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Department ofBotany

No. 222
June 2003

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In This Issue

ARKive Offers Images of Life on Earth

One hundred and fifty years have past since the first wildlife photo was taken, and wildlife has been a subject for cinematographers for almost a century. The surviving images, however, are scattered all over the world, in many different collections and locations, often where access is limited, or where their value to science and learning is not yet fully appreciated.


Last month marked the launch of ARKive <>, a new Web site aiming to gather and conserve the most important sounds and images for posterity before they - like the species some depict - are lost forever. It's already too late to save certain species from extinction. But ARKive will provide future generations with a window onto Earth's biodiversity, helping to ignite the very first spark of interest in natural history whilst safeguarding a valuable part of our visual and audio heritage, too.

Phase one is the launch of the Web site offering free global access to multi-media portraits of species at risk of extinction. The site is aimed at anyone with an interest in the natural world, from school children to scientists. ARKive aims to become the world's most comprehensive on-line wildlife reference library, offering:

  • Digital portraits, to start with, of around 1,000 British and globally endangered species, each accompanied by downloadable fact-files, verified by experts, and links to sources of further information;
  • Planet ARKive - an e-zone custom-designed for children aged 7 to 11, featuring wildlife facts, games and activities;
  • ARKive Education - where teachers and others interested in enthusing children about the natural world will find lesson plans, ideas for projects and outings and a range of support materials.

Work began first on the "UK Chapter," celebrating Britain's natural heritage. Almost 600 digital portraits now exist on native plants and animals, including the familiar as well as the rare or threatened. Highlights include brown hares boxing; a dormouse giving birth; the only known stills of the Snowdonia hawkweed, recently rediscovered and photographed for the first time since last being seen 50 years ago; and the only known stills of the glutinous snail.

Known only in a small area of cloud forest in Costa Rica, the golden toad (Bufo periglenes) has not been seen since 1989, and is believed to be extinct. (© The Bruce Coleman Collection)

Work is also underway now on the "Globally Endangered Species Chapter." This is a huge undertaking-at present, some 11,000 species are threatened with extinction according to the IUCN (The World Conservation Union). ARKive is starting by finding and storing visual and audio records of the 500 species which best represent the range of life-forms in danger. Highlights of the global chapter include the only surviving film of the extinct thylacine (Tasmanian tiger), the last known shots of the golden toad (believed extinct), rare images of the coelacanth, and the only known footage of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey - filmed for the first time only a few years ago after 10 years of trying.

Other images show wildlife at its most weird and wonderful - long-nosed echidnas, mahogany gliders, hairy-nosed wombats, robber frogs, warty pigs, aye-ayes, bald-headed uacaris, giant kangaroo rats, sea dragons, no-eyed big eyed spiders, jellyfish trees, thief palms.

Despite the research team's best efforts, film, photos and sound recordings have still not been traced for many species. A regularly updated list of what is still sought will be a feature of the Web site. ARKive maintains a "most wanted" list - are images lying unnoticed in a collection in your area, in a local attic, in the newsroom's filing cabinet?

ARKive is an initiative of The Wildscreen Trust. It is being funded by Hewlett Packard Laboratories (Europe), the Heritage Lottery Fund and the UK's New Opportunities Fund. The project is endorsed by UNEP-WCMC (The World Conservation Monitoring Centre), IUCN (World Conservation Union), WWF and many other conservation bodies. Donations of images and sound recordings are arriving from many sources, including the world's best-known wildlife film and television companies, nature photo libraries, academic institutions as well as individuals, both professional and amateur. One of the latest bequests is the life's work of Eric Ashby, the naturalist, photographer and film-maker who changed the shape of wildlife television in the 1960s, by showing British wild animals as they really live.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

The free book "Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests" is provided by the National Academies Press at <>. Compiled by the US Board on Life Sciences and the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, this 194-page book explores the difficulties in predicting the immigration and impact of exotic species. Researchers active in this field may find this free resource of use.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2003.

InfoNatura: Birds and Mammals of Latin America <> is provided by NatureServe, a non-profit organization dedicated to developing and providing information about the world's plants, animals, and ecological communities. This Web site is a comprehensive source for conservation, distribution, and taxonomic information on over 5,000 bird and mammal species in 44 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Taxonomic treatment of all species in the database "reflects standard references, and most species have been assigned a global conservation status rank." InfoNatura is updated three times a year to include "new data from refined geographic surveys, the latest taxonomic treatments, and any new conservation status assessments." Future versions of the database will include amphibian and reptile data. In addition to searching the database, users can click on Data Sources and Management to learn where InfoNatura data come from.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences

Current Literature

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García, A., Ceballos, G., and Adaya, R. 2003. Intensive beach management as an improved sea turtle conservation strategy in Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):253-261.

Gelbard, J.L., and Belnap, J. 2003. Roads as conduits for exotic plant invasions in a semiarid landscape. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):420-432.

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Grainger, J. 2003. 'People are living in the park'. Linking biodiversity conservation to community development in the Middle East region: a case study from the Saint Katherine Protectorate, Southern Sinai. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):29-38.

Grantham, B.A., Eckert, G.L., and Shanks, A.L. 2003. Dispersal potential of marine invertebrates in diverse habitats. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S108-S116.

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Habib, L.D., Wiersma, Y.F., and Nudds, T.D. 2003. Effects of errors in range maps on estimates of historical species richness of mammals in Canadian national parks. J. Biogeogr. 30(3):375-380.

Haddad, N.M., Bowne, D.R., Cunningham, A., Danielson, B.J., Levey, D.J., Sargent, S., and Spira, T. 2003. Corridor use by diverse taxa. Ecology 84(3):609-615.

Halpern, B.S. 2003. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S117-S137.

Hänfling, B., and Weetman, D. 2003. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(1):15-17.

Hart, P.J., and Freed, L.A. 2003. Structure and dynamics of mixed-species flocks in a Hawaiian rain forest. Auk 120(1):82-95.

Hastings, A., and Botsford, L.W. 2003. Comparing designs of marine reserves for fisheries and for biodiversity. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S65-S70.

Heartsill-Scalley, T., and Aide, T.M. 2003. Riparian vegetation and stream condition in a tropical agriculture-secondary forest mosaic. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):225-234.

Heinlen, E.R., and Vitt, D.H. 2003. Patterns of rarity in mosses of the Okanogan Highlands of Washington State: an emerging coarse filter approach to rare moss conservation. Bryologist 106(1):34-52.

Herkert, J.R., Reinking, D.L., Wiedenfeld, D.A., Winter, M., Zimmerman, J.L., Jensen, W.E., Finck, E.J., Koford, R.R., Wolfe, D.H., Sherrod, S.K., Jenkins, M.A., Faaborg, J., and Robinson, S.K. 2003. Effects of prairie fragmentation on the nest success of breeding birds in the midcontinental United States. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):587-594.

Herrando, S., Brotons, L., and Llacuna, S. 2003. Does fire increase the spatial heterogeneity of bird communities in Mediterranean landscapes? Ibis 145(2):307-317.

Hettyey, A., and Pearman, P.B. 2003. Social environment and reproductive interference affect reproductive success in the frog Rana latastei. Behav. Ecol. 14(2):294-300.

Hirsch, A., Dias, L.G., Martins, W.P., and Porfírio, S. 2002. Rediscovery of Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus at the Fazenda Córrego de Areia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 10(3):119-122.

Holmes, C.M. 2003. Assessing the perceived utility of wood resources in a protected area of western Tanzania. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):179-189.

Hooftman, D.A.P., and Diemer, M. 2002. Effects of small habitat size and isolation on the population structure of common wetland species. Plant Biol. 4(6):720-728.

Hufford, K.M., and Mazer, S.J. 2003. Plant ecotypes: genetic differentiation in the age of ecological restoration. TREE 18(3):147-155.

Huston, M.A., and Marland, G. 2003. Carbon management and biodiversity. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):77-86.

Il'in, V.Y., Smirnov, D.G., and Yanyaeva, N.M. 2003. Effects of the anthropogenic factor on bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Volga region. Russian J. Ecol. 34(2):122-126.

Jacobson, S.K., Sieving, K.E., Jones, G.A., and Van Doorn, A. 2003. Assessment of farmer attitudes and behavioral intentions toward bird conservation on organic and conventional Florida farms. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):595-606.

Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R., and Hermy, M. 2003. Short-term effects of different management regimes on the response of calcareous grassland vegetation to increased nitrogen. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):137-147.

Jagtap, T.G., Komarpant, D.S., and Rodrigues, R.S. 2003. Status of a seagrass ecosystem: an ecologically sensitive wetland habitat from India. Wetlands 23(1):161-170.

James, M., Gilbert, F., and Zalat, S. 2003. Thyme and isolation for the Sinai baton blue butterfly (Pseudophilotes sinaicus). Oecologia 134(3):445-453.

Jordan, F., Baldi, A., Orci, K.M., Racz, I., and Varga, Z. 2003. Characterizing the importance of habitat patches and corridors in maintaining the landscape connectivity of a Pholidoptera transsylvanica (Orthoptera) metapopulation. Landscape Ecol. 18(1):83-92.

Kaczensky, P., Knauer, F., Krze, B., Jonozovic, M., Adamic, M., and Gossow, H. 2003. The impact of high speed, high volume traffic axes on brown bears in Slovenia. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):191-204.

Kaiser, J. 2003. Ebola, hunting push ape populations to the brink. Science 300(5617):232.

Kaiser, M.J. 2003. Detecting the effects of fishing on seabed community diversity: importance of scale and sample size. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):512-520.

Kharat, S., Dahanukar, N., Raut, R., and Mahabaleshwarkar, M. 2003. Long-term changes in freshwater fish species composition in North Western Ghats, Pune District. Curr. Sci. 84(6):816-820.

Kirchner, F., Ferdy, J.B., Andalo, C., Colas, B., and Moret, J. 2003. Role of corridors in plant dispersal: an example with the endangered Ranunculus nodiflorus. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):401-410.

Klaus, R., Jones, D.A., Turner, J., Simöes, N., and Vousden, D. 2003. Integrated marine and coastal management: a strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological resources in the Socotra Archipelago, Yemen. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):71-80.

Kleiman, D.G. 2003. Striking a balance. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):628-629.

Knapp, S., and Mallet, J. 2003. Refuting refugia? Science 300(5616):71-72.

Knapp, S.M., Russell, R.E., and Swihart, R.K. 2003. Setting priorities for conservation: the influence of uncertainty on species rankings of Indiana mammals. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):223-234.

Konstant, W.R., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B., Butynski, T.M., Eudey, A.A., Ganzhorn, J., and Kormos, R. 2002. The world's top 25 most endangered primates - 2002. Neotrop. Primates 10(3):128-131.

Kpemissi, E.A., Batawila, K., Kokou, K., Koumaglo, K., de Souza, C., Bouchet, P., and Akpagana, K. 2003. Antimicrobial properties of three treatened sand dune species from the Togolese littoral. Acta Bot. Gallica 150(1):107-115.

Kraaijeveld-Smit, F.J.L., Rowe, G., Beebee, T.J.C., and Griffiths, R.A. 2003. Microsatellite markers for the Mallorcan midwife toad Alytes muletensis. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(1):152-154.

Krueper, D., Bart, J., and Rich, T.D. 2003. Response of vegetation and breeding birds to the removal of cattle on the San Pedro River, Arizona (USA). Conserv. Biol. 17(2):607-615.

Labonne, J., Allouche, S., and Gaudin, P. 2003. Use of a generalised linear model to test habitat preferences: the example of Zingel asper, an endemic endangered percid of the River Rhône. Freshwater Biol. 48(4):687-697.

Lange, C.N., and Mwinzi, M. 2003. Snail diversity, abundance and distribution in Arabuko Sokoke forest, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(1):61-67.

Langtimm, C.A., and Beck, C.A. 2003. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):257-268.

Lemoine, N., and Böhning-Gaese, K. 2003. Potential impact of global climate change on species richness of long-distance migrants. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):577-586.

Leslie, H., Ruckelshaus, M., Ball, I.R., Andelman, S., and Possingham, H.P. 2003. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S185-S198.

Li, Y.M., Guo, Z.W., Yang, Q.S., Wang, Y.S., and Niemelä, J. 2003. The implications of poaching for giant panda conservation. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):125-136.

Lindig-Cisneros, R., Desmond, J., Boyer, K.E., and Zedler, J.B. 2003. Wetland restoration thresholds: can a degradation transition be reversed with increased effort? Ecol. Appl. 13(1):193-205.

Loucks, C.J., Lü, Z., Dinerstein, E., Wang, D.J., Fu, D.L., and Wang, H. 2003. The giant pandas of the Qinling Mountains, China: a case study in designing conservation landscapes for elevational migrants. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):558-565.

Lubchenco, J., Palumbi, S.R., Gaines, S.D., and Andelman, S. 2003. Plugging a hole in the ocean: the emerging science of marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S3-S7.

Luck, G.W., and Daily, G.C. 2003. Tropical countryside bird assemblages: richness, composition, and foraging differ by landscape context. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):235-247.

Lwanga, J.S. 2003. Forest succession in Kibale National Park, Uganda: implications for forest restoration and management. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(1):9-22.

Mack, M.C., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2003. Exotic grasses alter controls over soil nitrogen dynamics in a Hawaiian woodland. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):154-166.

Madhusudan, M.D. 2003. Living amidst large wildlife: livestock and crop depredation by large mammals in the interior villages of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, south India. Environ. Manage. 31(4):466-475.

Maina, G.G., and Jackson, W.M. 2003. Effects of fragmentation on artificial nest predation in a tropical forest in Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):161-169.

Margalida, A., Garcia, D., Bertran, J., and Heredia, R. 2003. Breeding biology and success of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in the eastern Pyrenees. Ibis 145(2):244-252.

Mascia, M.B. 2003. The human dimension of coral reef marine protected areas: recent social science research and its policy implications. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):630-632.

Mazerolle, D.F., and Hobson, K.A. 2003. Do ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) avoid boreal forest edges? A spatiotemporal analysis in an agricultural landscape. Auk 120(1):152-162.

McAlpine, C.A., and Eyre, T.J. 2002. Testing landscape metrics as indicators of habitat loss and fragmentation in continuous eucalypt forests (Queensland, Australia). Landscape Ecol. 17(8):711-728.

McMillan, M.A., Nekola, J.C., and Larson, D.W. 2003. Effects of rock climbing on the land snail community of the Niagara Escarpment in southern Ontario, Canada. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):616-621.

McNeely, J.A. 2003. Biodiversity in arid regions: values and perceptions. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):61-70.

McQuown, E., Krueger, C.C., Kincaid, H.L., Gall, G.A.E., and May, B. 2003. Genetic comparison of lake sturgeon populations: differentiation based on allelic frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. J. Great Lakes Res. 29(1):3-13.

Meakins, R.H., and Al-Mohanna, S.Y. 2003. Some problems and the importance of reptile biodiversity in Kuwait. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):209-217.

Mentz, L.A., and Stehmann, J.R. 2003. Solanum pseudodaphnopsis (Solanaceae), a new species from the critically endangered restinga vegetation in southern Brazil. Novon 13(1):97-100.

Mielikäinen, K., and Hynynen, J. 2003. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-boreal zone: case Finland. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):47-54.

Moen, J., and Jonsson, B.G. 2003. Edge effects on liverworts and lichens in forest patches in a mosaic of boreal forest and wetland. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):380-388.

Mönkkönen, M., and Mutanen, M. 2003. Occurrence of moths in boreal forest corridors. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):468-475.

Mota, J.F., Sola, A.J., Dana, E.D., and Jimenez-Sanchez, M.L. 2003. Plant succession in abandoned gypsum quarries in SE Spain. Phytocoenologia 33(1):13-28.

Murphy, M.T. 2003. Avian population trends within the evolving agricultural landscape of eastern and central United States. Auk 120(1):20-34.

Neigel, J.E. 2003. Species-area relationships and marine conservation. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S138-S145.

Orr, D.W. 2003. Walking north on a southbound train. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):348-351.

Osborn, F.V., and Parker, G.E. 2003. Linking two elephant refuges with a corridor in the communal lands of Zimbabwe. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(1):68-74.

Ozesmi, U., and Ozesmi, S. 2003. A participatory approach to ecosystem conservation: fuzzy cognitive maps and stakeholder group analysis in Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Environ. Manage. 31(4):518-531.

Pandey, D.N. 2003. Cultural resources for conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):633-635.

Parviainen, J. 2003. Introduction: maintaining forest biodiversity - intentions and reality. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):3-4.

Parviainen, J., and Frank, G. 2003. Protected forests in Europe approaches-harmonising the definitions for international comparison and forest policy making. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):27-36.

Paynter, Q., Csurhes, S.M., Heard, T.A., Ireson, J., Julien, M.H., Lloyd, J., Lonsdale, W.M., Palmer, W.A., Sheppard, A.W., and van Klinken, R.D. 2003. Worth the risk? Introduction of legumes can cause more harm than good: an Australian perspective. Aust. Syst. Bot. 16(1):81-88.

Peacock, J.M., Ferguson, M.E., Alhadrami, G.A., McCann, I.R., Al Hajoj, A., Saleh, A., and Karnik, R. 2003. Conservation through utilization: a case study of the indigenous forage grasses of the Arabian Peninsula. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):15-28.

Peres, C.A., and Lake, I.R. 2003. Extent of nontimber resource extraction in tropical forests: accessibility to game vertebrates by hunters in the Amazon basin. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):521-535.

Peterjohn, B.G. 2003. Agricultural landscapes: can they support healthy bird populations as well as farm products? Auk 120(1):14-19.

Peterson, G.D., Cumming, G.S., and Carpenter, S.R. 2003. Scenario planning: a tool for conservation in an uncertain world. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):358-366.

Proffitt, C.E., Travis, S.E., and Edwards, K.R. 2003. Genotype and elevation influence Spartina alterniflora colonization and growth in a created salt marsh. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):180-192.

Prugnolle, F., Pilard, P., Brun, L., and Tavecchia, G. 2003. First-year and adult survival of the endangered lesser kestrel Falco naumanni in southern France. Bird Study 50:68-72.

Puumalainen, J., Kennedy, P., and Folving, S. 2003. Monitoring forest biodiversity: a European perspective with reference to temperate and boreal forest zone. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):5-14.

Quintana-Ascencio, P.F., Menges, E.S., and Weekley, C.W. 2003. A fire-explicit population viability analysis of Hypericum cumulicola in Florida rosemary scrub. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):433-449.

Radosevich, S.R., Stubbs, M.M., and Ghersa, C.M. 2003. Plant invasions-process and patterns. Weed Sci. 51(2):254-259.

Rametsteiner, E., and Simula, M. 2003. Forest certification - an instrument to promote sustainable forest management? J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):87-98.

Raven, P.H. 2002. Plant conservation and our common future. Israel J. Plant Sci. 50:S1-S4.

Reynolds, J.C., and Short, M.J. 2003. The status of foxes Vulpes vulpes on the Isle of Man in 1999. Mammal Rev. 33(1):69-76.

Richter, B.D., Mathews, R., and Wigington, R. 2003. Ecologically sustainable water management: managing river flows for ecological integrity. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):206-224.

Richter, S.C., Young, J.E., Johnson, G.N., and Seigel, R.A. 2003. Stochastic variation in reproductive success of a rare frog, Rana sevosa: implications for conservation and for monitoring amphibian populations. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):171-177.

Riley, S.P.D., Sauvajot, R.M., Fuller, T.K., York, E.C., Kamradt, D.A., Bromley, C., and Wayne, R.K. 2003. Effects of urbanization and habitat fragmentation on bobcats and coyotes in southern California. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):566-576.

Robbins, R.L., and McCreery, E.K. 2003. Acoustic stimulation as a tool in African wild dog conservation. Biol. Conserv. 111(2):263-267.

Roberts, C.M., Andelman, S., Branch, G., Bustamante, R.H., Castilla, J.C., Dugan, J., Halpern, B.S., Lafferty, K.D., Leslie, H., Lubchenco, J., McArdle, D., Possingham, H.P., Ruckelshaus, M., and Warner, R.R. 2003. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S199-S214.

Roberts, C.M., Branch, G., Bustamante, R.H., Castilla, J.C., Dugan, J., Halpern, B.S., Lafferty, K.D., Leslie, H., Lubchenco, J., McArdle, D., Ruckelshaus, M., and Warner, R.R. 2003. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):S215-S228.

Roy, D.B., and Thomas, J.A. 2003. Seasonal variation in the niche, habitat availability and population fluctuations of a bivoltine thermophilous insect near its range margin. Oecologia 134(3):439-444.

Ruhren, S., and Handel, S.N. 2003. Herbivory constrains survival, reproduction and mutualisms when restoring nine temperate forest herbs. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130(1):34-42.

Rustigian, H.L., Santelmann, M.V., and Schumaker, N.H. 2003. Assessing the potential impacts of alternative landscape designs on amphibian population dynamics. Landscape Ecol. 18(1):65-81.

Ruth, J.M., Petit, D.R., Sauer, J.R., Samuel, M.D., Johnson, F.A., Fornwall, M.D., Korschgen, C.E., and Bennett, J.P. 2003. Science for avian conservation: priorities for the new millennium. Auk 120(1):204-211.

Ruzycki, J.R., Beauchamp, D.A., and Yule, D.L. 2003. Effects of introduced lake trout on native cutthroat trout in Yellowstone Lake. Ecol. Appl. 13(1):23-37.

Salem, B.B. 2003. Application of GIS to biodiversity monitoring. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):91-114.

Schlosser, J.A., Garner, T.W.J., Dubach, J.M., and McElligott, A.G. 2003. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) and cross-amplification in other penguin species. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(1):62-64.

Seabloom, E.W., and van der Valk, A.G. 2003. Plant diversity, composition, and invasion of restored and natural prairie pothole wetlands: implications for restoration. Wetlands 23(1):1-12.

Seely, M.K., Zeidler, J., Henschel, J.R., and Barnard, P. 2003. Creative problem solving in support of biodiversity conservation. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):155-164.

Siebert, S.J., van Wyk, A.E., and Bredenkamp, G.J. 2003. Vegetation ecology of Sekhukhuneland, South Africa: Combretum hereroense-Grewia vemicosa Open Mountain Bushveld. S. Afr. J. Bot. 68(4):475-496.

Siebert, S.J., van Wyk, A.E., and Bredenkamp, G.J. 2003. Vegetation ecology of Sekhukhuneland, South Africa: Kirkia wilmsii-Terminalia prunioides Closed Mountain Bushveld. S. Afr. J. Bot. 68(4):497-517.

Simberloff, D. 2003. Eradication-preventing invasions at the outset. Weed Sci. 51(2):247-253.

Smith, M., Budd, K.J., and Gross, C. 2003. The distribution of Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877) in the United Arab Emirates. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):55-60.

Solh, M., Amri, A., Ngaido, T., and Valkoun, J. 2003. Policy and education reform needs for conservation of dryland biodiversity. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):5-13.

Spiecker, H. 2003. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-temperate zone. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):55-65.

Sudhersan, C., AboEl-Nil, M., and Hussain, J. 2003. Tissue culture technology for the conservation and propagation of certain native plants. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):133-147.

Swart, J.A.A. 2003. Will direct payments help biodiversity? Science 299(5615):1981.

Taft, O.W., and Haig, S.M. 2003. Historical wetlands in Oregon's Willamette Valley: implications for restoration of winter waterbird habitat. Wetlands 23(1):51-64.

Timmerman-Erskine, M., Ballenger, J., Dute, R.R., and Boyd, R.S. 2003. Allozyme investigation of the Trillium pusillum Michaux complex (Trilliaceae): taxonomic and conservation Implications. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130(1):1-10.

Tucker, J.W., and Robinson, W.D. 2003. Influence of season and frequency of fire on Henslow's sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii) wintering on Gulf Coast pitcher plant bogs. Auk 120(1):96-106.

Twinomugisha, D., Basuta, G.I., and Chapman, C.A. 2003. Status and ecology of the golden monkey (Cercopithecus mitis kandti) in Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol. 41(1):47-55.

Umapathy, G., Singh, M., and Mohnot, S.M. 2003. Status and distribution of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa in the Nicobar Islands, India. Int. J. Primatol. 24(2):281-293.

van Slageren, M.W. 2003. The Millennium Seed Bank: building partnerships in arid regions for the conservation of wild species. J. Arid Environ. 54(1):195-201.

Vogel, I., Glöwing, B., Saint Pierre, I., Bayart, F., Contamin, H., and de Thoisy, B. 2002. Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) rehabilitation in French Guiana: a case study. Neotrop. Primates 10(3):147-149.

Walsh, P.D., Abernethy, K.A., Bermejo, M., Beyersk, R., De Wachter, P., Akou, M.E., Huljbregis, B., Mambounga, D.I., Toham, A.K., Kilbourn, A.M., Lahm, S.A., Latour, S., Maisels, F., Mbina, C., Mihindou, Y., Obiang, S.N., Effa, E.N., Starkey, M.P., Telfer, P., Thibault, M., Tutin, C.E.G., White, L.J.T., and Wilkie, D.S. 2003. Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa. Nature 422(6932):611-614.

Watkins, R.Z., Chen, J.Q., Pickens, J., and Brosofske, K.D. 2003. Effects of forest roads on understory plants in a managed hardwood landscape. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):411-419.

Wessels, K.J., Reyers, B., van Jaarsveld, A.S., and Rutherford, M.C. 2003. Identification of potential conflict areas between land transformation and biodiversity conservation in north-eastern South Africa. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 95(1):157-178.

Williams, B.K. 2003. Policy, research, and adaptive management in avian conservation. Auk 120(1):212-217.

Woodwell, G.M. 2003. World enough and time? Conserv. Biol. 17(2):356-357.

Wulf, M. 2003. Forest policy in the EU and its influence on the plant diversity of woodlands. J. Environ. Manage. 67(1):15-25.

Xiao, W., Ding, W., Cui, L.W., Zhou, R.L., and Zhao, Q.K. 2003. Habitat degradation of Rhinopithecus bieti in Yunnan, China. Int. J. Primatol. 24(2):389-398.

Zonneveld, C., Longcore, T., and Mulder, C. 2003. Optimal schemes to detect the presence of insect species. Conserv. Biol. 17(2):476-487.

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