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Department ofBotany

No. 223
July 2003

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In This Issue

Creeping Fires Threaten Rainforests

Until recently, fires in rainforests like the Amazon occurred only once or twice every thousand years during very infrequent mega-droughts. Today, thousands of fires are lit in the humid tropics every year, to raze vast expanses of forest for ranching and slash-and-burn farming.

In the May issue of Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute staff scientist William F. Laurance reports that the ecological impacts of these highly destructive intentional fires are now being rivaled by a more subtle menace: accidental surface fires. Surface fires occur most frequently in fragmented landscapes, where intentionally lit fires spread into adjoining rainforests. They also occur occasionally in completely intact forests, when someone lights a fire during the dry season.

Slow-moving animals, such as the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegates), suffer heavy mortality during surface fires.

Surface fires are deceptively unimpressive, creeping along the forest floor in a thin ribbon of flames that is rarely higher than 8 inches from the ground. Unlike fast-burning intentional fires, surface fires consume only the leaf and woody litter, generate only modest heat, and cover as little as 160 yards a day. Nevertheless, surface fires are deadly to many rainforest plants, which typically have thin bark and thus are highly vulnerable to heat stress. They kill or injure numerous understory animals, and the smoke asphyxiates or drives away mid-story and canopy species. But even more alarming is the irreversible process of forest degradation that surface fires can set in motion.

Unfortunately, determining the true extent of surface fires in dense tropical forests is still very difficult, because current satellite-monitoring methods are generally ineffective at detecting scorched forest understories. However, new high-resolution satellites and specialized detection algorithms are becoming available, and could prove more useful for the key task of mapping the occurrence of surface fires. Equally vital is the need to better understand the ecological impacts of wildfires throughout the tropics, with their great diversity of forest types and land-use practices, and to predict the effects of regional and global climate change on fire incidence.

Laurance, W.F. 2003. Slow burn: the insidious effects of surface fires on tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(5):209-212.

Future Meetings

The Inaugural Conservation Genetics Conference of the American Genetic Association will be held 14-17 September 2003 in Front Royal, Virginia. Symposium topics include theoretical advances; methodological advances; analytical advances in conservation genetics; applications in population biology; applications in speciation; applications in the evolutionary history of populations, subspecies and species; and conservation management using genetic data. For further information visit the conference Web site <>, or E-mail

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Having the ability to thrive and spread aggressively outside its natural range, invasive plants disrupt many natural habitats. The US National Arboretum offers a straightforward guide to identifying and controlling invasive plants at the Invasive Plants Web site <>. The Web site begins with an explanation of what the term "invasive" really means, followed by photos and descriptions of species to avoid planting altogether (such as purple loosestrife), and those that are less problematic if managed wisely (like English ivy). The site also describes the origin and current distribution of some of the most commonly encountered invasive plants, and provides Web links for further information.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2003.

Current Literature

Agee, J.K. 2003. Monitoring postfire tree mortality in mixed-conifer forests of Crater Lake, Oregon, USA. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):114-120.

Aguirre, L.F., Lens, L., and Matthysen, E. 2003. Patterns of roost use by bats in a neotropical savanna: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):435-443.

Amar, A., Redpath, S., and Thirgood, S. 2003. Evidence for food limitation in the declining hen harrier population on the Orkney Islands, Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):377-384.

Anderson, R.P. 2003. Real vs. artefactual absences in species distributions: tests for Oryzomys albigularis (Rodentia: Muridae) in Venezuela. J. Biogeogr. 30(4):591-605.

Araoye, P.A. 2002. Man-made lakes, ecological studies and conservation needs in Nigeria. Rev. Biol. Trop. 50(3-4):857-864.

Baguette, M., and Schtickzelle, N. 2003. Local population dynamics are important to the conservation of metapopulations in highly fragmented landscapes. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(2):404-412.

Bakker, K.K., and Higgins, K.F. 2003. Avian use of natural versus planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):121-128.

Bayliss, J., Helyar, A., Lee, J.T., and Thompson, S. 2003. A multi-criteria targeting approach to neutral grassland conservation. J. Environ. Manage. 67(2):145-160.

Beck, J.L., Mitchell, D.L., and Maxfield, B.D. 2003. Changes in the distribution and status of sage-grouse in Utah. West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(2):203-214.

Blanco, D.E., Zalba, S.M., Belenguer, C.J., Pugnali, G., and Goni, H.R. 2003. Status and conservation of the ruddy-headed goose Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater (Aves, Anatidae) in its wintering grounds (province of Buenos Aires, Argentina). Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 76(1):47-55.

Blundell, A.G. 2002. Tracking sequestered carbon in the timber trade. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):407-410.

Blundell, A.G., and Rodan, B.D. 2003. Mahogany and CITES: moving beyond the veneer of legality. Oryx 37(1):85-90.

Blyth, R.E., Kaiser, M.J., Edwards-Jones, G., and Hart, P.J.B. 2002. Voluntary management in an inshore fishery has conservation benefits. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):493-508.

Branch, L.C., Clark, A.M., Moler, P.E., and Bowen, B.W. 2003. Fragmented landscapes, habitat specificity, and conservation genetics of three lizards in Florida scrub. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):199-212.

Britten, H.B., Fleishman, E., Austin, G.T., and Murphy, D.D. 2003. Genetically effective and adult population sizes in the Apache silverspot butterfly, Speyeria nokomis apacheana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(2):229-235.

Brooks, M.L. 2003. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(2):344-353.

Broyer, J. 2003. Unmown refuge areas and their influence on the survival of grassland birds in the Saône Valley (France). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1219-1237.

Brugière, D., and Magassouba, B. 2003. Mammalian diversity in the National Park of Upper Niger, Republic of Guinea - an update. Oryx 37(1):19.

Burbidge, M.L., Colbourne, R.M., Robertson, H.A., and Baker, A.J. 2003. Molecular and other biological evidence supports the recognition of at least three species of brown kiwi. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):167-177.

Burgman, M.A., and Fox, J.C. 2003. Bias in species range estimates from minimum convex polygons: implications for conservation and options for improved planning. Anim. Conserv. 6:19-28.

Burridge, C.P., and Gold, J.R. 2003. Conservation genetic studies of the endangered Cape Fear shiner, Notropis mekistocholas (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Conserv. Genet. 4(2):219-225.

Camargi-Ricalde, S.L., Dhillion, S.S., and Jiménez-González, C. 2003. Mycorrhizal perennials of the "matorral xerófilo" and the "selva baja caducifolia" communities in the semiarid Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. Mycorrhiza 13(2):77-83.

Campbell, A.K. 2003. Save those molecules! Molecular biodiversity and life. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(2):193-203.

Cardillo, M. 2003. Biological determinants of extinction risk: why are smaller species less vulnerable? Anim. Conserv. 6:63-69.

Carrier, J.A., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2003. Recent, substantial, and unexplained declines of the common toad Bufo bufo in lowland England. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):395-399.

Carter, S.P., and Bright, P.W. 2003. Reedbeds as refuges for water voles (Arvicola terrestris) from predation by introduced mink (Mustela vison). Biol. Conserv. 111(3):371-376.

Castley, G., and Knight, M. 2003. Conservation in action: expanding the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Oryx 37(1):15-16.

Cattadori, I.M., Ranci-Ortigosa, G., Gatto, M., and Hudson, P.J. 2003. Is the rock partridge Alectoris graeca saxatilis threatened in the Dolomitic Alps? Anim. Conserv. 6:71-81.

Chandrashekhar, M.B., Singh, S., and Roy, P.S. 2003. Geospatial modelling techniques for rapid assessment of phytodiversity at landscape level in western Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh. Curr. Sci. 84(5):663-670.

Chen, X.W., Li, B.L., and Lin, Z.S. 2003. The acceleration of succession for the restoration of the mixed-broadleaved Korean pine forests in northeast China. Forest Ecol. Manag. 177(1-3):503-514.

Cooper, A., McCann, T., and Meharg, M.J. 2003. Sampling broad habitat change to assess biodiversity conservation action in Northern Ireland. J. Environ. Manage. 67(3):283-290.

Coote, T., and Loève, E. 2003. From 61 species to five: endemic tree snails of the Society Islands fall prey to an ill-judged biological control programme. Oryx 37(1):91-96.

Cotrim, H.C., Chase, M.W., and Pais, M.S. 2003. Silene rothmaleri P. Silva (Caryophyllaceae), a rare, fragmented but genetically diverse species. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1083-1098.

Cox, J.J., Seward, N.W., Larkin, J.L., and Maehr, D.S. 2003. Common raven nests in eastern Kentucky. Southeast. Nat. 2(1):99-104.

Culik, M.P., and Zeppelini, D. 2003. Diversity and distribution of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda) of Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1119-1143.

Dana, E.D., Randall, R.P., Sanz-Elorza, M., and Sobrino, E. 2003. First evidences of the invasive behaviour of Leucaena leucocephala in Europe. Oryx 37(1):14.

Darimont, C.T., and Paquet, P.C. 2002. The gray wolves, Canis lupus, of British Columbia's Central and North Coast: distribution and conservation Assessment. Can. Field-Natural. 116(3):416-422.

Darkoh, M.B.K. 2003. Regional perspectives on agriculture and biodiversity in the drylands of Africa. J. Arid Environ. 54(2):261-279.

Davenport, T.R.B., and Ndangalasi, H.J. 2003. An escalating trade in orchid tubers across Tanzania's Southern Highlands: assessment, dynamics and conservation implications. Oryx 37(1):55-61.

De Deyn, G.B., Raaijmakers, C.E., Zoomer, H.R., Berg, M.P., de Ruiter, P.C., Verhoef, H.A., Bezemer, T.M., and van der Putten, W.H. 2003. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity. Nature 422(6933):711-713.

Decker, C.J., and O'Dor, R. 2002. A census of marine life: unknowable or just unknown? Oceanol Acta 25(5):179-186.

Devries, D.R., Armstrong, D.L., Topolski, M., Pine, W.E., Johnson, J.A., Dunham, R.A., Robison, L., Dibona, J., Norgren, K., Hartfield, P., and Cook, S. 2003. Distribution, habitat use, and genetics of Tulotoma magnifica (Gastropoda: Viviparidae). Southeast. Nat. 2(1):35-58.

Diamond, D.D., Gordon, T.M., True, C.D., Lea, R.D., and Foster, W.E. 2003. An ecoregion-based conservation assessment and conservation opportunity area inventory for the lower midwestern USA. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):129-140.

Dickson, B. 2003. IUCN launches precautionary principle project. Oryx 37(1):13.

Docker, M.F., and Heath, D.D. 2003. Genetic comparison between sympatric anadromous steelhead and freshwater resident rainbow trout in British Columbia, Canada. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):227-231.

Doubledee, R.A., Muller, E.B., and Nisbet, R.M. 2003. Bullfrogs, disturbance regimes, and the persistence of California red-legged frogs. J. Wildlife Manag. 67(2):424-438.

Emmingham, W.H. 2002. Development of ecosystem management in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Biosystems 136(2):167-175.

Fabricius, C., Burger, M., and Hockey, P.A.R. 2003. Comparing biodiversity between protected areas and adjacent rangeland in xeric succulent thicket, South Africa: arthropods and reptiles. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(2):392-403.

Fiori, S.M., and Zalba, S.M. 2003. Potential impacts of petroleum exploration and exploitation on biodiversity in a Patagonian Nature Reserve, Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1261-1270.

Firsov, G.A. 2003. The establishment of the Lower Choper Nature Park, Russia. Oryx 37(1):17.

Fleishman, E., Mcdonal, N., Mac Nally, R., Murphy, D.D., Walters, J., and Floyd, T. 2003. Effects of floristics, physiognomy and non-native vegetation on riparian bird communities in a Mojave Desert watershed. J. Anim. Ecol. 72(3):484-490.

Foster, S.A., Baker, J.A., and Bell, M.A. 2003. The case for conserving threespine stickleback populations: protecting an adaptive radiation. Fisheries 28(5):10-18.

Frafjord, K. 2003. Ecology and use of arctic fox Alopex lagopus dens in Norway: tradition overtaken by interspecific competition? Biol. Conserv. 111(3):445-453.

Freeman, R.E., Stanley, E.H., and Turner, M.G. 2003. Analysis and conservation implications of landscape change in the Wisconsin River floodplain, USA. Ecol. Appl. 13(2):416-431.

Frondoni, R., and Iberite, M. 2002. The halophile vegetation of the sedimentary coast of Lazio (central Tyrrhenian District, Italy). Plant Biosystems 136(1):49-67.

García, G., and Goodman, S.M. 2003. Hunting of protected animals in the Parc National d'Ankarafantsika, north-western Madagascar. Oryx 37(1):115-118.

Garnett, S. 2003. Rearing conservation projects to maturity - changing the metaphor for conservation success. Oryx 37(1):1-2.

Ge, X.J., Yu, Y., Zhao, N.X., Chen, H.S., and Qi, W.Q. 2003. Genetic variation in the endangered Inner Mongolia endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica Maxim. (Zygophyllaceae). Biol. Conserv. 111(3):427-434.

Germano, J.M., Sander, J.M., Henderson, R.W., and Powell, R. 2003. Herpetofaunal communities in Grenada: a comparison of altered sites, with an annotated checklist of Grenadian amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean J. Sci. 39(1):68-76.

Gibbs, J.P., Shriver, W.G., and Vargas, H. 2003. An assessment of a Galapagos rail population over thirteen years (1986 to 2000). J. Field Ornithol. 74(2):136-140.

Gilligan, D.M., and Frankham, R. 2003. Dynamics of genetic adaptation to captivity. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):189-197.

Goldstein, P.Z., and Simmons, T. 2002. A checklist and commentary on the scarabaeid fauna of the Massachusetts offshore islands (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110(3-4):389-401.

Gössling, S. 2002. Funds for biodiversity. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):411-413.

Götmark, F., and Thorell, M. 2003. Size of nature reserves: densities of large trees and dead wood indicate high value of small conservation forests in southern Sweden. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1271-1285.

Green, D.M. 2003. The ecology of extinction: population fluctuation and decline in amphibians. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):331-343.

Greenbery, C.H. 2003. Vegetation recovery and stand structure following a prescribed stand-replacement burn in sand pine scrub. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):141-151.

Hall, J.P.W., and Callaghan, C.J. 2003. A revision of the new riodinid butterfly genus Pseudotinea (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). J. Nat. Hist. 37(7):821-837.

Halley, J.M. 2003. Parameter drift stabilizes long-range extinction forecasts. Ecol. Lett. 6(5):392-397.

Hatch, S.A. 2003. Statistical power for detecting trends with applications to seabird monitoring. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):317-329.

Hedderson, T.A.J., Letts, J.B., and Payne, K. 2003. Bryophyte diversity and community structure on thatched roofs of the Holnicote Estate, Somerset, UK. J. Bryol. 25:49-60.

Heinen, J.T., and Kopple, R.V. 2003. Profile of a biosphere reserve: the University of Michigan Biological Station, USA, and its conformity to the Man and Biosphere Program. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):165-173.

Helgen, K.M., and Wilson, D.E. 2003. Taxonomic status and conservation relevance of the raccoons (Procyon spp.) of the West Indies. J. Zool. 259:69-76.

Hennings, L.A., and Edge, W.D. 2003. Riparian bird community structure in Portland, Oregon: habitat, urbanization, and spatial scale patterns. Condor 105(2):288-302.

Hicks, N.G., and Pearson, S.M. 2003. Salamander diversity and abundance in forests with alternative land use histories in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Forest Ecol. Manag. 177(1-3):117-130.

Higgins, S.I., Lavorel, S., and Revilla, E. 2003. Estimating plant migration rates under habitat loss and fragmentation. Oikos 101(2):354-366.

Hildner, K.K., Soulé, M.E., Min, M.S., and Foran, D.R. 2003. The relationship between genetic variability and growth rate among populations of the pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):233-240.

Hirst, R.A., Pywell, R.F., Marrs, R.H., and Putwain, P.D. 2003. The resistance of a chalk grassland to disturbance. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(2):368-379.

Holden, J., Yanuar, A., and Martyr, D.J. 2003. The Asian tapir in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra: evidence collected through photo-trapping. Oryx 37(1):34-40.

Holloway, G.J., Griffiths, G.H., and Richardson, P. 2003. Conservation strategy maps: a tool to facilitate biodiversity action planning illustrated using the heath fritillary butterfly. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(2):413-421.

Holst, B. 2003. European zoos support the Atlantic rainforest. Oryx 37(1):14-15.

Homan, R.N., Regosin, J.V., Rodrigues, D.M., Reed, J.M., Windmiller, B.S., and Romero, L.M. 2003. Impacts of varying habitat quality on the physiological stress of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). Anim. Conserv. 6:11-18.

Honnay, O., Piessens, K., Van Landuyt, W., Hermy, M., and Gulinck, H. 2003. Satellite based land use and landscape complexity indices as predictors for regional plant species diversity. Landscape Urban Plan. 63(4):241-250.

Hussain, S. 2003. The status of the snow leopard in Pakistan and its conflict with local farmers. Oryx 37(1):26-33.

Iwata, T., Nakano, S., and Inoue, M. 2003. Impacts of past riparian deforestation on stream communities in a tropical rain forest in Borneo. Ecol. Appl. 13(2):461-473.

Jarvis, A., Ferguson, M.E., Williams, D.E., Guarino, L., Jones, P.G., Stalker, H.T., Valls, J.F.M., Pittman, R.N., Simpson, C.E., and Bramel, P. 2003. Biogeography of wild Arachis: assessing conservation status and setting future priorities. Crop Sci. 43(3):1100-1108.

Jenkins, C.N., Powell, R.D., Bass, O.L., and Pimm, S.L. 2003. Demonstrating the destruction of the habitat of the Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis). Anim. Conserv. 6:29-38.

Jenkins, C.N., Powell, R.D., Bass, O.L., and Pimm, S.L. 2003. Why sparrow distributions do not match model predictions. Anim. Conserv. 6:39-46.

Jensen, J.B., and Birkhead, W.S. 2003. Distribution and status of the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) in Georgia. Southeast. Nat. 2(1):25-34.

Jerozolimski, A., and Peres, C.A. 2003. Bringing home the biggest bacon: a cross-site analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in Neotropical forests. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):415-425.

Jiang, Z.H. 2002. Introduction: International Conference on Forest Ecosystems: ecology, conservation and sustainable management. Plant Biosystems 136(2):127-131.

Johnsingh, A.T., and Negi, A.S. 2003. Status of tiger and leopard in Rajaji-Corbett Conservation Unit, northern India. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):385-393.

Johnson, G.A.M., and Freedman, B. 2002. Breeding birds in forestry plantations and natural forest in the vicinity of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick. Can. Field-Natural. 116(3):475-487.

Jones, K.E., Purvis, A., and Gittleman, J.L. 2003. Biological correlates of extinction risk in bats. Am. Nat. 161(4):601-614.

Junk, W.J. 2002. Long-term environmental trends and the future of tropical wetlands. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):414-435.

Kasera, P.K., and Shukla, J.K. 2003. Bio-medicinal properties and cultivation of Leptadaenia reticulata (Jivanti) - an endangered plant of the Thar Desert, India. Curr. Sci. 84(7):877-879.

Knapen, D., Knaepkens, G., Bervoets, L., Taylor, M.I., Eens, M., and Verheyen, E. 2003. Conservation units based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA variation among European bullhead populations (Cottus gobio L., 1758) from Flanders, Belgium. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):129-140.

Kormos, R. 2003. Urgent action needed for West African chimpanzees. Oryx 37(1):16-17.

Kotze, D.J., and O'Hara, R.B. 2003. Species decline - but why? Explanations of carabid beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) declines in Europe. Oecologia 135(1):138-148.

Kroll, A.J., Boykin, K., Andersen, M.C., Thompson, B.C., and Daniel, D.L. 2003. Habitat characteristics of Ashmunella (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Polygyridae) at White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss, New Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 48(1):14-22.

Kuehn, R., Schroeder, W., Pirchner, F., and Rottmann, O. 2003. Genetic diversity, gene flow and drift in Bavarian red deer populations (Cervus elaphus). Conserv. Genet. 4(2):157-166.

Kyle, C.J., Davison, A., and Strobeck, C. 2003. Genetic structure of European pine martens (Martes martes), and evidence for introgression with M. americana in England. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):179-188.

Lacy, K.E., and Martins, E.P. 2003. The effect of anthropogenic habitat usage on the social behaviour of a vulnerable species, Cyclura nubila. Anim. Conserv. 6:3-9.

Laffan, S.W., and Crisp, M.D. 2003. Assessing endemism at multiple spatial scales, with an example from the Australian vascular flora. J. Biogeogr. 30(4):511-520.

Lamb, E.G., Mallik, A.U., and Mackereth, R.W. 2003. The early impact of adjacent clearcutting and forest fire on riparian zone vegetation in northwestern Ontario. Forest Ecol. Manag. 177(1-3):529-538.

Laughlin, D.C. 2003. Lack of native propagules in a Pennsylvania, USA, limestone prairie seed bank: futile hopes for a role in ecological restoration. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):158-164.

Lavoie, C., Jean, M., Delisle, F., and Létourneau, G. 2003. Exotic plant species of the St Lawrence River wetlands: a spatial and historical analysis. J. Biogeogr. 30(4):537-549.

Le Corre, M., Ghestemme, T., Salamolard, M., and Couzi, F.O.X. 2003. Rescue of the Mascarene petrel, a critically endangered seabird of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean. Condor 105(2):387-391.

Lea, J., Dyson, M., and Halliday, T. 2002. The effects of cohort structure and density on larval growth and development in Alytes muletensis: implications for conservation. Herp. J. 12(4):155-161.

Lien, V.V., and Yuan, D.C. 2003. The differences of butterfly (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) communities in habitats with various degrees of disturbance and altitudes in tropical forests of Vietnam. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1099-1111.

Linkie, M., Martyr, D.J., Holden, J., Yanuar, A., Hartana, A.T., Sugardjito, J., and Leader-Williams, N. 2003. Habitat destruction and poaching threaten the Sumatran tiger in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Oryx 37(1):41-48.

List, R., and Macdonald, D.W. 2003. Home range and habitat use of the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) in a prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) complex. J. Zool. 259:1-5.

Liu, J.G., Ouyang, Z.Y., Pimm, S.L., Raven, P.H., Wang, X.K., Miao, H., and Han, N.Y. 2003. Protecting China's biodiversity. Science 300(5623):1240-1241.

Lobos, G., and Measey, G.J. 2002. Invasive populations of Xenopus laevis (Daudin) in Chile. Herp. J. 12(4):163-168.

Locke, A., Hanson, J.M., Klassen, G.J., Richardson, S.M., and Aube, C.I. 2003. The damming of the Petitcodiac River: species, populations, and habitats lost. Northeastern Nat. 10(1):39-54.

Long, C.L., Li, H., Ouyang, Z.Q., Yang, X.Y., Li, Q., and Trangmar, B. 2003. Strategies for agrobiodiversity conservation and promotion: a case from Yunnan, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1145-1156.

Lowe, A.J., Jourde, B., Breyne, P., Colpaert, N., Navarro, C., Wilson, J., and Cavers, S. 2003. Fine-scale genetic structure and gene flow within Costa Rican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla). Heredity 90(3):268-275.

Lu, Y.H., Chen, L.D., Fu, B.J., and Liu, S.L. 2003. A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas: the case of Wolong Biosphere Reserve. Landscape Urban Plan. 63(4):213-223.

Lundmark, C. 2003. Bioblitz: getting into backyard biodiversity. BioScience 53(4):329.

Ma, Z.J., Li, B., Jing, K., Zhao, B., Tang, S.M., and Chen, J.K. 2003. Effects of tidewater on the feeding ecology of hooded crane (Grus monacha) and conservation of their wintering habitats at Chongming Dongtan, China. Ecol. Res. 18(3):321-329.

Macdonald, D.W., and Rushton, S. 2003. Modelling space use and dispersal of mammals in real landscapes: a tool for conservation. J. Biogeogr. 30(4):607-620.

Maki, M. 2003. Population genetics of threatened wild plants in Japan. J. Plant Res. 116(2):169-174.

Maloney, R. 2003. Kaki (black stilt) population increases following supplementation. Oryx 37(1):15.

Manel, S., Schwartz, M.K., Luikart, G., and Taberlet, P. 2003. Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. TREE 18(4):189-197.

Manosa, S., Mateos, E., and Pedrocchi, V. 2003. Abundance of soaring raptors in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. J. Raptor Res. 37(1):19-30.

Marbà, N., Duarte, C.M., Holmer, M., Martínez, R., Basterretxea, G., Orfila, A., Jordi, A., and Tintoré, J. 2002. Effectiveness of protection of seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) populations in Cabrera National Park (Spain). Environ. Conserv. 29(4):509-518.

Marino, J. 2003. Threatened Ethiopian wolves persist in small isolated Afroalpine enclaves. Oryx 37(1):62-71.

Masero, J.A. 2003. Assessing alternative anthropogenic habitats for conserving waterbirds: salinas as buffer areas against the impact of natural habitat loss for shorebirds. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1157-1173.

McClanahan, T.R. 2002. The near future of coral reefs. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):460-483.

McGill, B.J. 2003. A test of the unified neutral theory of biodiversity. Nature 422(6934):881-885.

McIntyre, S. 2003. Antiguan racer translocation. Oryx 37(1):13.

McNair, D.B. 2003. Population estimate, habitat associations, and conservation of the St. Croix ground lizard Ameiva polops at Protestant Cay, United States Virgin Islands. Caribbean J. Sci. 39(1):94-99.

Minckley, R.L., Cane, J.H., Kervin, L., and Yanega, D. 2003. Biological impediments to measures of competition among introduced honey bees and desert bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 76(2):306-319.

Mitchell, S.C., Kennedy, S.M., Williams, P.J., and Demont, M.E. 2003. Morphometrics and estimates of force generation by the chelae of a North American population of the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.). Can. J. Zool. 81(2):203-215.

Molano-Flores, B., Feist, M.A., and Whelan, C.J. 2003. Seed germination, seedling survivorship, and host preference of Agalinis auriculata (Michx.) Blake (Orobanchaceae), an Illinois, USA, threatened species. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):152-157.

Moleele, N.M., and Mainah, J. 2003. Resource use conflicts: the future of the Kalahari ecosystem. J. Arid Environ. 54(2):405-423.

Monteiro-Neto, C., Cunha, F.E.D., Nottingham, M.C., Araújo, M.E., Rosa, I.L., and Barros, G.M.L. 2003. Analysis of the marine ornamental fish trade at Ceará State, northeast Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1287-1295.

Morales-Vela, B., Padilla-Saldivar, J.A., and Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. 2003. Status of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) along the northern and western coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Caribbean J. Sci. 39(1):42-49.

Moro, D. 2003. Translocation of captive-bred dibblers Parantechinus apicalis (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae) to Escape Island, Western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):305-315.

Mosseler, A., Major, J.E., and Rajora, O.P. 2003. Old-growth red spruce forests as reservoirs of genetic diversity and reproductive fitness. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106(5):931-937.

Muniz-Martinez, R., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., and Gomez, M.O. 2003. Noteworthy records of free-tailed bats (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from Durango, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 48(1):138-144.

Murphy, J.F., Simandle, E.T., and Becker, D.E. 2003. Population status and conservation of the black toad, Bufo exsul. Southwest. Nat. 48(1):54-60.

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Nagendra, H. 2002. Tenure and forest conditions: community forestry in the Nepal Terai. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):530-539.

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Obiri, J.A.F., and Lawes, M.J. 2002. Attitudes of coastal-forest users in Eastern Cape Province to management options arising from new South African forest policies. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):519-529.

Oltremari, J.V., and Thelen, K.D. 2003. Evolution of the planning process for protected areas in Latin America. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):174-179.

Onal, H. 2003. Preservation of species and genetic diversity. Am. J. Agricult. Econom. 85(2):437-447.

Ontiveros, D. 2003. Nesting distribution, food habits, and conservation of osprey on Boavista Island (Archipelago of Cape Verde). J. Raptor Res. 37(1):67-70.

Ontiveros, D., and Pleguezuelos, J.M. 2003. Physical, environmental and human factors influencing productivity in Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus in Granada (SE Spain). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1193-1203.

Osborn, F.V., and Parker, G.E. 2003. Towards an integrated approach for reducing the conflict between elephants and people: a review of current research. Oryx 37(1):80-84.

Palo, J.U., Hyvärinen, H., Helle, E., Mäkinen, H.S., and Väinölä, R. 2003. Postglacial loss of microsatellite variation in the landlocked Lake Saimaa ringed seal. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):117-128.

Parker, J.M., and Anderson, S.H. 2003. Habitat use and movements of repatriated Wyoming toads. J. Wildlife Manag. 67(2):439-446.

Parsons, S., Lewis, K.J., and Psyllakis, J.M. 2003. Relationships between roosting habitat of bats and decay of aspen in the sub-boreal forests of British Columbia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 177(1-3):559-570.

Peres, C.A., Barlow, J., and Haugaasen, T. 2003. Vertebrate responses to surface wildfires in a central Amazonian forest. Oryx 37(1):97-109.

Perfecto, I., Mas, A., Dietsch, T., and Vandermeer, J. 2003. Conservation of biodiversity in coffee agroecosystems: a tri-taxa comparison in southern Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1239-1252.

Peterson, A.T. 2003. Projected climate change effects on Rocky Mountain and Great Plains birds: generalities of biodiversity consequences. Global Change Biol. 9(5):647-655.

Peterson, A.T., and Kluza, D.A. 2003. New distributional modelling approaches for gap analysis. Anim. Conserv. 6:47-54.

Pierrot-Bults, A.C. 2002. A perspective on the census of marine life. The role of natural history institutions for this programme. Oceanol Acta 25(5):187-191.

Piggott, M.P., and Taylor, A.C. 2003. Remote collection of animal DNA and its applications in conservation management and understanding the population biology of rare and cryptic species. Wildlife Res. 30(1):1-13.

Pompeu, P.S., and Vieira, F. 2003. Threatened fishes of the world: Delturus parahybae Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Loricariidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 66(1):66.

Pusey, B.J., and Arthington, A.H. 2003. Importance of the riparian zone to the conservation and management of freshwater fish: a review. Mar. Freshwater Res. 54(1):1-16.

Raimondo, D.C., and Donaldson, J.S. 2003. Responses of cycads with different life histories to the impact of plant collecting: simulation models to determine important life history stages and population recovery times. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):345-358.

Rees, P.A. 2003. Asian elephants in zoos face global extinction: should zoos accept the inevitable? Oryx 37(1):20-22.

Rees, P.A. 2003. The welfare and conservation of Asian elephants - a reply to Sukumar. Oryx 37(1):25.

Reutter, B.A., Helfer, V., Hirzel, A.H., and Vogel, P. 2003. Modelling habitat-suitability using museum collections: an example with three sympatric Apodemus species from the Alps. J. Biogeogr. 30(4):581-590.

Reynolds, J.D., Bruford, M.W., Gittleman, J.L., and Wayne, R.K. 2003. The first five years. Anim. Conserv. 6:1-2.

Riddle, A.E., Pilgrim, K.L., Mills, L.S., McKelvey, K.S., and Ruggiero, L.F. 2003. Identification of mustelids using mitochondrial DNA and non-invasive sampling. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):241-243.

Robertson, D.P., and Hull, R.B. 2003. Biocultural ecology exploring the social construction of the Southern Appalachian Ecosystem. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):180-189.

Roby, D.D., Lyons, D.E., Craig, D.P., Collis, K., and Visser, G.H. 2003. Quantifying the effect of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics approach: Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia river estuary. Can. J. Zool. 81(2):250-265.

Rodway, M.S., Regehr, H.M., and Cooke, F. 2003. Sex and age differences in distribution, abundance, and habitat preferences of wintering harlequin ducks: implications for conservation and estimating recruitment rates. Can. J. Zool. 81(3):492-503.

Rose, S., and Grainger, A. 2003. Multivariate mapping of spatial variation in biodiversity in Peruvian Amazonia. Divers. Distrib. 9(3):237-249.

Rouget, M., Cowling, R.M., Pressey, R.L., and Richardson, D.M. 2003. Identifying spatial components of ecological and evolutionary processes for regional conservation planning in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Divers. Distrib. 9(3):191-210.

Ruffner, C.M., and Abrams, M.D. 2003. Disturbance history and stand dynamics along a topographic gradient in old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forests of the Allegheny Plateau, USA. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):98-113.

Russo, D., and Jones, G. 2003. Use of foraging habitats by bats in a Mediterranean area determined by acoustic surveys: conservation implications. Ecography 26(2):197-209.

Sampaio, E.M., Kalko, E.K.V., Bernard, E., Rodriguez-Herrera, B., and Handley, C.O. 2003. A biodiversity assessment of bats (Chiroptera) in a tropical lowland rainforest of central Amazonia, including methodological and conservation considerations. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 38(1):17-31.

Sarmiento, L., Llambí, L.D., Escalona, A., and Marquez, N. 2003. Vegetation patterns, regeneration rates and divergence in an old-field succession of the high tropical Andes. Plant Ecol. 166(1):63-74.

Sauer, J.R., Fallon, J.E., and Johnson, R. 2003. Use of North American breeding bird survey data to estimate population change for bird conservation regions. J. Wildlife Manag. 67(2):372-389.

Schmera, D. 2003. Assessing stream dwelling caddisfly assemblages (Insecta: Trichoptera) collected by light traps in Hungary. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1175-1191.

Schofield, P.J., and Ross, S.T. 2003. Habitat selection of the Channel darter, Percina (Cottogaster) Copelandi, a surrogate for the imperiled Pearl darter, Percina aurora. J. Freshwater Ecol. 18(2):249-257.

Scotland, R.W., and Wortley, A.H. 2003. How many species of seed plants are there? Taxon 52(1):101-104.

Sei, M., and Porter, A.H. 2003. Microhabitat-specific early-larval survival of the maritime ringlet (Coenonympha tullia nipisiquit). Anim. Conserv. 6:55-61.

Seoane, J., Viñuela, J., Díaz-Delgado, R., and Bustamante, J. 2003. The effects of land use and climate on red kite distribution in the Iberian peninsula. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):401-414.

Shanmugam, S., Lucas, N., Phipps, P., Richards, A., and Barnsley, M. 2003. Assessment of remote sensing techniques for habitat mapping in coastal dune ecosystems. J. Coastal Res. 19(1):64-75.

Sharma, N.D. 2003. Inventorying biodiversity: myopic planning! Curr. Sci. 84(5):617-618.

Smart, J., and Gill, J.A. 2003. Non-intertidal habitat use by shorebirds: a reflection of inadequate intertidal resources? Biol. Conserv. 111(3):359-369.

Smith, D.W., Peterson, R.O., and Houston, D.B. 2003. Yellowstone after wolves. BioScience 53(4):330-340.

Smith, G.F. 2003. Driving the E-Type initiative as the ALL Species Project picks up speed. Taxon 52(1):99-100.

Snell-Rood, E.C., and Cristol, D.A. 2003. Avian communities of created and natural wetlands: bottomland forests in Virginia. Condor 105(2):303-315.

Stanturf, J.A., and Madsen, P. 2002. Restoration concepts for Temperate and boreal forests of North America and western Europe. Plant Biosystems 136(2):143-158.

Steneck, R.S., Graham, M.H., Bourque, B.J., Corbett, D., Erlandson, J.M., Estes, J.A., and Tegner, M.J. 2002. Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):436-459.

Stern, M., Quesada, M., and Stoner, K.E. 2002. Changes in composition and structure of a tropical dry forest following intermittent cattle grazing. Rev. Biol. Trop. 50(3-4):1021-1034.

Sukumar, R. 2003. Asian elephants in zoos - a response to Rees. Oryx 37(1):23-24.

Taita, P. 2003. Use of woody plants by locals in Mare aux Hippopotames Biosphere Reserve in western Burkina Faso. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1205-1217.

Tellería, J.L., Baquero, R., and Santos, T. 2003. Effects of forest fragmentation on European birds: implications of regional differences in species richness. J. Biogeogr. 30(4):621-628.

Tonhasca, A., Albuquerque, G.S., and Blackmer, J.L. 2003. Dispersal of euglossine bees between fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 19:99-102.

Tupper, M., and Rudd, M.A. 2002. Species-specific impacts of a small marine reserve on reef fish production and fishing productivity in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Environ. Conserv. 29(4):484-492.

Ueta, M., McGrady, M.J., Nakagawa, H., Sato, F., and Masterov, V.B. 2003. Seasonal change in habitat use in Steller's sea eagles. Oryx 37(1):110-114.

Valdecasas, A.G., and Camacho, A.I. 2003. Conservation to the rescue of taxonomy. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1113-1117.

Valière, N., Fumagalli, L., Gielly, L., Miquel, C., Lequette, B., Poulle, M.L., Weber, J.M., Arlettaz, R., and Taberlet, P. 2003. Long-distance wolf recolonization of France and Switzerland inferred from non-invasive genetic sampling over a period of 10 years. Anim. Conserv. 6:83-92.

Van Buren, R., and Harper, K.T. 2003. Demographic and environmental relations of two rare Astragalus species endemic to Washington County, Utah: Astragalus holmgreniorum and A. ampullarioides. West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(2):236-243.

Vickery, P.D., Casanas, H.E., and Di Giacomo, A.S. 2003. Effects of altitude on the distribution of Nearctic and resident grassland birds in Cordoba province, Argentina. J. Field Ornithol. 74(2):172-178.

Virgos, E., Cabezas-Diaz, S., Malo, A., Lozano, J., and Lopez-Huertas, D. 2003. Factors shaping European rabbit abundance in continuous and fragmented populations of central Spain. Acta Theriol. 48(1):113-122.

Vorburger, C., and Reyer, H.U. 2003. A genetic mechanism of species replacement in European waterfrogs? Conserv. Genet. 4(2):141-155.

Wall, M.A., Timmerman-Erskine, M., and Boyd, R.S. 2003. Conservation impact of climatic variability on pollination of the federally endangered plant, Clematis socialis (Ranunculaceae). Southeast. Nat. 2(1):11-24.

Wan, Q.H., and Fang, S.G. 2003. Species-specific 'fingerprints' of deer in China. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1253-1260.

Warren, M., McGeoch, M.A., and Chown, S.L. 2003. Predicting abundance from occupancy: a test for an aggregated insect assemblage. J. Anim. Ecol. 72(3):468-477.

Watson, D.M. 2003. Long-term consequences of habitat fragmentation - highland birds in Oaxaca, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 111(3):283-303.

Weladji, R.B., and Tchamba, M.N. 2003. Conflict between people and protected areas within the Bénoué Wildlife Conservation Area, north Cameroon. Oryx 37(1):72-79.

Westphal, M.I., Pickett, M., Getz, W.M., and Possingham, H.P. 2003. The use of stochastic dynamic programming in optimal landscape reconstruction for metapopulations. Ecol. Appl. 13(2):543-555.

Wich, S.A., Singleton, I., Utami-Atmoko, S.S., Geurts, M.L., Rijksen, H.D., and Van Schaik, C.P. 2003. The status of the Sumatran orang-utan Pongo abelii: an update. Oryx 37(1):49-54.

Williams, P.H., Moore, J.L., Toham, A.K., Brooks, T.M., Strand, H., D'Amico, J., Wisz, M., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., and Rahbek, C. 2003. Integrating biodiversity priorities with conflicting socio-economic values in the Guinean-Congolian forest region. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(6):1297-1320.

Willis, T.J., Millar, R.B., and Babcock, R.C. 2003. Protection of exploited fish in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(2):214-227.

Winfield, M.O., Wilson, P.J., Labra, M., and Parker, J.S. 2003. A brief evolutionary excursion comes to an end: the genetic relationship of British species of Gentianella sect. Gentianella (Gentianaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 237(3-4):137-151.

Wood, P.M. 2003. Will Canadian policies protect British Columbia's endangered pairs of sympatric sticklebacks? Fisheries 28(5):19.

Wright, G. 2003. Unparalleled uncertainty. Nat. Areas J. 23(2):97.

Wynne, I.R., Loxdale, H.D., Brookes, C.P., and Woiwod, I.P. 2003. Genetic structure of fragmented November moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) populations in farmland. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 78(4):467-477.

Yan, T.F., Zu, Y.G., Yan, X.F., and Zhou, F.J. 2003. Genetic structure of endangered Rhodiola sachalinensis. Conserv. Genet. 4(2):213-218.

Zartman, C.E. 2003. Habitat fragmentation impacts on epiphyllous bryophyte communities in central Amazonia. Ecology 84(4):948-954.

Zhang, S.G., Xiao, W.F., and Jiang, Z.P. 2002. Sustainable forest management in China: the basic principles and practices. Plant Biosystems 136(2):159-165.

Zimmer, C. 2003. Rapid evolution can foil even the best-laid plans. Science 300(5621):895.

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