laid down by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Measures for coping with species losses need to be dealt with at social, economic and political levels. Until the notions of threatened plants and threatened ecosystems become firmly entrenched within developmental agendas, efforts at retaining species for economies and the benefit of future generations will yield little. To this end, the Southern African Plant Red Data Lists publication serves as both a technical and a political document - it offers a practical conservation dimension that can be integrated into more sustainable socio-economic agendas for the southern African region.

The hardcover book is produced in full-color, with maps, charts and photographs. Presented in English, the sections on Angola and Mozambique are also available in Portuguese. The book is available by contacting The Project Coordinator, Southern African Botanical Diversity Network, c/o National Botanical Institute, Private Bag X101, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Tel: (27) 12 8043200; Fax: (27) 12 8045979; E-mail: or

Research on Underutilized Crops is Assessed

A new report, Global Research on Underutilized Crops, by J.T. Williams and N. Haq, provides a succinct overview of the global research activities on underutilized crops and presents a proposed strategy for enhanced cooperation. Published by the International Centre for Underutilized Crops (ICUC), the Department for International Development (DFID), and the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), the report is aimed at policy-makers, funding agencies and research administrators but it is hoped that it will also be of use to the scientific community. It will be seen that the number of countries with dedicated research programs on underutilized crops is very small. Much of the current activity is carried out through networking arrangements. An analysis suggests that there is a need to re-think the current networks and a strategy for expanded research cooperation should include due attention to information and enhancing research priority setting and cooperative research. The report results from a request from a workshop convened by the Genetic Resources Policy Committee for the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.

Available at no cost, orders of the report can be made via Earthprint's on-line bookshop at <>. A free PDF file is also available by visiting <> and then selecting "Information Resources" followed by "Publications."

New Publications

In Justice on Earth (Earthjustice & Chelsea Green), author and activist Tom Turner tells the captivating, influential stories highlighting the role of citizen groups on the front lines, the native and community traditions that they are trying to maintain or restore, the honorable scientists who put their careers in jeopardy to speak the truth, and the politics that infest the process from top to bottom. One chapter recounts a crusade to stop a mining company from reopening an old gold mine on the border of Yellowstone National Park. Another describes efforts to heal a California river ravaged by logging and road building. In Washington, D.C., Earthjustice lawyers banded with groups in the poorer southeast neighborhoods to block massive unnecessary development along the Anacostia River. Other chapters explore campaigns in Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, and Oregon. The stories are illustrated by evocative photographs from leading nature photographers such as Robert Glenn Ketchum, Galen Rowell, Carr Clifton, and Frans Lanting. Original watercolor maps orient the reader in each chapter. Justice on Earth is available at bookstores or may be purchased directly from Earthjustice by calling 1-800-584-6460 or on-line at <>.

Current Literature

Akst, E.P., Boersma, P.D., and Fleischer, R.C. 2002. A comparison of genetic diversity between the Galápagos penguin and the Magellanic penguin. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):375-383.

Allen, C.D., Savage, M., Falk, D.A., Suckling, K.F., Swetnam, T.W., Schulke, T., Stacey, P.B., Morgan, P., Hoffman, M., and Klingel, J.T. 2002. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: a broad perspective. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1418-1433.

Allnutt, T.F., Wettengel, W.W., Reyna, J.V., Garcia, R.C.D., Elias, E.E.I., and Olson, D.M. 2002. The efficacy of TM satellite imagery for rapid assessment of Chihuahuan xeric habitat intactness for ecoregion-scale conservation planning. J. Arid Environ. 52(1):135-153.

Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., and Ortega-Rubio, A. 2003. Current status of rodents on islands in the Gulf of California. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):157-163.

An, L., Lupi, F., Liu, J.G., Linderman, M.A., and Huang, J.Y. 2002. Modeling the choice to switch from fuelwood to electricity implications for giant panda habitat conservation. Ecol. Econ. 42(3):445-457.

Andreone, F., and Greer, A.E. 2002. Malagasy scincid lizards: descriptions of nine new species, with notes on the morphology, reproduction and taxonomy of some previously described species (Reptilia, Squamata: Scincidae). J. Zool. 258:139-181.

Bailey, S.A., Haines-Young, R.H., and Watkins, C. 2002. Species presence in fragmented landscapes: modelling of species requirements at the national level. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):307-316.

Ball-Ilosera, N.S., Garcìa-Marìn, J.L., and Pla, C. 2002. Managing fish populations under mosaic relationships. the case of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in peripheral Mediterranean populations. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):385-400.

Baron, J.S., Poff, N.L., Angermeier, P.L., Dahm, C.N., Gleick, P.H., Hairston, N.G., Jackson, R.B., Johnston, C.A., Richter, B.D., and Steinman, A.D. 2002. Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1247-1260.

Baskin, C.C., and Baskin, J.M. 2002. Studies on the seed germination and flowering stages of the life cycle of the shale barren endemic Arabis serotina Steele (Brassicaceae). Nat. Areas J. 22(4):270-276.

Basse, B., Flux, I., and Innes, I. 2003. Recovery and maintenance of North Island kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) populations through pulsed pest control. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):259-270.

Bawa, R., Rose, J., Ganeshaiah, K.N., Barve, N., Kiran, M.C., and Umashaanker, R. 2002. Assessing biodiversity from space: an example from the Western Ghats, India. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):7. <>

Bellocq, M.I., Ramírez-Llorens, P., and Filloy, J. 2002. Recent records of crowned eagles (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) from Argentina, 1981-2000. J. Raptor Res. 36(3):206-212.

Benkendorff, K., and Davis, A.R. 2002. Identifying hotspots of molluscan species richness on rocky intertidal reefs. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):1959-1973.

Bergman, K.O., and Landin, J. 2002. Population structure and movements of a threatened butterfly (Lopinga achine) in a fragmented landscape in Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):361-369.

Bertiller, M.B., Ares, J.O., and Bisigato, A.J. 2002. Multiscale indicators of land degradation in the Patagonian Monte, Argentina. Environ. Manage. 30(5):704-715.

Betts, M., Knox, J., and Forbes, G. 2002. A landscape ecological approach to private woodlot planning in New Brunswick, Canada. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):311-317.

Bhattacharya, M., Primack, R.B., and Gerwein, J. 2003. Are roads and railroads barriers to bumblebee movement in a temperate suburban conservation area? Biol. Conserv. 109(1):37-45.

Bissonette, J.A., and Storch, I. 2002. Fragmentation: is the message clear? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):14. <>

Blanvillain, C., Salducci, J.M., Tutururai, G., and Maeura, M. 2003. Impact of introduced birds on the recovery of the Tahiti flycatcher (Pomarea nigra), a critically endangered forest bird of Tahiti. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):197-205.

Bonn, A., Rodrigues, A.S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2002. Threatened and endemic species: are they good indicators of patterns of biodiversity on a national scale? Ecol. Lett. 5(6):733-741.

Bordino, P., Kraus, S., Albareda, D., Fazio, A., Palmerio, A., Mendez, M., and Botta, S. 2002. Reducing incidental mortality of Franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei with acoustic warning devices attached to fishing nets. Mar. Mammal Sci. 18(4):833-842.

Boughton, D., and Malvadkar, U. 2002. Extinction risk in successional landscapes subject to catastrophic disturbances. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):2. <>

Bradley, D.C., and Ormerod, S.J. 2002. Evaluating the precision of kick-sampling in upland streams for assessments of long-term change: the effects of sampling effort, habitat and rarity. Arch. Hydrobiol. 155(2):199-221.

Bräger, S., Dawson, S.M., Slooten, E., Smith, S., Stone, G.S., and Yoshinaga, A. 2002. Site fidelity and along-shore range in Hector's dolphin, an endangered marine dolphin from New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):281-287.

Britten, H.B., and Glasford, J.W. 2002. Genetic population structure of the Dakota skipper (Lepidoptera: Hesperia dacotae): a North American native prairie obligate. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):363-374.

Buhay, J.E., Serb, J.M., Dean, C.R., Parham, Q., and Lydeard, C. 2002. Conservation genetics of two endangered unionid bivalve species, Epioblasma florentina walkeri and E. capsaeformis (Unionidae: Lampsilini). J. Molluscan Stud. 68:385-391.

Burger, J. 2002. Restoration, stewardship, environmental health, and policy: understanding stakeholders' perceptions. Environ. Manage. 30(5):631-640.

Cale, P.G. 2003. The influence of social behaviour, dispersal and landscape fragmentation on population structure in a sedentary bird. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):237-248.

Cameron, T. 2002. 2002: The year of the 'diversity-ecosystem function' debate. TREE 17(11):495-496.

Carlson, M., and Schmiegelow, F. 2002. Cost-effective sampling design applied to large-scale monitoring of boreal birds. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):11. <>

Carrillo, E., Saenz, J.C., and Fuller, T.K. 2002. Movements and activities of white-lipped peccaries in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):317-324.

Castellanos, A., Arriaga, L., and Lopez, C. 2002. El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve: a case study of conservation and development in Mexico. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):331-339.

Ciofi, C., Milinkovitch, M.C., Gibbs, J.P., Caccone, A., and Powell, J.R. 2002. Microsatellite analysis of genetic divergence among populations of giant Galápagos tortoises. Mol. Ecol. 11(11):2265-2283.

Clevenger, A.P., Chruszczc, B., and Gunson, K.E. 2003. Spatial patterns and factors influencing small vertebrate fauna road-kill aggregations. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):15-26.

Colgan, D.J., Brown, S., Major, R.E., Christie, F., Gray, M.R., and Cassis, G. 2002. Population genetics of wolf spiders of fragmented habitat in the wheat belt of New South Wales. Mol. Ecol. 11(11):2295-2305.

Collar, N.J., and Van Balen, S. 2002. The Blue-tailed Trogon Harpactes (Apalharpactes) reinwardtii: species limits and conservation status. Forktail 18:121-126.

D'Eon, R.G., Glenn, S.M., Parfitt, I., and Fortin, M.-J. 2002. Landscape connectivity as a function of scale and organism vagility in a real forested landscape. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):10. <>

Dechmann, D.K.N., Garbely, E., Kerth, G., and Garner, T.W.J. 2002. Highly polymorphic microsatellites for the study of the round-eared bat, Tonatia silvicola (d'Orbigny). Conserv. Genet. 3(4):455-458.

Derory, J., Mariette, S., Gonzalez-Martinez, S.C., Chagne, D., Madur, D., Gerber, S., Brach, J., Persyn, F., Ribeiro, M.M., and Plomion, C. 2002. What can nuclear microsatellites tell us about maritime pine genetic resources conservation and provenance certification strategies? Ann. Forest Sci. 59(5-6):699-708.

Dhar, U., Manjkhola, S., Joshi, M., Bhatt, A., Bisht, A.K., and Joshi, M. 2002. Current status and future strategy for development of medicinal plants sector in Uttaranchal, India. Curr. Sci. 83(8):956-964.

Donázar, J.A., Blanco, G., Hiraldo, F., Soto-Largo, E., and Oria, J. 2002. Effects of forestry and other land-use practices on the conservation of Cinereous vultures. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1445-1456.

Dunford, W., Burke, D.M., and Nol, E. 2002. Assessing edge avoidance and area sensitivity of red-eyed vireos in southcentral Ontario. Wilson Bull. 114(1):79-86.

Efford, M., Howitt, R., and Gleeson, D. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of Wainuia (Mollusca: Pulmonata) - biogeography and conservation implications. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 32(3):445-456.

Engeman, R.M., Shwiff, S.A., Constantin, B., Stahl, M., and Smith, H.T. 2002. An economic analysis of predator removal approaches for protecting marine turtle nests at Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge. Ecol. Econ. 42(3):469-478.

Erickson, J.L., and West, S.D. 2003. Associations of bats with local structure and landscape features of forested stands in western Oregon and Washington. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):95-102.

Estrada, A., and Coates-Estrada, R. 2002. Dung beetles in continuous forest, forest fragments and in an agricultural mosaic habitat island at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):1903-1918.

Estrada, A., Mendoza, A., Castellanos, L., Pacheco, R., Van Belle, S., Garcia, Y., and Munoz, D. 2002. Population of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in a fragmented landscape in Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico. Am. J. Primatol. 58(2):45-55.

Fairbanks, W.S., and Tullous, R. 2002. Distribution of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana Ord) on Antelope Island State Park, Utah, USA, before and after establishment of recreational trails. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):277-282.

Foerster, C.R., and Vaughan, C. 2002. Home range, habitat use, and activity of Baird's tapir in Costa Rica. Biotropica 34(3):423-437.

Ganeshaiah, K.N., Kathuria, S., and Shaanker, R.U. 2002. Floral resources of Karnataka: a geographic perspective. Curr. Sci. 83(7):810-813.

Garrabou, J., and Harmelin, J.G. 2002. A 20-year study on life-history traits of a harvested long-lived temperate coral in the NW Mediterranean: insights into conservation and management needs. J. Anim. Ecol. 71(6):966-978.

Garvin, J.C., Reynolds, S.J., and Schoech, S.J. 2002. Conspecific egg predation by Florida scrub-jays. Wilson Bull. 114(1):136-139.

Gathorne-Hardy, F.J., Jones, D.T., and Syaukani. 2002. A regional perspective on the effects of human disturbance on the termites of Sundaland. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):1991-2006.

Gautschi, B., Arter, M.K., Husi, R.E., Wettstein, W., and Schmid, B. 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the globally endangered corncrake, Crex crex Linné. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):451-453.

Ge, X.J., Chiang, Y.C., Chou, C.H., and Chiang, T.Y. 2002. Nested clade analysis of Dunnia sinensis (Rubiaceae), a monotypic genus from China based on organelle DNA sequences. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):351-362.

Gehring, T.M., and Swihart, R.K. 2003. Body size, niche breadth, and ecologically scaled responses to habitat fragmentation: mammalian predators in an agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):283-295.

Gende, S.M., Edwards, R.T., Willson, M.F., and Wipfli, M.S. 2002. Pacific salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. BioScience 52(10):917-928.

Gillison, A. 2002. A generic, computer-assisted method for rapid vegetation classification and survey: tropical and temperate case studies. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):3. <>

Goldsbrough, C.L., Hochuli, D.F., and Shine, R. 2003. Invertebrate biodiversity under hot rocks: habitat use by the fauna of sandstone outcrops in the Sydney region. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):85-93.

Goossens, B., Funk, S.M., Vidal, C., Latour, S., Jamart, A., Ancrenaz, M., Wickings, E.J., Tutin, C.E.G., and Bruford, M.W. 2002. Measuring genetic diversity in translocation programmes: principles and application to a chimpanzee release project. Anim. Conserv. 5:225-236.

Grove, P.B., Mark, A.F., and Dickinson, K.J.M. 2002. Vegetation monitoring of recently protected tussock grasslands in the southern South Island, New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 32(3):379-414.

Guariguata, M.R., Arias-Le Claire, H., and Jones, G. 2002. Tree seed fate in a logged and fragmented forest landscape, northeastern Costa Rica. Biotropica 34(3):405-415.

Guilloy-Froget, H., Muller, E., Barsoum, N., and Hughes, F.M.R. 2002. Dispersal, germination, and survival of Populus nigra L. (Salicaceae) in changing hydrologic conditions. Wetlands 22(3):478-488.

Gustafson, D.J., Gibson, D.J., and Nickrent, D.L. 2002. Genetic diversity and competitive abilities of Dalea purpurea (Fabaceae) from remnant and restored grasslands. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(6):979-990.

Hannon, S.J., and Schmiegelow, F.K.A. 2002. Corridors may not improve the conservation value of small reserves for most boreal birds. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1457-1468.

Hanski, I. 2002. In the midst of ecology, conservation, and competing interests in the society. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 39(3):183-186.

Harcourt, A.H. 2002. Empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes for primates: tens to tens of thousands? Anim. Conserv. 5:237-244.

Harcourt, A.H., and Parks, S.A. 2003. Threatened primates experience high human densities: adding an index of threat to the IUCN Red List criteria. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):137-149.

Heikkinen, R.K. 2002. Complementarity and other key criteria in the conservation of herb-rich forests in Finland. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):1939-1958.

Hermann, S.M., Guyer, C., Waddle, J.H., and Nelms, M.G. 2002. Sampling on private property to evaluate population status and effects of land use practices on the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):289-298.

Hirai, T., and Hidaka, K. 2002. Anuran-dependent predation by the giant water bug, Lethocerus deyrollei (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), in rice fields of Japan. Ecol. Res. 17(6):655-661.

Hodgman, T.P., Shriver, W.G., and Vickery, P.D. 2002. Redefining range overlap between the sharp-tailed sparrows of coastal New England. Wilson Bull. 114(1):38-43.

Hoff, M., de Granville, J.J., Lochon, S., Bordenave, B., and Hequet, V. 2002. A protected plant species list for French Guiana. Acta Bot. Gallica 149(3):339-354.

Hopkins, G.W., and Freckleton, R.P. 2002. Declines in the numbers of amateur and professional taxonomists: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 5:245-249.

Hughes, T.P., Bellwood, D.R., and Connolly, S.R. 2002. Biodiversity hotspots, centres of endemicity, and the conservation of coral reefs. Ecol. Lett. 5(6):775-784.

Hull, R.B., Robertson, D.P., Richert, D., Seekamp, E., and Buhyoff, G.J. 2002. Assumptions about ecological scale and nature knowing best hiding in environmental decisions. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):12. <>

Hutto, R.L., and Young, J.S. 2002. Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the northern Rocky Mountains. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(3):738-750.

Iverson, L.R., and Hutchinson, T.F. 2002. Soil temperature and moisture fluctuations during and after prescribed fire in mixed-oak forests, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):296-304.

Jansen, A., and Healey, M. 2003. Frog communities and wetland condition: relationships with grazing by domestic livestock along an Australian floodplain river. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):207-219.

Jenkins, C., Haas, M.E., Olson, A., and Ruesink, J.L. 2002. Impacts of trampling on a rocky shoreline of San Juan Island, Washington, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):260-269.

Jepsen, B.I., Siegismund, H.R., and Fredholm, M. 2002. Population genetics of the native caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and the semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in southwestern Greenland: evidence of introgression. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):401-409.

Johst, K., and Schöps, K. 2003. Persistence and conservation of a consumer-resource metapopulation with local overexploitation of resources. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):57-65.

Kanthaswamy, S., and Smith, D.G. 2002. Population subdivision and gene flow among wild orangutans. Primates 43(4):315-327.

Kareiva, P., Marvier, M., West, S., and Hornisher, J. 2002. Slow-moving journals hinder conservation efforts. Nature 420(6911):15.

Kark, S., Mukerji, T., Safriel, U.N., Noy-Meir, I., Nissani, R., and Darvasi, A. 2002. Peak morphological diversity in an ecotone unveiled in the chukar partridge by a novel Estimator in a Dependent Sample (EDS). J. Anim. Ecol. 71(6):1015-1029.

Keitt, B.S., Wilcox, C., Tershy, B.R., Croll, D.A., and Donlan, C.J. 2002. The effect of feral cats on the population viability of black-vented shearwaters (Puffinus opisthomelas) on Natividad Island, Mexico. Anim. Conserv. 5:217-223.

Kells, A.R., and Goulson, D. 2003. Preferred nesting sites of bumblebee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in agroecosystems in the UK. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):165-174.

King, D.I., and Byers, B.E. 2002. An evaluation of powerline rights-of-way as habitat for early-successional shrubland birds. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(3):868-874.

Kinnaird, M.F., O'Brien, T.G., Lambert, F.R., and Purmiasa, D. 2003. Density and distribution of the endemic Seram cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis in relation to land use patterns. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):227-235.

Kinnear, J.E., Sumner, N.R., and Onus, M.L. 2002. The red fox in Australia - an exotic predator turned biocontrol agent. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):335-359.

Komar, O. 2002. Priority conservation areas for birds in El Salvador. Anim. Conserv. 5:173-183.

Kus, B.E. 2002. Fitness consequences of nest desertion in an endangered host, the Least Bell's Vireo. Condor 104(4):795-802.

Lambert, F.R., and Collar, N.J. 2002. The future for Sundaic lowland forest birds: long-term effects of commercial logging and fragmentation. Forktail 18:127-146.

Lanctot, R.B., Blanco, D.E., Dias, R.A., Isacch, J.P., Gill, V.A., Almeida, J.B., Delhey, K., Petracci, P.E., Bencke, G.A., and Balbueno, R.A. 2002. Conservation status of the buff-breasted sandpiper: historic and contemporary distribution and abundance in South America. Wilson Bull. 114(1):44-72.

Leader-Williams, N., Oldfield, T.E.E., Smith, R.J., and Walpole, M.J. 2002. Science, conservation and fox-hunting. Nature 419(6910):878.

Lemes, M.R., Brondani, R.P.V., and Grattapaglia, D. 2002. Multiplexed systems of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliacelae), a threatened neotropical timber species. J. Heredity 93(4):287-291.

Lens, L., Van Dongen, S., Norris, K., Githiru, M., and Matthysen, E. 2002. Avian persistence in fragmented rainforest. Science 298(5596):1236-1238.

Lertzman, K., Gavin, D., Hallett, D., Brubaker, L., Lepofsky, D., and Mathewes, R. 2002. Long-term fire regime estimated from soil charcoal in coastal temperate rainforests. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):5. <>

Lettink, M., Jamieson, I.G., Millar, C.D., and Lambert, D.M. 2002. Mating system and genetic variation in the endangered New Zealand takahe. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):427-434.

Long, A.J., and Collar, N.J. 2002. Distribution, status and natural history of the Bornean Ground Cuckoo Carpococcyx radiatus. Forktail 18:111-120.

Lucas, L.V., Cloern, J.E., Thompson, J.K., and Monsen, N.E. 2002. Functional variability of habitats within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: restoration implications. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1528-1547.

Luck, G.W. 2003. Differences in the reproductive success and survival of the rufous treecreeper (Climacteris rufa) between a fragmented and unfragmented landscape. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):1-14.

Luken, J.O., and Spaeth, J. 2002. Comparison of riparian forests within and beyond the boundaries of land between the Lakes National Recreation Area, Kentucky, USA. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):283-289.

Macintosh, D.J., Ashton, E.C., and Havanon, S. 2002. Mangrove rehabilitation and intertidal biodiversity: a study in the Ranong mangrove ecosystem, Thailand. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 55(3):331-345.

Maeto, K., Sato, S., and Miyata, H. 2002. Species diversity of longicorn beetles in humid warm-temperate forests: the impact of forest management practices on old-growth forest species in southwestern Japan. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):1919-1937.

Maezono, Y., and Miyashita, T. 2003. Community-level impacts induced by introduced largemouth bass and bluegill in farm ponds in Japan. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):111-121.

Maki, M., Horie, S., and Yokoyama, J. 2002. Comparison of genetic diversity between narrowly endemic shrub Menziesia goyozanensis and its widespread congener M. pentandra (Ericaceae). Conserv. Genet. 3(4):421-425.

McConkey, K.R., Drake, D.R., Meehan, H.J., and Parsons, N. 2003. Husking stations provide evidence of seed predation by introduced rodents in Tongan rain forests. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):221-225.

McDaniel, C.N., and Borton, D.N. 2002. Increased human energy use causes biological diversity loss and undermines prospects for sustainability. BioScience 52(10):929-936.

McDowell, S.C.L., and Turner, D.P. 2002. Reproductive effort in invasive and non-invasive Rubus. Oecologia 133(2):102-111.

McGlaughlin, M., Karoly, K., and Kaye, T. 2002. Genetic variation and its relationship to population size in reintroduced populations of pink sand verbena, Abronia umbellata subsp. breviflora (Nyctaginaceae). Conserv. Genet. 3(4):411-420.

McKinney, M.L. 2002. Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience 52(10):883-890.

Medail, F., Ziman, S., Boscaiu, M., Riera, J., Lambrou, M., Vela, E., Dutton, B., and Ehrendorfer, F. 2002. Comparative analysis of biological and ecological differentiation of Anemone palmata L. (Ranunculaceae) in the western Mediterranean (France and Spain): an assessment of rarity and population persistence. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 140(2):95-114.

Meek, W.R., Burman, P.J., Nowakowski, M., Sparks, T.H., and Burman, N.J. 2003. Barn owl release in lowland southern England - a twenty-one year study. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):271-282.

Mendoza, M.M., Reyes, G.R., and Eduarte, M.M. 2002. Rediscovery of Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor in the Philippines. Forktail 18:153.

Mersey, J.E., Millward, A.A., and Martinez, L.M. 2002. Realizing the potential of GIS in community-based management of protected areas. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 9(3):208-222.

Mishra, C., Van Wieren, S.E., Heitkönig, I.M.A., and Prins, H.H.T. 2002. A theoretical analysis of competitive exclusion in a Trans-Himalayan large-herbivore assemblage. Anim. Conserv. 5:251-258.

Mitchell, A.D., and Heenan, P.B. 2002. Genetic variation within the Pachycladon (Brassicaceae) complex based on fluorescent AFLP data. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 32(3):427-443.

Mitchell, C.E., Turner, M.G., and Pearson, S.M. 2002. Effects of historical land use and forest patch size on myrmecochores and ant communities. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1364-1377.

Morris, L.L., Walck, J.L., and Hidayati, S.N. 2002. Growth and reproduction of the invasive Ligustrum sinense and native Forestiera ligustrina (Oleaceae): implications for the invasion and persistence of a nonnative shrub. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(6):1001-1010.

Mosher, S.M., and Fancy, S.G. 2002. Description of nests, eggs, and nestlings of the endangered nightingale reed-warbler on Saipan, Micronesia. Wilson Bull. 114(1):1-10.

Murphy, M.A., Waits, L.P., Kendall, K.C., Wasser, S.K., Higbee, J.A., and Bogden, R. 2002. An evaluation of long-term preservation methods for brown bear (Ursus arctos) faecal DNA samples. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):435-440.

Murray, B.R., Thrall, P.H., and Lepschi, B.J. 2002. Relating species rarity to life history in plants of eastern Australia. Evol. Ecol. Res. 4(7):937-950.

Ne'eman, G. 2003. To be or not to be - the effect of nature conservation management on flowering of Paeonia mascula (L.) Miller in Israel. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):103-109.

Nekola, J.C., and White, P.S. 2002. Conservation, the two pillars of ecological explanation, and the paradigm of distance. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):305-310.

Odion, D., and Tyler, C. 2002. Are long fire-free periods needed to maintain the endangered, fire-recruiting shrub Arctostaphylos morroensis (Ericaceae)? Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):4. <>

Pauchard, A., and Villarroel, P. 2002. Protected areas in Chile: history, current status, and challenges. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):318-330.

Paxton, E.H., Sogge, M.K., McCarthey, T.D., and Keim, P. 2002. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher. Condor 104(4):877-881.

Pearson, C.V.M., Rogers, A.D., and Sheader, M. 2002. The genetic structure of the rare lagoonal sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) in the United Kingdom based on RAPD analysis. Mol. Ecol. 11(11):2285-2293.

Pierce, R.J., and Westbrooke, I.M. 2003. Call count responses of North Island brown kiwi to different levels of predator control in Northland, New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):175-180.

Pitman, N.C.A., and Jørgensen, P.M. 2002. Estimating the size of the world's threatened flora. Science 298(5595):989.

Polisar, J., Maxit, I., Scognamillo, D., Farrell, L., Sunquist, M.E., and Eisenberg, J.F. 2003. Jaguars, pumas, their prey base, and cattle ranching: ecological interpretations of a management problem. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):297-310.

Possingham, H.P., Andelman, S.J., Burgman, M.A., Medellín, R.A., Master, L.L., and Keith, D.A. 2002. Limits to the use of threatened species lists. TREE 17(11):503-507.

Powell, L.A., Calvert, D.J., Barry, I.M., and Washburn, L. 2002. Post-fledging survival and dispersal of Peregrine Falcons during a restoration project. J. Raptor Res. 36(3):176-182.

Prakash, S., and de Roos, A.M. 2002. Habitat destruction in a simple predator-prey patch model: how predators enhance prey persistence and abundance. Theor. Popul. Biol. 62(3):231-249.

Presa, P., Pérez, M., and Diz, A.P. 2002. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue mussels (Mytilus spp.). Conserv. Genet. 3(4):441-443.

Prezant, R.S., Toll, R.B., Rollins, H.B., and Chapman, E.J. 2002. Marine macroinvertebrate diversity of St. Catherines Island, Georgia. Am. Mus. Novit. (3367):1-31.

Price, A.R.G. 2002. Simultaneous 'hotspots' and 'coldspots' of marine biodiversity and implications for global conservation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 241:23-27.

Primmer, C.R., and Merilä, J. 2002. A low rate of cross-species microsatellite amplification success in Ranid frogs. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):445-449.

Quan, R.C., Wen, X.J., and Yang, X.J. 2002. Effects of human activities on migratory waterbirds at Lashihai Lake, China. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):273-279.

Queheillalt, D.M., Cain, J.W., Taylor, D.E., Morrison, M.L., Hoover, S.L., Tuatoo-Bartley, N., Rugge, L., Christopherson, K., Hulst, M.D., Harris, M.R., and Keough, H.L. 2002. The exclusion of rare species from community-level analyses. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(3):756-759.

Quintanilla, L.G., Amigo, J., Pangua, E., and Pajaron, S. 2002. Effect of storage method on spore viability in five globally threatened fern species. Ann. Botany 90(4):461-467.

Raman, T.R.S., and Sukumar, R. 2002. Responses of tropical rainforest birds to abandoned plantations, edges and logged forest in the Western Ghats, India. Anim. Conserv. 5:201-216.

Rao, K.S., Maikhuri, R.K., Nautiyal, S., and Saxena, K.G. 2002. Crop damage and livestock depredation by wildlife: a case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. J. Environ. Manage. 66(3):317-327.

Regan, H.M., Auld, T.D., Keith, D.A., and Burgman, M.A. 2003. The effects of fire and predators on the long-term persistence of an endangered shrub, Grevillea caleyi. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):73-83.

Reid, S., Cornelius, C., Barbosa, O., Meynard, C., Silva-Garcia, C., and Marquet, P.A. 2002. Conservation of temperate forest birds in Chile: implications from the study of an isolated forest relict. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):1975-1990.

Restani, M., and Marzluff, J.M. 2002. Litigation and endangered species - reply. BioScience 52(10):868-870.

Richards, J.D., and Short, J. 2003. Reintroduction and establishment of the western barred bandicoot Perameles bougainville (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) at Shark Bay, Western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 109(2):181-195.

Rideout, S., and Oswald, B.P. 2002. Effects of prescribed burning on vegetation and fuel loading in three east Texas state parks. Tex. J. Sci. 54(3):211-226.

Roberson, E.B. 2002. Imperiled plants need better protection. BioScience 52(10):870-871.

Rolston, M.P., Stewart, A.V., Latch, G.C.M., and Hume, D.E. 2002. Endophytes in New Zealand grass seeds: occurrence and implications for conservation of grass species. New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(3):365-372.

Romero, L.M., and Wikelski, M. 2002. Exposure to tourism reduces stress-induced corticosterone levels in Galápagos marine iguanas. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):371-374.

Ronconia, R.A., and St. Clair, C.C. 2002. Management options to reduce boat disturbance on foraging black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) in the Bay of Fundy. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):265-271.

Rooney, T.P., and Rogers, D.A. 2002. The modified floristic quality index. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):340-344.

Roux, D., de Moor, F., Cambray, J., and Barber-James, H. 2002. Use of landscape-level river signatures in conservation planning: a South African case study. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):6. <>

Ruedi, M., Jourde, P., Giosa, P., Barataud, M., and Roue, S.Y. 2002. DNA reveals the existence of Myotis alcathoe in France (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Rev. Suisse Zool. 109(3):643-652.

Russell, G.J., Bass, O.L., and Pimm, S.L. 2002. The effect of hydrological patterns and breeding-season flooding on the numbers and distribution of wading birds in Everglades National Park. Anim. Conserv. 5:185-199.

Ruthven, D.C., and Synatzske, D.R. 2002. Response of herbaceous vegetation to summer fire in the western south Texas plains. Tex. J. Sci. 54(3):195-210.

Salgueiro, P., Carvalho, G., Collares-Pereira, M.J., and Coelho, M.M. 2003. Microsatellite analysis of genetic population structure of the endangered cyprinid Anaecypris hispanica in Portugal: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):47-56.

Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Daily, G.C., Pfaff, A.S.P., and Busch, C. 2003. Integrity and isolation of Costa Rica's national parks and biological reserves: examining the dynamics of land-cover change. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):123-135.

Sanderson, E.W., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M.A., Redford, K.H., Wannebo, A.V., and Woolmer, G. 2002. The human footprint and the last of the wild. BioScience 52(10):891-904.

Scarano, F.R. 2002. Structure, function and floristic relationships of plant communities in stressful habitats marginal to the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Ann. Botany 90(4):517-524.

Schadt, S., Knauer, F., Kaczensky, P., Revilla, E., Wiegand, T., and Trepl, L. 2002. Rule-based assessment of suitable habitat and patch connectivity for the Eurasian lynx. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1469-1483.

Schrey, A.W., and Heist, E.J. 2002. Microsatellite markers for the shortfin mako and cross-species amplification in lamniformes. Conserv. Genet. 3(4):459-461.

Senel, G., Ozkan, M., and Kandemir, N. 2002. A karyological investigation on some rare and endangered species of Amaryllidaceae in Turkey. Pakistan J. Bot. 34(3):229-235.

Serio-Silva, J.C., Rico-Gray, V., Hernández-Salazar, L.T., and Espinosa-Gómez, R. 2002. The role of Ficus (Moraceae) in the diet and nutrition of a troop of Mexican howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata mexicana, released on an island in southern Veracruz, Mexico. J. Trop. Ecol. 18:913-928.

Sheil, D., and Wunder, S. 2002. The value of tropical forest to local communities: complications, caveats, and cautions. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 6(2):9. <>

Siebert, S.F. 2002. From shade- to sun-grown perennial crops in Sulawesi, Indonesia: implications for biodiversity conservation and soil fertility. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):1889-1902.

Slabber, S., and Chown, S.L. 2002. The first record of a terrestrial crustacean, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Porcellionidae), from sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biol. 25(11):855-858.

Suckling, K., and Greenwald, N. 2002. Litigation and endangered species. BioScience 52(10):868.

Thapa, S., and Thapa, B. 2002. Debt-for-nature swaps: potential applications in Nepal. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 9(3):239-255.

Thomas, K., Kvitek, R.G., and Bretz, C. 2003. Effects of human activity on the foraging behavior of sanderlings Calidris alba. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):67-71.

Thompson, J., Brokaw, N., Zimmerman, J.K., Waide, R.B., Everham, E.M., Lodge, D.J., Taylor, C.M., García-Montiel, D., and Fluet, M. 2002. Land use history, environment, and tree composition in a tropical forest. Ecol. Appl. 12(5):1344-1363.

Tigas, L.A., Van Vuren, D.H., and Sauvajot, R.M. 2002. Behavioral responses of bobcats and coyotes to habitat fragmentation and corridors in an urban environment. Biol. Conserv. 108(3):299-306.

Tomimatsu, H., and Ohara, M. 2003. Genetic diversity and local population structure of fragmented populations of Trillium camschatcense (Trilliaceae). Biol. Conserv. 109(2):249-258.

Tonhasca, A., Blackmer, J.L., and Albuquerque, G.S. 2002. Abundance and diversity of euglossine bees in the fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Biotropica 34(3):416-422.

Townsend, D.S., and Meyer, A.D. 2002. Rapid recovery of witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) by sprouting, following release from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.) browsing. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):290-295.

Trejo, I., and Dirzo, R. 2002. Floristic diversity of Mexican seasonally dry tropical forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):2063-2084.

Trujillo, D., Ibanez, C., and Juste, J. 2002. A new subspecies of Barbastella barbastellus (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Canary islands. Rev. Suisse Zool. 109(3):543-550.

Tungittiplakorn, W., and Dearden, P. 2002. Biodiversity conservation and cash crop development in northern Thailand. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):2007-2025.

Vargas, A., Jiménez, I., Palomares, F., and Palacios, M.J. 2002. Distribution, status, and conservation needs of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli). Biol. Conserv. 108(3):325-334.

Vasey, N., and Tattersall, I. 2002. Do rutted lemurs form a hybrid zone? Distribution and discovery of Varecia, with systematic and conservation implications. Am. Mus. Novit. (3376):1-26.

Vences, M., Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Raminosoa, N., Randrianirina, J.E., and Vieites, D.R. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of the Ankaratra Massif: reproductive diversity, biogeography and conservation of a montane fauna in Madagascar. Italian J. Zool. 69(3):263-284.

Vonesh, J.R., and De la Cruz, O. 2002. Complex life cycles and density dependence: assessing the contribution of egg mortality to amphibian declines. Oecologia 133(3):325-333.

Waldick, R.C., Kraus, S.S., Brown, M., and White, B.N. 2002. Evaluating the effects of historic bottleneck events: an assessment of microsatellite variability in the endangered, North Atlantic right whale. Mol. Ecol. 11(11):2241-2250.

Ward, D., Honan, P., and Lefoe, G. 2002. Colony structure and nest characteristics of European wasps, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in Victoria, Australia. Aust. J. Entomol. 41:306-309.

Weber, W.L., Roseberry, J.L., and Woolf, A. 2002. Influence of the Conservation Reserve Program on landscape structure and potential upland wildlife habitat. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(3):888-898.

Weekley, C.W., Kubisiak, T.L., and Race, T.M. 2002. Genetic impoverishment and cross-incompatibility in remnant genotypes of Ziziphus celata (Rhamnaceae), a rare shrub endemic to the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):2027-2046.

Wheeler, B.A., Prosen, E., Mathis, A., and Wilkinson, R.F. 2003. Population declines of a long-lived salamander: a 20+-year study of hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Biol. Conserv. 109(1):151-156.

Williams, C. 2002. Biodiversity and the hygiene hypothesis. Nat. Areas J. 22(4):258-259.

Williams-Linera, G., Rowden, A., and Newton, A.C. 2003. Distribution and stand characteristics of relict populations of Mexican beech (Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana). Biol. Conserv. 109(1):27-36.

Wilson, G.A., Olson, W., and Strobeck, C. 2002. Reproductive success in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) established using molecular techniques. Can. J. Zool. 80(9):1537-1548.

Wisely, S.M., Buskirk, S.W., Fleming, M.A., McDonald, D.B., and Ostrander, E.A. 2002. Genetic diversity and fitness in black-footed ferrets before and during a bottleneck. J. Heredity 93(4):231-237.

Wisely, S.M., Ososky, J.J., and Buskirk, S.W. 2002. Morphological changes to black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) resulting from captivity. Can. J. Zool. 80(9):1562-1568.

Wood, P.J., Gunn, J., and Perkins, J. 2002. The impact of pollution on aquatic invertebrates within a subterranean ecosystem - out of sight out of mind. Arch. Hydrobiol. 155(2):223-237.

Zaniewski, A.E., Lehmann, A., and Overton, J.M.C. 2002. Predicting species spatial distributions using presence-only data: a case study of native New Zealand ferns. Ecol. Model. 157(2-3):261-280.

Zapfack, L., Engwald, S., Sonke, B., Achoundong, G., and Madong, B.A. 2002. The impact of land conversion on plant biodiversity in the forest zone of Cameroon. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(11):2047-2061.

Zetra, B., Rafiastanto, A., Rombang, W.M., and Trainor, C.R. 2002. Rediscovery of the Critically Endangered Sumatran Ground Cuckoo Carpococcyx viridis. Forktail 18:63-66.

Zimmer, K.D., Hanson, M.A., and Butler, M.G. 2002. Effects of fathead minnows and restoration on prairie wetland ecosystems. Freshwater Biol. 47(11):2071-2086.

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