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Department ofBotany

No. 218
February 2003

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In This Issue

Flora of Marquesas Islands Debuts on Web

An isolated group of 12 volcanic hot spot islands in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, the Marquesas Islands are one of five archipelagos of French Polynesia. A number of botanical explorations to the Marquesas Islands have been undertaken since the late 1700s, but none have resulted in a comprehensive treatment of the flora. As a response to this deficiency, Warren L. Wagner of the Smithsonian Institution and David H. Lorence of the National Tropical Botanical Garden initiated the Flora of the Marquesas Islands project. One result of the project is the release of the new Web site, "Flora of the Marquesas Islands" <>.

Flora of the Marquesas Islands

The aim of the Web site is to provide a flexible query tool to access taxonomic and geographical information on Marquesas vascular plants. The overarching goal of the project, however, is to present a framework for preserving the biodiversity of the islands. Of the nearly 714 vascular plant species, 337 species are native, with approximately 45 percent being endemic to the archipelago, including five endemic genera. During the last two decades, roughly 40 new species have been discovered which represents a substantial increase to the native vascular flora, thereby accentuating the need for further field exploration efforts. The present checklist database on the Web consists of 104 families, 364 genera, and 597 taxa of flowering plants and 27 families, 55 genera, and 117 taxa of ferns and related groups. In addition to the available checklist, information can be retrieved on specimens that have been collected in the Marquesas, including a list of herbaria where collections are held.

The topography of the Marquesas Islands is extremely rugged and beautiful, and the collection of images on the Web site attests to that fact. The rugged topography has produced varied habitats on the larger islands ranging from dry on the leeward sides to mesic valleys and cloud covered summits. The searchable image gallery offers over 800 photographs of plants from these varied habitats.

Plans are underway to increase the scope of the Pacific Flora Web site to encompass other island groups. A flora of the Hawaiian Islands is currently available at <>. The Flora of the Marquesas Islands is the second module of what will be six over the next three years to cover the vascular plants of the Oceanic Pacific (Hawaiian Islands to Micronesia, to Fiji, to Easter Island).

Data are maintained by Wagner, Lorence, and Denise Mix. Jessica Braun prepared photographic images of plant taxa for web presentation and helped maintain the image database, with additional help from Julia Mirabella and Philip Garcia. Royce Oliver, Michael Sisson, Sara Hodapp and Robynn Shannon processed specimens and contributed to initial database development and maintenance. Tim Flynn and Melany Chapin, of the National Tropical Botanical Garden, developed and maintain the NTBG database which has been incorporated with the Smithsonian database.


The director and staff of the Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program (SI/MAB) are pleased to announce the international biodiversity conservation curriculum for 2003. The two complementary courses that form this year's curriculum offer a complete and essential program for conservation biologists, ecologists, resource managers and environmental leaders.

  • Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring for Adaptive Management
    30 April - 2 June 2003
    This intensive five-week SI/MAB course is a must for resource managers, ecologists, biologists, environmental educators and consultants. It is led by more than 40 internationally recognized instructors and speakers. The course is divided into eight modules, the first of which provides a framework for biodiversity assessment and monitoring, strengthened by a basic background in Geographical Information Systems and statistics. Six modules follow on assessment and monitoring of vegetation, aquatic systems, arthropods, amphibians and reptiles, birds, and mammals. The final module integrates the preceding seven and focuses on developing site-based multi-taxa monitoring for adaptive management.

  • The Smithsonian Environmental Leadership Course
    7-19 September 2003
    Strong leadership skills are essential for effective conservation. The communication skills and strategies of exceptional leaders are taught in this course in a friendly learning environment. The Smithsonian Environmental Leadership course includes the exploration of topics such as Foundation Skills for the Environmental Leader, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Strategies, Creating Compelling Futures, and Impactful Environmental Communication. The learning structure of the course is composed of demonstrations, background information, and personal and group exercises. Speakers and numerous case-specific examples are presented.

For more information, visit the SI/MAB Web site at <> or contact Geri Philpott, Education and Training Coordinator, Smithsonian Institution, MAB Program, PO Box 37012, Attn: MRC 705, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012; Tel: 202.357-4793; Fax 202.786-2557; E-mail:

Current Literature

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Bentivegna, F. 2002. Intra-Mediterranean migrations of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) monitored by satellite telemetry. Mar. Biol. 141(4):795-800.

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Brunke, M. 2002. Floodplains of a regulated southern alpine river (Brenno, Switzerland): ecological assessment and conservation options. Aquat. Conserv. 12(6):583-599.

Bryce, J., Johnson, P.J., and Macdonald, D.W. 2002. Can niche use in red and grey squirrels offer clues for their apparent coexistence? J. Appl. Ecol. 39(6):875-887.

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Camargo, J.L.C., Ferraz, I.D.K., and Imakawa, A.M. 2002. Rehabilitation of degraded areas of central Amazonia using direct sowing of forest tree seeds. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):636-644.

Cawsey, E.M., Austin, M.P., and Baker, B.L. 2002. Regional vegetation mapping in Australia: a case study in the practical use of statistical modelling. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2239-2274.

Chbel, F., Broderick, D., Idaghdour, Y., Korrida, A., and Mccormick, P. 2002. Characterization of 22 microsatellites loci from the endangered Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):484-487.

Chen, G.J., and Peterson, T. 2002. Prioritization of areas in China for the conservation of endangered birds using modelled geographic distributions. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(3):197-209.

Christie, I. 2002. Sustainability and spiritual renewal: the challenge of creating a politics of reverence. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1466-1468.

Çiplak, B. 2003. Distribution of Tettigoniinae (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) bush-crickets in Turkey: the importance of the Anatolian Taurus Mountains in biodiversity and implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):47-64.

Clark, J.A., Hoekstra, J.M., Boersma, P.D., and Kareiva, P. 2002. Improving U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery plans: key findings and recommendations of the SCB recovery plan project. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1510-1519.

Comstock, K.E., Georgiadis, N., Pecon-Slattery, J., Roca, A.L., Ostrander, E.A., O'Brien, S.J., and Wasser, S.K. 2002. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among African elephant populations. Mol. Ecol. 11(12):2489-2498.

Craig, M.D. 2002. Comparative ecology of four passerine species in jarrah forests used for timber production in southwestern Western Australia. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1609-1619.

Czech, B. 2002. A transdisciplinary approach to conservation land acquisition. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1488-1497.

D'Antonio, C., and Meyerson, L.A. 2002. Exotic plant species as problems and solutions in ecological restoration: a synthesis. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):703-713.

D'Eon, R.G. 2002. Forest fragmentation and forest management: a plea for empirical data. Forest Chron. 78(5):686-689.

Dalecky, A., Chauvet, S., Ringuet, S., Claessens, O., Judas, J., Larue, M., and Cosson, J.F. 2002. Large mammals on small islands: short term effects of forest fragmentation on the large mammal fauna in French Guiana. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie :145-164.

Davidson, C., Shaffer, H.B., and Jennings, M.R. 2002. Spatial tests of the pesticide drift, habitat destruction, UV-B, and climate-change hypotheses for California amphibian declines. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1588-1601.

de Jonge, V.N., and de Jong, D.J. 2002. Ecological restoration in coastal areas in the Netherlands: concepts, dilemmas and some examples. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):7-28.

Dias, R.A., and Maurício, G.N. 2002. Natural history notes and conservation of a Saffron-cowled blackbird Xanthopsar flavus population in the southern coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(3):255-268.

Dunn, E.H. 2002. Using decline in bird populations to identify needs for conservation action. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1632-1637.

Dupouey, J.L., Dambrine, E., Laffite, J.D., and Moares, C. 2002. Irreversible impact of past land use on forest soils and biodiversity. Ecology 83(11):2978-2984.

Eackles, M.S., and King, T.L. 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Lampsilis abrupta (Bivalvia: Unionidae) and cross-species amplification within the genus. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):559-562.

Echenique-Diaz, L.M., Yokoyama, J., Kawata, M., Abe, S., and Ishibashi, Y. 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the Bang's leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros turpis. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):396-397.

EjrnæS, R., Hansen, D.N., and Aude, E. 2003. Changing course of secondary succession in abandoned sandy fields. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):343-350.

Engelhardt, K.A.M., and Ritchie, M.E. 2002. The effect of aquatic plant species richness on wetland ecosystem processes. Ecology 83(10):2911-2924.

Fearnside, P.M. 2002. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia. Environ. Manage. 30(6):735-747.

Ferraro, P.J., and Kiss, A. 2002. Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science 298(5599):1718-1719.

Ferrier, S., Drielsma, M., Manion, G., and Watson, G. 2002. Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. II. Community-level modelling. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2309-2338.

Ferrier, S., Watson, G., Pearce, J., and Drielsma, M. 2002. Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. I. Species-level modelling. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2275-2307.

Field, S.A., Tyre, A.J., and Possingham, H.P. 2002. Estimating bird species richness: how should repeat surveys be organized in time? Austral Ecol. 27(6):624-629.

Fitzsimmons, N.N., Buchan, J.C., Lam, P.V., Polet, G., Hung, T.T., Thang, N.Q., and Gratten, J. 2002. Identification of purebred Crocodylus siamensis for reintroduction in Vietnam. J. Exp. Zool. 294(4):373-381.

Fleishman, E. 2002. The error of judgment: struggling for neutrality in science and journalism. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1451-1453.

Foord, S.H., Ferguson, J.W.H., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2002. Endemicity of Afromontane grasshopper assemblages: implications for grassland conservation. Afr. J. Ecol. 40(4):318-327.

Foster, D.R. 2002. Conservation issues and approaches for dynamic cultural landscapes. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1533-1535.

Foster, D.R. 2002. Insights from historical geography to ecology and conservation: lessons from the New England landscape. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1269-1275.

Foster, D.R. 2002. Thoreau's country: a historical-ecological perspective on conservation in the New England landscape. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1537-1555.

Foster, D.R., Clayden, S., Orwig, D.A., and Hall, B. 2002. Oak, chestnut and fire: climatic and cultural controls of long-term forest dynamics in New England, USA. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1359-1379.

Foster, D.R., Hall, B., Barry, S., Clayden, S., and Parshall, T. 2002. Cultural, environmental and historical controls of vegetation patterns and the modern conservation setting on the island of Martha's Vineyard, USA. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1381-1400.

Foster, D.R., Motzkin, G., Bernardos, D., and Cardoza, J. 2002. Wildlife dynamics in the changing New England landscape. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1337-1357.

Fumagalli, L., Snoj, A., Jesenšek, D., Balloux, F., Jug, T., Duron, O., Brossier, F., Crivelli, A.J., and Berrebi, P. 2002. Extreme genetic differentiation among the remnant populations of marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) in Slovenia. Mol. Ecol. 11(12):2711-2716.

Garrett, G.P., Hubbs, C., and Edwards, R.J. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Dionda diaboli Hubbs & Brown, 1956 (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 65(4):478.

Genet, K.S. 2002. Structural habitat and ecological overlap of the Puerto Rican lizards Anolis cristatellus and A. cooki, with comments on the long-term survival and conservation of A. cooki. Caribbean J. Sci. 38(3-4):272-278.

Gibbs, J.P., and Shriver, W.G. 2002. Estimating the effects of road mortality on turtle populations. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1647-1652.

Glendell, M., and Vaughan, N. 2002. Foraging activity of bats in historic landscape parks in relation to habitat composition and park management. Anim. Conserv. 5:309-316.

Gonzalez, S., Alvarez-Valin, F., and Maldonado, J.E. 2002. Morphometric differentiation of endangered pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), with description of new subspecies from Uruguay. J. Mammal. 83(4):1127-1140.

Gorchakovsky, P.L., and Demchenko, A.A. 2002. Comparative estimation of floristic diversity in protected natural areas. Russian J. Ecol. 33(6):379-387.

Gotelli, N.J., and Ellison, A.M. 2002. Nitrogen deposition and extinction risk in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. Ecology 83(10):2758-2765.

Grigione, M.M., Beier, P., Hopkins, R.A., Neal, D., Padley, W.D., Schonewald, C.M., and Johnson, M.L. 2002. Ecological and allometric determinants of home-range size for mountain lions (Puma concolor). Anim. Conserv. 5:317-324.

Grootjans, A.P., Bakker, J.P., Jansen, A.J.M., and Kemmers, R.H. 2002. Restoration of brook valley meadows in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):149-170.

Grootjans, A.P., Geelen, H.W.T., Jansen, A.J.M., and Lammerts, E.J. 2002. Restoration of coastal dune slacks in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):181-203.

Grygier, M.J., Kusuoka, Y., Ida, M., and Lake Biwa Museum Field Reporters. 2002. Distributional survey of large branchiopods of rice paddies in Shiga Prefecture, Japan: a Lake Biwa Museum project based on lay amateur participation. Hydrobiologia 486(1):133-146.

Gulati, R.D., and van Donk, E. 2002. Lakes in the Netherlands, their origin, eutrophication and restoration: state-of-the-art review. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):73-106.

Gundale, M.J. 2002. Influence of exotic earthworms on the soil organic horizon and the rare fern Botrychium mormo. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1555-1561.

Hallock, P., Lidz, B.H., Cockey-Burkhard, E.M., and Donnelly, K.B. 2003. Foraminifera as bioindicators in coral reef assessment and monitoring: the FORAM index. Environ. Monit. Assess. 81(1-3):221-238.

Hämmerli, A., and Reusch, T.B.H. 2002. Local adaptation and transplant dominance in genets of the marine clonal plant Zostera marina. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 242:111-118.

Hariharan, G.N., and Balaji, P. 2002. Taxonomic research in India: future prospects. Curr. Sci. 83(9):1068-1070.

Helmer, E.H., Ramos, O., Lopez, T.D., Quinones, M., and Diaz, W. 2002. Mapping the forest type and land cover of Puerto Rico, a component of the Caribbean biodiversity hotspot. Caribbean J. Sci. 38(3-4):165-183.

Hobson, K.A., Bayne, E.M., and Van Wilgenburg, S.L. 2002. Large-scale conversion of forest to agriculture in the boreal plains of Saskatchewan. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1530-1541.

Holl, K.D. 2002. Long-term vegetation recovery on reclaimed coal surface mines in the eastern USA. J. Appl. Ecol. 39(6):960-970.

Holycross, A.T., Douglas, M.E., Higbee, J.R., and Bogden, R.H. 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from a threatened rattlesnake (New Mexico ridge-nosed rattlesnake, Crotalus willardi obscurus). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):537-539.

Hubbs, C., Edwards, R.J., and Garrett, G.P. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Gambusia heterochir Hubbs, 1957 (Poeciliidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 65(4):422.

Ingvarsson, P.K. 2002. Lone wolf to the rescue. Nature 420(6915):472.

Ioras, F. 2003. Trends in Romanian biodiversity conservation policy. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):9-23.

Jalili, A., Hamzeh'ee, B., Asri, Y., Shirvany, A., Yazdani, S., Khoshnevis, M., Zarrinkamar, F., Ghahramani, M.A., Safavi, R., Shaw, S., Hodgson, J.G., Thompson, K., Akbarzadeh, M., and Pakparvar, M. 2003. Soil seed banks in the Arasbaran Protected Area of Iran and their significance for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):425-431.

Jansen, R., and Crowe, T.M. 2002. Population fluctuations in relation to seasonal habitat preferences of the Swainson's spurfowl, Pternistis swainsonii. Afr. J. Ecol. 40(4):309-317.

Jauhiainen, S., Laiho, R., and Vasander, H. 2002. Ecohydrological and vegetational changes in a restored bog and fen. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 39(3):185-199.

Jenkins, R.K.B., Brady, L.D., Bisoa, M., Rabearivony, J., and Griffiths, R.A. 2003. Forest disturbance and river proximity influence chameleon abundance in Madagascar. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):407-415.

Jimenez, J.F., Sanchez-Gomez, P., Guemes, J., Werner, O., and Rossello, J.A. 2002. Genetic variability in a narrow endemic snapdragon (Antirrhinum subbaeticum, Scrophulariaceae) using RAPD markers. Heredity 89:387-393.

Jules, E.S., Kauffman, M.J., Ritts, W.D., and Carroll, A.L. 2002. Spread of an invasive pathogen over a variable landscape: a nonnative root rot on Port Orford cedar. Ecology 83(11):3167-3181.

Kourtev, P.S., Ehrenfeld, J.G., and Haggblom, M. 2002. Exotic plant species alter the microbial community structure and function in the soil. Ecology 83(11):3152-3166.

Kraus, F. 2002. Ecology and conservation of Sida eggersii (Malvaceae), a rare tree of the Virgin Islands. Caribbean J. Sci. 38(3-4):184-194.

Kruess, A., and Tscharntke, T. 2002. Grazing intensity and the diversity of grasshoppers, butterflies, and trap-nesting bees and wasps. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1570-1580.

Kryger, U., Robinson, T.J., and Bloomer, P. 2002. Isolation and characterization of six polymorphic microsatellite loci in South African hares (Lepus saxatilis F. Cuvier, 1823 and Lepus capensis Linnaeus, 1758). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):422-424.

Kumaran, P.L. 2002. Marine mammal research in India - a review and critique of the methods. Curr. Sci. 83(10):1210-1220.

Kyle, C.J., and Strobeck, C. 2002. Connectivity of peripheral and core populations of North American wolverines. J. Mammal. 83(4):1141-1150.

Laihonen, P., Rönkä, M., Tolvanen, H., and Kalliola, R. 2003. Geospatially structured biodiversity information as a component of a regional biodiversity clearing house. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):103-120.

Lamers, L.P.M., Smolders, A.J.P., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2002. The restoration of fens in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):107-130.

Leathwick, J.R. 2002. Intra-generic competition among Nothofagus in New Zealand's primary indigenous forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2177-2187.

Lehmann, A., Leathwick, J.R., and Overton, J.M. 2002. Assessing New Zealand fern diversity from spatial predictions of species assemblages. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2217-2238.

Lehmann, A., Overton, J.M., and Austin, M.P. 2002. Regression models for spatial prediction: their role for biodiversity and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2085-2092.

Lennartsson, T. 2002. Extinction thresholds and disrupted plant-pollinator interactions in fragmented plant populations. Ecology 83(11):3060-3072.

Levin, P.S., Coyer, J.A., Petrik, R., and Good, T.P. 2002. Community-wide effects of nonindigenous species on temperate rocky reefs. Ecology 83(11):3182-3193.

Levin, P.S., and Williams, J.G. 2002. Interspecific effects of artifically propagated fish: an additional conservation risk for salmon. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1581-1587.

Li, B.G., Pan, R.L., and Oxnard, C.E. 2002. Extinction of snub-nosed monkeys in China during the past 400 years. Int. J. Primatol. 23(6):1227-1244.

Lofgren, A., and Jerling, L. 2002. Species richness, extinction and immigration rates of vascular plants on islands in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, during a century of ceasing management. Folia Geobot. 37(3):297-308.

MacNally, R., Parkinson, A., Horrocks, G., and Young, M. 2002. Current loads of coarse woody debris on southeastern Australian floodplains: evaluation of change and implications for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):627-635.

Maggini, R., Guisan, A., and Cherix, D. 2002. A stratified approach for modeling the distribution of a threatened ant species in the Swiss National Park. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2117-2141.

Magura, T., Tóthmérész, B., and Elek, Z. 2003. Diversity and composition of carabids during a forestry cycle. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):73-85.

Marshall, J.S., and Vandruff, L.W. 2002. Impact of selective herbicide right-of-way vegetation treatment on birds. Environ. Manage. 30(6):801-806.

Mayor, M.I., Sommer, J.A., Huebinger, R.M., Barber, R.C., and Louis, E.E. 2002. Characterization of seven microsatellite marker loci in a genus of Malagasy lemurs (Propithecus). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):385-388.

McDaniel, J. 2002. Spirituality and sustainability. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1461-1464.

Mendel, L.C., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2002. Historical progress of biodiversity conservation in the protected-area system of Tasmania, Australia. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1520-1529.

Middleton, B. 2002. Winter burning and the reduction of Cornus sericea in sedge meadows in southern Wisconsin. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):723-730.

Miller, C. 2002. Thinking like a conservationist. J. Forestry 100(8):42-45.

Milligan, A.L., Putwain, P.D., and Marrs, R.H. 2003. A field assessment of the role of selective herbicides in the restoration of British moorland dominated by Molinia. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):369-379.

Minchinton, T.E. 2002. Precipitation during El Niño correlates with increasing spread of Phragmites australis in New England, USA, coastal marshes. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 242:305-309.

Mira, S., Billot, C., Guillemaud, T., Palma, L., and Cancela, M.L. 2002. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Eurasian vulture Gyps fulvus. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):557-558.

Morley, S.A., and Karr, J.R. 2002. Assessing and restoring the health of urban streams in the Puget Sound basin. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1498-1509.

Motzkin, G., Eberhardt, R., Hall, B., Foster, D.R., Harrod, J., and MacDonald, D. 2002. Vegetation variation across Cape Cod, Massachusetts: environmental and historical determinants. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1439-1454.

Motzkin, G., and Foster, D.R. 2002. Grasslands, heathlands and shrublands in coastal New England: historical interpretations and approaches to conservation. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1569-1590.

Motzkin, G., Orwig, D.A., and Foster, D.R. 2002. Vegetation and disturbance history of a rare dwarf pitch pine community in western New England, USA. J. Biogeogr. 29(10-11):1455-1467.

Mueller-Dombois, D. 2002. Forest vegetation across the tropical Pacific: a biogeographically complex region with many analogous environments. Plant Ecol. 163(2):155-176.

Mullen, K., Fahy, O., and Gormally, M. 2003. Ground flora and associated arthropod communities of forest road edges in Connemara, Ireland. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):87-101.

Müller, Z., Jakab, T., Tóth, A., Dévai, G., Szállassy, N., Kiss, B., and Horváth, R. 2003. Effect of sports fisherman activities on dragonfly assemblages on a Hungarian river floodplain. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):167-179.

Navarro, L., and Guitián, J. 2003. Seed germination and seedling survival of two threatened endemic species of the northwest Iberian peninsula. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):313-320.

Nepal, S.K. 2002. Involving indigenous peoples in protected area management: comparative perspectives from Nepal, Thailand, and China. Environ. Manage. 30(6):748-763.

Ng, S.C., and Corlett, R.T. 2003. The ecology of six Rhododendron species (Ericaceae) with contrasting local abundance and distribution patterns in Hong Kong, China. Plant Ecol. 164(2):225-233.

Nienhuis, P.H., Bakker, J.P., Grootjans, A.P., Gulati, R.D., and de Jonge, V.N. 2002. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):219-233.

Nienhuis, P.H., Buijse, A.D., Leuven, R.S.E.W., Smits, A.J.M., de Nooij, R.J.W., and Samborska, E.M. 2002. Ecological rehabilitation of the lowland basin of the river Rhine (NW Europe). Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):53-72.

Nienhuis, P.H., and Gulati, R.D. 2002. Ecological restoration of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecosystems in the Netherlands: an introduction. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):1-6.

Nordström, M., Högmander, J., Laine, J., Nummelin, J., Laanetu, N., and Korpimäki, E. 2003. Effects of feral mink removal on seabirds, waders and passerines on small islands in the Baltic Sea. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):359-368.

Olson, B.E., and Wallander, R.T. 2002. Effects of invasive forb litter on seed germination, seedling growth and survival. Basic Appl. Ecol. 3(4):309-317.

Orr, D.W. 2002. Four challenges of sustainability. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1457-1460.

Ortiz-Pulido, R., Peterson, A.T., Robbins, M.B., Diaz, R., Navarro-Siguenza, A.G., and Escalona-Segura, G. 2002. The Mexican sheartail (Doricha eliza): morphology, behavior, distribution, and endangered status. Wilson Bull. 114(2):153-160.

Overton, J.M., Stephens, R.T.T., Leathwick, J.R., and Lehmann, A. 2002. Information pyramids for informed biodiversity conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2093-2116.

Palop-Esteban, M., and González-Candelas, F. 2002. Development of microsatellite markers for the critically endangered Limonium dufourii (Girard) Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):521-523.

Paracuellos, M., Castro, H., Nevado, J.C., Ona, J.A., Matamala, J.J., Garcia, L., and Salas, G. 2002. Repercussions of the abandonment of Mediterranean saltpans on waterbird communities. Waterbirds 25(4):492-498.

Pattengill-Semmens, C.V., and Semmens, B.X. 2003. Conservation and management applications of the reef volunteer fish monitoring program. Environ. Monit. Assess. 81(1-3):43-50.

Pfab, M.F. 2002. Priority ranking scheme for Red Data plants in Gauteng, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 68(3):299-303.

Pfab, M.F., and Victor, J.E. 2002. Threatened plants of Gauteng, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 68(3):370-375.

Polishchuk, L.V. 2002. Species biology and conservation funding. Science 298(5599):1716-1717.

Porritt, J. 2002. Sustainability without spirituality: a contradiction in terms? Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1465.

Prakash, V., Pain, D.J., Cunningham, A.A., Donald, P.F., Prakash, N., Verma, A., Gargi, R., Sivakumar, S., and Rahmani, A.R. 2003. Catastrophic collapse of Indian white-backed Gyps bengalensis and long-billed Gyps indicus vulture populations. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):381-390.

Prober, S.M., Lunt, I.D., and Thiele, K.R. 2002. Determining reference conditions for management and restoration of temperate grassy woodlands: relationships among trees, topsoils and understorey flora in little-grazed remnants. Aust. J. Bot. 50(6):687-697.

Prober, S.M., Thiele, K.R., and Lunt, I.D. 2002. Identifying ecological barriers to restoration in temperate grassy woodlands: soil changes associated with different degradation states. Aust. J. Bot. 50(6):699-712.

Pruetz, J.D., and Leasor, H.C. 2002. Survey of three primate species in forest fragments at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica. Neotrop. Primates 10(1):4-9.

Purcell, A.H., Friedrich, C., and Resh, V.H. 2002. An assessment of a small urban stream restoration project in northern California. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):685-694.

Raposa, K. 2002. Early responses of fishes and crustaceans to restoration of a tidally restricted New England salt marsh. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):665-676.

Raposo, M.A., Barnett, J.M., Kirwan, G.M., and Parrini, R. 2002. New data concerning the distribution, behaviour, ecology and taxonomic relationships of Minas Gerais Tyrannulet Phylloscartes roquettei. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(3):241-253.

Ray, N., Lehmann, A., and Joly, P. 2002. Modeling spatial distribution of amphibian populations: a GIS approach based on habitat matrix permeability. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2143-2165.

Rendigs, A., Radespiel, U., Wrogemann, D., and Zimmermann, E. 2003. Relationship between microhabitat structure and distribution of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in northwestern Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 24(1):47-64.

Rhoades, C., Barnes, T., and Washburn, B. 2002. Prescribed fire and herbicide effects on soil processes during barrens restoration. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):656-664.

Richter, B.S., and Stutz, J.C. 2002. Mycorrhizal inoculation of big sacaton: implications for grassland restoration of abandoned agricultural fields. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):607-616.

Rochefort, L., Campeau, S., and Bugnon, J.L. 2002. Does prolonged flooding prevent or enhance regeneration and growth of Sphagnum? Aquat. Bot. 74(4):327-341.

Rodríguez, A., and Delibes, M. 2003. Population fragmentation and extinction in the Iberian lynx. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):321-331.

Roelofs, J.G.M., Brouwer, E., and Bobbink, R. 2002. Restoration of aquatic macrophyte vegetation in acidified and eutrophicated shallow soft water wetlands in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):171-180.

Roff, J.C., and Evans, S.M.J. 2002. Frameworks for marine conservation - non-hierarchical approaches and distinctive habitats. Aquat. Conserv. 12(6):635-648.

Roobitaille, J.F., and Laurence, S. 2002. Otter, Lutra lutra, occurrence in Europe and in France in relation to landscape characteristics. Anim. Conserv. 5:337-344.

Sala, E., Aburto-Oropeza, O., Paredes, G., Parra, I., Barrera, J.C., and Dayton, P.K. 2002. A general model for designing networks of marine reserves. Science 298(5600):1991-1993.

Salafsky, N., Margoluis, R., Redford, K.H., and Robinson, J.G. 2002. Improving the practice of conservation: a conceptual framework and research agenda for conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1469-1479.

Salinas, M.J., and Guirado, J. 2002. Riparian plant restoration in summer-dry riverbeds of southeastern Spain. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):695-702.

Salomone, M. 2002. Ecological riches threatened as oil-spill history repeats itself. Nature 420(6914):347.

Schoene, C.U.R., and Brend, S.A. 2002. Primate sanctuaries - a delicate conservation approach. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 32(2):109-113.

Scutari, N.C., Diez, B.D., and Lumbsch, H.T. 2002. New records of soil-associated lichens from north-eastern Patagonia (Chubut, Argentina). Mycotaxon 83:369-383.

Seminoff, J.A., Resendiz, A., and Nichols, W.J. 2002. Home range of green turtles Chelonia mydas at a coastal foraging area in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 242:253-265.

Senbeta, F., Teketay, D., and Naslund, B.A. 2002. Native woody species regeneration in exotic tree plantations at Munessa-Shashemene Forest, southern Ethiopia. New Forests 24(2):131-145.

Sherman, P.W., and Runge, M.C. 2002. Demography of a population collapse: the northern Idaho ground squirrel (Spermophilus brunneus brunneus). Ecology 83(10):2816-2831.

Showler, D.A., Côté, I.M., and Jones, C.G. 2002. Population census and habitat use of Rodrigues warbler Acrocephalus rodericanus. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(3):211-230.

Silva-López, G., and Portilla-Ochoa, E. 2002. Primates, lots and forest fragments: ecological planning and conservation in the Sierra de Santa Marta, Mexico. Neotrop. Primates 10(1):9-11.

Simpson, R.R., and Mapleston, A.J. 2002. Movements and habitat use by the endangered Australian freshwater Mary River cod, Maccullochella peelii mariensis. Environ. Biol. Fish. 65(4):401-410.

Singh, A., Shailaja, K., Gaur, A., and Singh, L. 2002. Development and characterization of novel microsatellite markers in the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):542-543.

Sinsin, B., Tehou, A.C., Daouda, I., and Saidou, A. 2002. Abundance and species richness of larger mammals in Pendjari National Park in Benin. Mammalia 66(3):369-380.

Sluis, W.J. 2002. Patterns of species richness and composition in re-created grassland. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):677-684.

Smith, J.N.M., Taitt, M.J., and Zanette, L. 2002. Removing brown-headed cowbirds increases seasonal fecundity and population growth in song sparrows. Ecology 83(11):3037-3047.

Sommer, S., Volahy, A.T., and Seal, U.S. 2002. A population and habitat viability assessment for the highly endangered giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena), the largest extant endemic rodent of Madagascar. Anim. Conserv. 5:263-273.

Soons, M.B., and Heil, G.W. 2002. Reduced colonization capacity in fragmented populations of wind-dispersed grassland forbs. J. Ecology 90(6):1033-1043.

Sparks, J.C., Masters, R.E., Engle, D.M., and Bukenhofer, G.A. 2002. Season of burn influences fire behavior and fuel consumption in restored shortleaf pine-grassland communities. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):714-722.

Spector, S. 2002. Biogeographic crossroads as priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1480-1487.

Staus, N.L., Strittholt, J.R., Dellasala, D.A., and Robinson, R. 2002. Rate and pattern of forest disturbance in the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion, USA between 1972 and 1992. Landscape Ecol. 17(5):455-470.

Stenzler, L.M., and Fitzpatrick, J.W. 2002. Isolation of microsatellite loci in the Florida scrub-jay Aphelocoma coerulescens. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):547-550.

Stoner, D.S., Ben-Shlomo, R., Rinkevich, B., and Weissman, I.L. 2002. Genetic variability of Botryllus schlosseri invasions to the east and west coasts of the USA. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 243:93-100.

Taggart, D.A., Shimmin, G.A., Underwood, G., and Phillips, K. 2002. Survival of very small macropod pouch young following short-term isolation from the pouch at carious environmental temperatures. Anim. Conserv. 5:275-282.

Teixeira, J., and Arntzen, J.W. 2002. Potential impact of climate warming on the distribution of the golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica, on the Iberian Peninsula. Biodivers. Conserv. 11(12):2167-2176.

Twedt, D.J., Wilson, R.R., Henne-Kerr, J.L., and Grosshuesch, D.A. 2002. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years. Restor. Ecol. 10(4):645-655.

van der Ree, R. 2002. The population ecology of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) within a network of remnant linear habitats. Wildlife Res. 29(4):329-340.

van Tienderen, P.H., de Haan, A.A., van der Linden, C.G., and Vosman, B. 2002. Biodiversity assessment using markers for ecologically important traits. TREE 17(12):577-582.

van Vuuren, B.J., Best, P.B., Roux, J.P., and Robinson, T.J. 2002. Phylogeographic population structure in the Heaviside's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii): conservation implications. Anim. Conserv. 5:303-307.

Vecsei, P., Artyukhin, E.V., and Peterson, D. 2002. Threatened fishes of the world: Acipenser nudiventris Lovetsky, 1828 (Acipenseridae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 65(4):455-456.

Verdonschot, P.F.M., and Nijboer, R.C. 2002. Towards a decision support system for stream restoration in the Netherlands: an overview of restoration projects and future needs. Hydrobiologia 478(1-3):131-148.

Walpole, M.J., Smith, R.J., and Leader-Williams, N. 2002. Species biology and conservation funding. Science 298(5599):1716.

Weatherhead, P.J., Blouin-Demers, G., and Prior, K.A. 2002. Synchronous variation and long-term trends in two populations of black rat snakes. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1602-1608.

Whelan, R.J. 2002. Managing fire regimes for conservation and property protection: an Australian response. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1659-1661.

Wielebnowski, N.C., Ziegler, K., Wildt, D.E., Lukas, J., and Brown, J.L. 2002. Impact of social management on reproductive, adrenal and behavioural activity in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Anim. Conserv. 5:291-301.

Wilkie, L., Cassis, G., and Gray, M. 2003. A quality control protocol for terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity assessment. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):121-146.

Wise, C.A., Ranker, T.A., and Linhart, Y.B. 2002. Modeling problems in conservation genetics with Brassica rapa: genetic variation and fitness in plants under mild, stable conditions. Conserv. Biol. 16(6):1542-1554.

Witman, J.D., and Smith, F. 2003. Rapid community change at a tropical upwelling site in the Galápagos Marine Reserve. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):25-45.

Xie, C.Y., El-Kassaby, Y.A., and Ying, C.C. 2002. Genetics of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) populations in British Columbia and its implications for gene resources management. New Forests 24(2):97-112.

Xie, Z. 2003. Characteristics and conservation priority of threatened plants in the Yangtze valley. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(1):65-72.

Xirouchakis, S., and Nikolakakis, M. 2002. Conservation implications of the temporal and spatial distribution of bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Crete. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(3):269-280.

Yang, Q.S., Meng, X.X., Xia, L., and Feng, Z.J. 2003. Conservation status and causes of decline of musk deer (Moschus spp.) in China. Biol. Conserv. 109(3):333-342.

Zane, L., Patarnello, T., Ludwig, A., Fontana, F., and Congiu, L. 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in the Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii). Mol. Ecol. Notes 2(4):586-588.

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