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Department ofBotany

No. 220
April 2003

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In This Issue

Critical Habitat is Designated in California and Hawaii for Endangered Plants

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has designated more than 1,000 acres in California's Fresno and Tulare counties, more than 4,300 acres in California's Sonoma and Marin counties, and 24,333 acres of land on Molokai, Hawaii as critical habitat for 44 different endangered plant species.

The Endangered Species Act defines critical habitat as an area or areas with physical or biological features that are essential to the conservation of a species and may need special management or protection. A designation does not set up a preserve or refuge. Federal agencies, however, must ensure that their actions do not destroy or adversely modify designated critical habitat.

Until a population of 60 plants was discovered in 1992 in Tulare County, California, Keck's checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii) had not been seen since 1939 and was thought to be extinct. Another population was discovered in Fresno County in 1998. Surveys have found 500 to 1,000 plants in eight separate patches. Growing on serpentine soils in hilly grasslands, Keck's checkermallow displays deep pink flowers and can reach a height of 13 inches. Urban development and agricultural land conversion are the primary threats facing this plant.

Baker's larkspur (Delphinium bakeri) and yellow larkspur (D. luteum) are native, perennial herbs found only in coastal northern Marin and southern Sonoma counties, north of San Francisco, California. Baker's larkspur has dark-blue-to-purple flowers; yellow larkspur has bright yellow flowers. Botanists believe Baker's larkspur has been eliminated from Coleman Valley and near the town of Tomales. The number of plants at the only known remaining location, east of Tomales Bay, has varied from 0 to 67 over the last 20 years. The yellow larkspur was never widely distributed, and most historical populations have been partially or entirely destroyed. The species is now found at only seven sites. A total of approximately 100 to 175 plants remain. Both Baker's larkspur and yellow larkspur are threatened by road construction, over-collection by plant enthusiasts, grazing and development.

Eighty-eight single-species critical habitat units covering 24,333 acres of land on the island of Molokai, Hawaii, have been designated to protect 41 threatened and endangered plant species. Although identified in separate units by plant species, many of the units actually overlap, creating in essence nine multi-species units. Half of the acreage designated as critical habitat is privately held; the remainder is State land except for three acres under National Park Service jurisdiction.

A critical habitat designation does not affect activities on private lands unless some sort of Federal permit, license, or funding is involved. Activities of a private landowner - such as farming and grazing - generally are not affected by a critical habitat designation, even if the landowner's property is within the geographical boundaries of the critical habitat.

USFWS published in the Federal Register a final rule listing Baker's larkspur and yellow larkspur as endangered in January 2000, and Keck's checkermallow as endangered in February 2000. Due to budget limitations, USFWS did not designate critical habitat at that time. The Center for Biological Diversity brought suit, eventually leading to a settlement in which USFWS agreed to propose critical habitat for the three species by 10 June 2002, and to make a final determination by 10 March 2003.

Call for Proposals

The Research Program at Earthwatch invites proposals for 2003-2004 field grants. Earthwatch is an international, non-profit organization dedicated to sponsoring field research and promoting public education in the sciences and humanities. Past projects have been successfully fielded in, but are not limited to, the following disciplines: animal behavior, biodiversity, ecology, ornithology, endangered species, entomology, botany, and resource and wildlife management. Interdisciplinary projects are especially encouraged as is multinational collaboration. Information can be found at <> or you can contact Earthwatch at 3 Clocktower Place, Suite 100, P.O. Box 75, Maynard, MA 01754-0075; Tel: 978-461-0081; Fax: 978-461-2332. E-mail:

Future Meetings

Giant hogweed, cheat grass, and miconia are just a few of the threatening plants that will be addressed as scientists and managers join forces at Invasive Plants in Natural and Managed Systems: Linking Science and Management and the 7th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions to be held 3-7 November 2003 at the Wyndham Bonaventure Resort, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. The goals of the conference are to promote scientific exchange among invasive plant researchers, provide interchange between scientists, managers, and volunteers for efficient invasive plant management, and foster interdisciplinary cooperation on the science and management of invasive plants. National and international speakers have been invited to address a series of topics in the plenary sessions, symposia, and workshops. Contributed presentations (poster and oral) are encouraged to complement these invited presentations. Posters will be an integral part of the program with authors present during dedicated viewing times. Abstracts for contributed posters and oral sessions must be received no later than 1 May 2003. Abstracts and associated information should be submitted using the electronic submission form linked from the conference Web site at <>.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The Department of Systematic Biology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History offers the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) <>, a database of mammalian taxonomy containing the names over 4,000 currently recognized mammal species. This database is intended for use as a "convenient on-line reference for identifying or verifying recognized scientific names and for taxonomic research." The database may be searched using a number of different fields, including scientific and common names, original publication citation, type species or locality, distribution, etc. In addition to serving as an online reference, MSW can be "adapted as an authority file for collections management activities of mammal collections."

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2003.

Current Literature

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Alonso, J.C., Palacín, C., and Martín, C.A. 2003. Status and recent trends of the great bustard (Otis tarda) population in the Iberian peninsula. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):185-195.

Anderson, D.J., Huyvaert, K.P., Wood, D.R., Gillikin, C.L., Frost, B.J., and Mouritsen, H. 2003. At-sea distribution of waved albatrosses and the Galápagos marine reserve. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):367-373.

Andresen, E. 2003. Effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle communities and functional consequences for plant regeneration. Ecography 26(1):87-97.

Baines, D., and Andrew, M. 2003. Marking of deer fences to reduce frequency of collisions by woodland grouse. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):169-176.

Baker, J.D., Moran, P., and Ladley, R. 2003. Nuclear DNA identification of migrating bull trout captured at the Puget Sound Energy diversion dam on the White River, Washington State. Mol. Ecol. 12(2):557-561.

Balakrishnan, C.N., Monfort, S.L., Gaur, A., Sing, L., and Sorenson, M.D. 2003. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of Eld's Deer (Cervus eldi). Mol. Ecol. 12(1):1-10.

Bandara, R., and Tisdell, C. 2003. Comparison of rural and urban attitudes to the conservation of Asian elephants in Sri Lanka: empirical evidence. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):327-342.

Barnett, D.T., and Stohlgren, T.J. 2003. A nested-intensity design for surveying plant diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):255-278.

Bearlin, A.R., Schreiber, E.S.G., Nicol, S.J., Starfield, A.M., and Todd, C.R. 2002. Identifying the weakest link: simulating adaptive management of the reintroduction of a threatened fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59(11):1709-1716.

Beauvais, G.P., and Smith, R. 2003. Model of breeding habitat of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) in western Wyoming. West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(1):88-96.

Beheregary, L.B., Ciofi, C., Caccone, A., Gibbs, J.P., and Powell, J.R. 2003. Genetic divergence, phylogeography and conservation units of giant tortoises from Santa Cruz and Pinzón, Galápagos Islands. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):31-46.

Bekessy, S.A., Ennos, R.A., Burgman, M.A., Newton, A.C., and Ades, P.K. 2003. Neutral DNA markers fail to detect genetic divergence in an ecologically important trait. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):267-275.

Berkelman, J., Fraser, J.D., and Watson, R.T. 2002. Nesting and perching habitat use of the Madagascar fish-eagle. J. Raptor Res. 36(4):287-293.

Bernatchez, L., Rhydderch, J.G., and Kircheis, F.W. 2002. Microsatellite gene diversity analysis in landlocked Arctic char from Maine. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 131(6):1106-1118.

Bertin, R.I. 2002. Losses of native plant species from Worcester, Massachusetts. Rhodora 104(920):325-349.

Blaber, S.J.M. 2002. 'Fish in hot water': the challenges facing fish and fisheries research in tropical estuaries. J. Fish Biol. 61:1-20.

Blaustein, A.R., and Johnson, P.T.J. 2003. The complexity of deformed amphibians. Front. Ecol. Environ. 1(2):87-94.

Blumenthal, D.M., Jordan, N.R., and Svenson, E.L. 2003. Weed control as a rationale for restoration: the example of tallgrass prairie. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):6. <>

Blundell, A.G., Scatena, F.N., Wentsel, R., and Sommers, W. 2003. Ecorisk assessment using indicators of sustainability - invasive species in the Caribbean National Forest of Puerto Rico. J. Forestry 101(1):14-19.

Booth, M.S., Caldwell, M.M., and Stark, J.M. 2003. Overlapping resource use in three Great Basin species: implications for community invasibility and vegetation dynamics. J. Ecology 91(1):36-48.

Brilha, J. 2002. Geoconservation and protected areas. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):273-276.

Brönmark, C., and Hansson, L.A. 2002. Environmental issues in lakes and ponds: current state and perspectives. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):290-307.

Brook, F.J. 2002. Conservation status of Rhytidarex buddlei (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Rhytididae) on the Three Kings Islands, northern New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 32(4):555-569.

Brower, C.D., Carpenter, A., Branigan, M.L., Calvert, W., Evans, T., Fischbach, A.S., Nagy, J.A., Schliebe, S., and Stirling, I. 2002. The polar bear management agreement for the southern Beaufort Sea: an evaluation of the first ten years of a unique conservation agreement. Arctic 55(4):362-372.

Bryan, M.B., Libants, S.V., Warrillow, J.A., Li, W.M., and Scribner, K.T. 2003. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the landlocked sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):113-116.

Bull, L.S., McConkey, K.R., and Tonga, F. 2002. Abundance and breeding habitat of noddies and white terns on a relatively unmodified island in the Kingdom of Tonga. Emu 102(4):373-376.

Burke, A. 2003. The role of Namibian inselbergs in contributing to local and regional plant species richness. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):469-486.

Butler, L.K., Donahue, M.G., and Rohwer, S. 2002. Molt-migration in western tanagers (Piranga ludoviciana): age effects, aerodynamics, and conservation implications. Auk 119(4):1010-1023.

Caldas, A., and Robbins, R.K. 2003. Modified Pollard transects for assessing tropical butterfly abundance and diversity. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):211-219.

Cassel, A., and Tammaru, T. 2003. Allozyme variability in central, peripheral and isolated populations of the scarce heath (Coenonympha hero: Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):83-93.

Chang, C.S., Kim, H., and Park, T.Y. 2003. Patterns of allozyme diversity in several selected rare species in Korea and implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):529-544.

Chavan, V., and Krishnan, S. 2003. Natural history collections: a call for national information infrastructure. Curr. Sci. 84(1):34-42.

Clausnitzer, V. 2003. Dragonfly communities in coastal habitats of Kenya: indication of biotope quality and the need of conservation measures. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):333-356.

Clay, K. 2003. Parasites lost. Nature 421(6923):585-586.

Collis, K., Roby, D.D., Thompson, C.W., Lyons, D.E., and Tirhi, M. 2002. Barges as temporary breeding sites for Caspian terns: asessing potential sites for colony restoration. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(4):1140-1149.

Conner, L.M. 2002. A technique to locate isolated populations using satellite imagery. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(4):1044-1049.

Cook, J.L. 2003. Conservation of biodiversity in an area impacted by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):187-195.

Cuevas-Reyes, P., Siebe, C., Martínez-Ramos, M., and Oyama, K. 2003. Species richness of gall-forming insects in a tropical rain forest: correlations with plant diversity and soil fertility. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):411-422.

Culver, D.C., Christman, M.C., Elliott, W.R., Hobbs, H.H., and Reddell, J.R. 2003. The North American obligate cave fauna: regional patterns. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):441-468.

Currie, D., Millett, J., Hill, M., and Shah, N.J. 2002. Factors affecting the response of Seychelles scops-owl Otus insularis to playback of conspecific calls: consequences for monitoring and management. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(4):353-364.

Cuthbert, R., and Davis, L.S. 2002. The breeding biology of Hutton's shearwater. Emu 102(4):323-329.

Daniels, S.R., Gouws, G., Stewart, B.A., and Coke, M. 2003. Molecular and morphometric data demonstrate the presence of cryptic lineages among freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Potamonautidae: Potamonautes) from the Drakensberg Mountains, South Africa. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 78(1):129-147.

Darden, R.L., Darden, T.L., and Kreiser, B.R. 2002. Mussel fauna of the Strong River, Mississippi. J. Freshwater Ecol. 17(4):651-653.

de Lange, P.J., Gardner, R.O., and Riddell, K.A. 2002. Ackama nubicola (Cunoniaceae) a new species from western Northland, North Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(4):525-534.

Dever, J.A., Strauss, R.E., Rainwater, T.R., McMurry, S., and Densmore, L.D. 2002. Genetic diversity, population subdivision, and gene flow in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletti) from Belize, Central America. Copeia (4):1078-1091.

Drew, R.E., Hallett, J.G., Aubry, K.B., Cullings, K.W., Koepf, S.M., and Zielinski, W.J. 2003. Conservation genetics of the fisher (Martes pennanti) based on mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Mol. Ecol. 12(1):51-62.

Dungan, R.J., O'Cain, M.J., Lopez, M.L., and Norton, D.A. 2002. Contribution by possums to seed rain and subsequent seed germination in successional vegetation, Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 26(2):121-127.

Eviner, V.T., and Chapin, F.S. 2003. Gopher-plant-fungal interactions affect establishment of an invasive grass. Ecology 84(1):120-128.

Fashing, P.J. 2002. Population status of black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Kakamega Forest, Kenya: are they really on the decline? Afr. Zool. 37(2):119-126.

Firn, R.D. 2003. Bioprospecting - why is it so unrewarding? Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):207-216.

Fitzpatrick, J.W. 2002. The AOU and bird conservation: recommitment to the revolution. Auk 119(4):907-913.

Foster, D., Swanson, F., Aber, J., Burke, I., Brokaw, N., Tilman, D., and Knapp, A. 2003. The importance of land-use legacies to ecology and conservation. BioScience 53(1):77-88.

Fowler, M.S., and Lindstrom, J. 2002. Extinctions in simple and complex communities. Oikos 99(3):511-517.

Frid, A. 2003. Dall's sheep responses to overflights by helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):387-399.

Gardner, R.O., and de Lange, P.J. 2002. Revision of Pennantia (Icacinaceae), a small isolated genus of Southern Hemisphere trees. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 32(4):669-695.

Glitzenstein, J.S., Streng, D.R., and Wade, D.D. 2003. Fire frequency effects on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris, P. Miller) vegetation in South Carolina and northeast Florida, USA. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):22-37.

Golding, J.S., and Hurter, P.J.H. 2003. A Red List account of Africa's cycads and implications of considering life-history and threats. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):507-528.

Graham, C., Martinez-Leyva, J.E., and Cruz-Paredes, L. 2002. Use of fruiting trees by birds in continuous forest and riparian forest remnants in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. Biotropica 34(4):589-597.

Graves, S.D., and Shapiro, A.M. 2003. Exotics as host plants of the California butterfly fauna. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):413-433.

Griffis-Kyle, K.L., and Beier, P. 2003. Small isolated aspen stands enrich bird communities in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):375-385.

Grivet, D., and Petit, R.E.J. 2003. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of the hornbeam in Europe: evidence for a bottleneck at the outset of postglacial colonization. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):47-56.

Hall, M.R., and Morgan, R.P. 2002. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of mid-Atlantic populations of brook trout: the zone of contact for major historical lineages. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 131(6):1140-1151.

Hall, S.J. 2002. The continental shelf benthic ecosystem: current status, agents for change and future prospects. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):350-374.

Harrington, B.A., Brown, S.C., Corven, J., and Bart, J. 2002. Collaborative approaches to the evolution of migration and the development of science-based conservation in shorebirds. Auk 119(4):914-921.

Harwell, M.C., and Orth, R.J. 2002. Seed bank patterns in Chesapeake Bay eelgrass (Zostera marina L.): a bay-wide perspective. Estuaries 25(6A):1196-1204.

Hayward, G.D., Miquelle, D.G., Smirnov, E.V., and Nations, C. 2002. Monitoring Amur tiger populations: characteristics of track surveys in snow. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(4):1150-1159.

Hayward, M.W., de Tores, P.J., Dillon, M.J., and Fox, B.J. 2003. Local population structure of a naturally occurring metapopulation of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus Macropodidae: Marsupialia). Biol. Conserv. 110(3):343-355.

Hazell, D., Osborne, W., and Lindenmayer, D. 2003. Impact of post-European stream change on frog habitat: southeastern Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):301-320.

Hazir, S., Keskin, N., Stock, S.P., Kaya, H.K., and Özcan, S. 2003. Diversity and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) in Turkey. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):375-386.

Heenan, P.B., and Cameron, E.K. 2002. A new species of Olearia (Asteraceae) from Waima Forest, Northland, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(4):535-542.

Heidorn, R.R. 2003. Ecological fire management forum: introduction. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):4.

Heino, M., and Sabadell, M. 2003. Influence of coloured noise on the extinction risk in structured population models. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):315-325.

Hilderbrand, R.H. 2003. The roles of carrying capacity, immigration, and population synchrony on persistence of stream-resident cutthroat trout. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):257-266.

Hill, M., Currie, D., and Shah, N.J. 2003. The impacts of vascular wilt disease of the takamaka tree Calophyllum inophyllum on conservation value of islands in the granite Seychelles. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):555-566.

Hobohm, C. 2003. Characterization and ranking of biodiversity hotspots: centres of species richness and endemism. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):279-287.

Hofkin, B.V., Wright, A., Altenbach, J., Rassmann, K., Snell, H.M., Miller, R.D., Stone, A.C., and Snell, H.L. 2003. Ancient DNA gives green light to Galápagos land iguana repatriation. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):105-108.

Hope, R.A. 2002. Wildlife harvesting, conservation and poverty: the economics of olive ridley egg exploitation. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):375-384.

Hovel, K.A. 2003. Habitat fragmentation in marine landscapes: relative effects of habitat cover and configuration on juvenile crab survival in California and North Carolina seagrass beds. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):401-412.

Ingram, S.N., and Rogan, E. 2002. Identifying critical areas and habitat preferences of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 244:247-255.

Kanai, Y., Nagendran, M., Ueta, M., Markin, Y., Rinne, J., Sorokin, A.G., Higuchi, H., and Archibald, G.W. 2002. Discovery of breeding grounds of a Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus flock that winters in Iran, via satellite telemetry. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(4):327-333.

Karns, D.R., Voris, H.K., and Goodwin, T.G. 2002. Ecology of Oriental-Australian rear-fanged water snakes (Colubridae: Homalopsinae) in the Pasir Ris Park mangrove forest, Singapore. Raffles Bull. Zool. 50(2):487-498.

Kean, J.M. 2002. Population patterns of Paradoxaphis plagianthi, a rare New Zealand aphid. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 26(2):171-175.

Kearvell, J.C., Young, J.R., and Grant, A.D. 2002. Comparative ecology of sympatric orange-fronted parakeets (Cyanoramphus malherbi) and yellow-crowned parakeets (C. auriceps), South Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 26(2):139-148.

Keilman, N. 2003. The threat of small households. Nature 421(6922):489-490.

Kelly, D.W., Dick, J.T.A., Montgomery, W.I., and Macneil, C. 2003. Differences in composition of macroinvertebrate communities with invasive and native Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Freshwater Biol. 48(2):306-315.

Keogh, S.J., Scott, I.A.W., Fitzgerald, M., and Shine, R. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of the Australian venomous snake genus Hoplocephalus (Serpentes, Elapidae) and conservation genetics of the threatened H. stephensii. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):57-65.

Krishna, A.P., Chhetri, S., and Singh, K.K. 2002. Human dimensions of conservation in the Kangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve: the need for conflict prevention. Mtn. Res. Dev. 22(4):328-331.

Kristan, W.B., Lynam, A.J., Price, M.V., and Rotenberry, J.T. 2003. Alternative causes of edge-abundance relationships in birds and small mammals of California coastal sage scrub. Ecography 26(1):29-44.

Lamont, E.E., and Young, S.M. 2002. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range - 2001. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(4):363-371.

Larsen, F.W., and Rahbek, C. 2003. Influence of scale on conservation priority setting - a test on African mammals. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):599-614.

Lei, F.M., Qu, Y.H., Lu, J.L., Liu, Y., and Yin, Z.H. 2003. Conservation on diversity and distribution patterns of endemic birds in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):239-254.

Leiser, J.K., and Itzkowitz, M. 2003. The breeding system of an endangered pupfish (Cyprinodon elegans). West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(1):118-121.

Lemauviel, S., and Roze, F. 2003. Response of three plant communities to trampling in a sand dune system in Brittany (France). Environ. Manage. 31(2):227-235.

Liebhold, A., and Bascompte, J. 2003. The Allee effect, stochastic dynamics and the eradication of alien species. Ecol. Lett. 6(2):133-140.

Lindell, C., and Smith, M. 2003. Nesting bird species in sun coffee, pasture, and understory forest in southern Costa Rica. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):423-440.

Lindig-Cisneros, R., and Zedler, J.B. 2002. Halophyte recruitment in a salt marsh restoration site. Estuaries 25(6A):1174-1183.

Littler, D.S., and Littler, M.M. 2003. South Pacific Reef Plants: A Divers' Guide to the Plant Life of South Pacific Coral Reefs. OffShore Graphics, Inc. Washington, DC. 331 pp. <>

Liu, J.G., Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R., and Luck, G.W. 2003. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity. Nature 421(6922):530-533.

Lloyd, K.M., Lee, W.G., and Wilson, J.B. 2002. Growth and reproduction of New Zealand Acaena (Rosaceae) species in relation to rarity and commonness. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 26(2):149-160.

Loibooki, M., Hofer, H., Campbell, K.L.I., and East, M.L. 2002. Bushmeat hunting by communities adjacent to the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania: the importance of livestock ownership and alternative sources of protein and income. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):391-398.

Malone, C.L., Knapp, C.R., Taylor, J.F., and Davis, S.K. 2003. Genetic consequences of Pleistocene fragmentation: isolation, drift, and loss of diversity in rock iguanas (Cyclura). Conserv. Genet. 4(1):1-15.

Matthews, J.W. 2003. Assessment of the floristic quality index for use in Illinois, USA, wetlands. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):53-60.

McClenaghan, L.R., and Truesdale, H.D. 2002. Genetic structure of endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat populations in southern California. Southwest. Nat. 47(4):539-549.

Melles, S., Glenn, S., and Martin, K. 2003. Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity: Species–environment associations along a multiscale habitat gradient. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):5. <>

Meurk, C.D., Walker, S., Gibson, R.S., and Espie, P. 2002. Changes in vegetation states in grazed and ungrazed Mackenzie Basin grasslands, New Zealand, 1990-2000. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 26(2):95-106.

Mincher, B.J. 2002. Harvest as a component of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem grizzly bear management. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(4):1287-1292.

Minchinton, T.E. 2002. Disturbance by wrack facilitates spread of Phragmites australis in a coastal marsh. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 281(1-2):89-107.

Minton, R.L., and Lydeard, C. 2003. Phylogeny, taxonomy, genetics and global heritage ranks of an imperilled, freshwater snail genus Lithasia (Pleuroceridae). Mol. Ecol. 12(1):75-87.

Mitchell, C.E., and Power, A.G. 2003. Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens. Nature 421(6923):625-627.

Moore, M.K., Bemiss, J.A., Rice, S.M., Quattro, J.M., and Woodley, C.M. 2003. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to identify sea turtle eggs and cooked meats to species. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):95-103.

Morgan, E.C. 2002. The vascular flora of the Hempstead Harbor Shoreline Trail Natural Area, Long Island, New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(4):359-362.

Mouillot, D., Culioli, J.M., and Chi, T.D. 2002. Indicator species analysis as a test of non-random distribution of species in the context of marine protected areas. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):385-390.

Mouw, J.E.B., and Alaback, P.B. 2003. Putting floodplain hyperdiversity in a regional context: an assessment of terrestrial-floodplain connectivity in a montane environment. J. Biogeogr. 30(1):87-103.

Muller , S., Jérôme, C., and Horn, K. 2003. Importance of secondary habitats and need for ecological management for the conservation of Diphasiastrum tristachyum (Lycopodiaceae, Pteridophyta) in the Vosges Mountains (France). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):321-332.

Muths, E., Corn, P.S., Pessier, A.P., and Green, D.E. 2003. Evidence for disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):357-365.

Pang, J.F., Hoelzel, A.R., Song, Y.L., Zeng, Z.G., and Zhang, Y.P. 2003. Lack of mtDNA control region variation in Hainan Eld's deer: consequence of a recent population bottleneck? Conserv. Genet. 4(1):109-112.

Panzer, R. 2003. Importance of in situ survival, recolonization, and habitat gaps in the postfire recovery of fire-sensitive prairie insect species. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):14-21.

Perelman, S.B., Burkart, S.E., and León, R.J.C. 2003. The role of a native tussock grass (Paspalum quadrifarium Lam.) in structuring plant communities in the Flooding Pampa grasslands, Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):225-238.

Pfeifer, E., Holderegger, R., Matthies, D., and Rutishauser, R. 2002. Investigation on the population biology of a flagship species of dry meadows: Pulsatilla vulgaris Mill. in north-eastern Switzerland. Bot. Helvetica 112(2):153-171.

Pombo, L., Elliott, M., and Rebelo, J.E. 2002. Changes in the fish fauna of the Ria de Aveiro estuarine lagoon (Portugal) during the twentieth century. J. Fish Biol. 61:167-181.

Prinzing, A., Klotz, S., Stadler, J., and Brandl, R. 2003. Woody plants in Kenya: expanding the Higher-Taxon Approach. Biol. Conserv. 110(3):307-314.

Rainio, J., and Niemelä, J. 2003. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicators. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):487-506.

Ramanujam, M.P., and Cyril, K.P.K. 2003. Woody species diversity of four sacred groves in the Pondicherry region of South India. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):289-299.

Rau, J.R., and Jimenez, J.E. 2002. Diet of puma (Puma concolor, Carnivora: Felidae) in coastal and Andean ranges of southern Chile. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 37(3):201-205.

Reyers, B., Wessels, K.J., and van Jaarsveld, A.S. 2002. An assessment of biodiversity surrogacy options in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Afr. Zool. 37(2):185-195.

Rich, T.A. 2002. Using breeding land birds in the assessment of western riparian systems. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(4):1128-1139.

Richter, S.C., and Seigel, R.A. 2002. Annual variation in the population ecology of the endangered gopher frog, Rana sevosa Goin and Netting. Copeia (4):962-972.

Rideout, S., Rickard, J.K., and Wade, D.D. 2003. Preliminary response of herbaceous plants to biennial burning cycles applied at different dates during the growing season. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):38-42.

Robin, V.V., and Sukumar, R. 2002. Status and habitat preference of white-bellied shortwing Brachypteryx major in the Western Ghats (Kerala and Tamilnadu), India. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(4):335-351.

Robinson, T.B., and Griffiths, C.L. 2002. Invasion of Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa, by Mytilus galloprovincialis - effects on natural communities. Afr. Zool. 37(2):151-158.

Rogers, G., Walker, S., Tubbs, M., and Henderson, J. 2002. Ecology and conservation status of three "spring annual" herbs in dryland ecosystems of New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 40(4):649-669.

Rohrman, D. 2003. Making the list. Front. Ecol. Environ. 1(2):107.

Rout, G.R., Bhatacharya, D., Nanda, R.M., Nayak, S., and Das, P. 2003. Evaluation of genetic relationships in Dalbergia species using RAPD markers. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):197-206.

Saha, S. 2003. Patterns in woody species diversity, richness and partitioning of diversity in forest communities of tropical deciduous forest biome. Ecography 26(1):80-86.

Salafsky, N., and Margoluis, R. 2003. What conservation can learn from other fields about monitoring and evaluation. BioScience 53(2):120-122.

San Martín, A.P.M., Adamec, L., Suda, J., Mes, T.H.M., and Štorchová, H. 2003. Genetic variation within the endangered species Aldrovanda vesiculosa (Droseraceae) as revealed by RAPD analysis. Aquat. Bot. 75(2):159-172.

Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Rivard, B., Calvo, J., and Moorthy, I. 2002. Dynamics of tropical deforestation around national parks: remote sensing of forest change on the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica. Mtn. Res. Dev. 22(4):352-358.

Saunders, D.A., Smith, G.T., Ingram, J.A., and Forrester, R.I. 2003. Changes in a remnant of salmon gum Eucalyptus salmonophloia and York gum E. loxophleba woodland, 1978 to 1997. Implications for woodland conservation in the wheat-sheep regions of Australia. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):245-256.

Scheerer, P.D. 2002. Implications of floodplain isolation and connectivity on the conservation of an endangered minnow, Oregon chub, in the Willamette River, Oregon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 131(6):1070-1080.

Schmalzer, P.A. 2003. Growth and recovery of oak saw palmetto scrub through ten years after fire. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):5-13.

Schultz, C.B., Hammond, P.C., and Wilson, M.V. 2003. Biology of the Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi Macy), an endangered species of western Oregon native prairies. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):61-71.

Scott, W.A., and Anderson, R. 2003. Temporal and spatial variation in carabid assemblages from the United Kingdom Environmental Change Network. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):197-210.

Scribailo, R.W., and Alix, M.S. 2002. New records with ecological notes for rare aquatic vascular plants in Indiana. Part 1. Rhodora 104(920):373-395.

Sechrest, W., Brooks, T.M., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Konstant, W.R., Mittermeier, R.A., Purvis, A., Rylands, A.B., and Gittleman, J.L. 2002. Hotspots and the conservation of evolutionary history. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99(4):2067-2071.

Sekercioglu, C.H. 2002. Impacts of birdwatching on human and avian communities. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):282-289.

Selmi, S., and Boulinier, T. 2003. Breeding bird communities in southern Tunisian oases: the importance of traditional agricultural practices for bird diversity in a semi-natural system. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):285-294.

Severns, P. 2003. Inbreeding and small population size reduce seed set in a threatened and fragmented plant species, Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Fabaceae). Biol. Conserv. 110(2):221-229.

Shivik, J.A., Savarie, P.J., and Clark, L. 2002. Aerial delivery of baits to brown treesnakes. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 30(4):1062-1067.

Smith, J.H. 2003. Land-cover assessment of conservation and buffer zones in the BOSAWAS Natural Resource Reserve of Nicaragua. Environ. Manage. 31(2):252-262.

Spruell, P., Hemmingsen, A.R., Howell, P.J., Kanda, N., and Allendorf, F.W. 2003. Conservation genetics of bull trout: geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):17-29.

St Omer, L., and Barclay, G. 2002. Threatened halophytic communities on sandy coasts of three Caribbean islands. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 39(4):301-308.

Stalter, R., and Lamont, E.E. 2002. Vascular flora of Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Long Island, New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129(4):346-358.

Standish, R.J. 2002. Experimenting with methods to control Tradescantia fluminensis, an invasive weed of native forest remnants in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 26(2):161-170.

Stoner, K.E., Salazar, K.A.O., Fernández, R.C.R., and Quesada, M. 2003. Population dynamics, reproduction, and ciet of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris curasoae) in Jalisco, Mexico: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):357-373.

Stork, N.E., Srivastava, D.S., Watt, A.D., and Larsen, T.B. 2003. Butterfly diversity and silvicultural practice in lowland rainforests of Cameroon. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):387-410.

Summerville, K.S., and Crist, T.O. 2003. Determinants of lepidopteran community composition and species diversity in eastern deciduous forests: roles of season, eco-region and patch size. Oikos 100(1):134-148.

Sun, Y.H., Swenson, J.E., Fang, Y., Klaus, S., and Scherzinger, W. 2003. Population ecology of the Chinese grouse, Bonasa sewerzowi, in a fragmented landscape. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):177-184.

Swartz, L.M., and Brunsfeld, S.J. 2002. The morphological and genetic distinctness of Botrychium minganense and B. crenulatum as assessed by morphometric analysis and RAPD markers. Am. Fern J. 92(4):249-269.

Swearingen, J., Reshetiloff, K., Slattery, B., and Zwicker, S. 2002. Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas. National Park Service and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Washington, DC. 82 pp. <>

Talbot, S.L., and Talbot, S.S. 2002. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska. Am. Fern J. 92(4):288-293.

Taulman, J.F., and Smith, K.G. 2002. Habitat mapping for bird conservation in North America. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(4):281-309.

Timmins, S.M. 2002. Impact of cattle on conservation land licensed for grazing in South Westland, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 26(2):107-120.

Tingay, R.E., Culver, M., Hallerman, E.M., Fraser, J.D., and Watson, R.T. 2002. Subordinate males sire offspring in Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) polyandrous breeding groups. J. Raptor Res. 36(4):280-286.

Tockner, K., and Stanford, J.A. 2002. Riverine flood plains: present state and future trends. Environ. Conserv. 29(3):308-330.

Trainor, C.R. 2002. Status and habitat associations of birds on Lembata Island, Wallacea, Indonesia, with reference to a simple technique for avifaunal survey on small islands. Bird Conserv. Int. 12(4):365-381.

Turgeon, J., and Bernatchez, L. 2003. Reticulate evolution and phenotypic diversity in North American ciscoes, Coregonus ssp. (Teleostei: Salmonidae): implications for the conservation of an evolutionary legacy. Conserv. Genet. 4(1):67-81.

Upadhaya, K., Pandey, H.N., Law, P.S., and Tripathi, R.S. 2003. Tree diversity in sacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, northeast India. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):583-597.

Uphyrkina, O., Miquelle, D., Quigley, H., Driscoll, C., and O'Brien, S.J. 2002. Conservation genetics of the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). J. Heredity 93(5):303-311.

Van Riper, C., Van Riper, S.G., and Hansen, W.R. 2002. Epizootiology and effect of avian pox on Hawaiian forest birds. Auk 119(4):929-942.

Vanderpoorten, A., and Engels, P. 2003. Patterns of bryophyte diversity and rarity at a regional scale. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):545-553.

Varner, J.M., Kush, J.S., and Meldahl, R.S. 2003. Vegetation of frequently burned old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas on choccolocco mountain, Alabama, USA. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):43-52.

Vergeer, P., Rengelink, R., Copal, A., and Ouborg, N.J. 2003. The interacting effects of genetic variation, habitat quality and population size on performance of Succisa pratensis. J. Ecology 91(1):18-26.

Verlaque, R., Aboucaya, A., and Fridlender, A. 2002. Invasive alien flora of France: ecology, life-forms and polyploidy. Bot. Helvetica 112(2):121-136.

von Hippel, F.A., and von Hippel, W. 2002. Sex, drugs and animal parts: will Viagra save threatened species? Environ. Conserv. 29(3):277-281.

Wang, Z.J., and Young, S.S. 2003. Differences in bird diversity between two swidden agricultural sites in mountainous terrain, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):231-243.

Warren, J. 2003. Isolation by distance in the crustose lichens Candelariella vitellina and Placynthium nigrum colonising gravestones in northeast Scotland. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(2):217-224.

Weishampel, J.F., Bagley, D.A., Ehrhart, K.M., and Rodenbeck, B.L. 2003. Spatiotemporal patterns of annual sea turtle nesting behaviors along an East Central Florida beach. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):295-303.

Whitfield, A.K., and Elliott, A. 2002. Fishes as indicators of environmental and ecological changes within estuaries: a review of progress and some suggestions for the future. J. Fish Biol. 61:229-250.

Wilder, G.J., and McCombs, M.R. 2002. New records of vascular plants for Ohio and Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Rhodora 104(920):350-372.

Wilkinson, T., Wetten, A., Prychid, C., and Fay, M.F. 2003. Suitability of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of rare and endangered plant species: a case history for Cosmos atrosanguineus. Ann. Botany 91(1):65-74.

Williams, B.L., Brawn, J.D., and Paige, K.N. 2003. Landscape scale genetic effects of habitat fragmentation on a high gene flow species: Speyeria idalia (Nymphalidae). Mol. Ecol. 12(1):11-20.

Wilson, M.V., Erhart, T., Hammond, P.C., Kaye, T.N., Kuykendall, K., Liston, A., Robinson, A.F., Schultz, C.B., and Severns, P.M. 2003. Biology of Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii [Smith] Phillips), a threatened species of western Oregon native prairies, USA. Nat. Areas J. 23(1):72-83.

Woodford, J.E., and Meyer, M.W. 2003. Impact of lakeshore development on green frog abundance. Biol. Conserv. 110(2):277-284.

Yirdaw, E., and Luukkanen, O. 2003. Indigenous woody species diversity in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus plantations in the Ethiopian highlands. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(3):567-582.

Zanetell, B.A., and Rassam, G. 2003. Taxonomists: the unsung heroes of our quest to save biodiversity. Fisheries 28(1):29.

Zhang, B., Yao, Y., Cheng, W., Zhou, C., Lu, Z., Chen, X., Alshir, K., Erdowlet, I., Zhang, L., and Shi, Q. 2002. Human-induced changes to biodiversity and alpine pastureland in the Bayanbulak region of the East Tienshan Mountains. Mtn. Res. Dev. 22(4):383-389.

Zhu, Y.Y., Wang, Y.Y., Chen, H.R., and Lu, B.R. 2003. Conserving traditional rice varieties through management for crop diversity. BioScience 53(2):158-162.

Ziska, L.H. 2003. Evaluation of the growth response of six invasive species to past, present and future atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Exp. Bot. 54(381):395-404.

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