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Department ofBotany

No. 225
September 2003

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In This Issue

ATB Adds Conservation Focus

The membership of the Association for Tropical Biology (ATB) has overwhelmingly voted to change its name to the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC). The journal Biotropica will now have a new section on conservation topics. These new developments reflect the changes occurring in the research of Association members. The Association and the journal will still publish and celebrate high-quality research in tropical biology. At the same time, it is recognized that in most, if not all, tropical systems, human impacts along with natural ecological factors determine which species are present and how the biological community is structured and functions. Many members of the Association already investigate these impacts, and are restoring the damage that has been done. The change in name will help identify the Association and journal with this expanding focus of inquiry and research. Conservation research was well-reflected at the symposia held in the three past meetings held in Scotland, Panama, and Bangalore, and is apparent in the articles being published in Biotropica. Further symposia and workshops in upcoming meetings will continue this direction. The following are a few of the major themes which ATBC will take up in coming years.

Threats to tropical ecosystems: destruction. Everywhere we look as tropical ecologists, we see habitats in peril, from forests to coral reefs to mangroves to tropical alpine zones. In many tropical countries of the world, particularly on islands and in locations where human population density is high, most of the original forest habitat has already been destroyed. These high rates of habitat destruction affect species extinction and ecosystem processes, and represent major topics for tropical ecologists.

Fragmentation. Even where habitat remains it is often extensively fragmented. Experimental studies carried out in the Amazon and elsewhere show that when a habitat is fragmented, the potential for dispersal and colonization of plants and animals is reduced. Fragmentation also changes the microenvironment at the fragment edge, impacting species composition. As large tropical areas are increasingly fragmented over large areas by logging, road construction and other human activities, we need to know how this affects the ecology of the region.

Hunting. Even where habitats still appear intact, many tropical animals are being threatened with extinction, due to ever increasing intensities of harvesting. In recent decades, human populations in tropical areas have increased, the use of the environment by people has escalated, and methods of harvesting have become dramatically more efficient. The extreme overhunting of animals throughout tropical regions, both for local consumption and for sale in towns, has been labeled the "bushmeat crisis." This crisis has become a cause for concern by conservation organizations and represents a major topic for research.

National parks and local people. There is currently a vigorous debate about the best ways to conserve tropical biodiversity, a debate in which many members of ATB are already involved. Major areas of disagreement include the relative effectiveness of traditional national parks and community-based conservation initiatives, the role of indigenous people in protected areas, and the effectiveness of forest certification and similar initiatives in promoting sustainable use of tropical habitats.

The change in the name of the Association reflects the ongoing process of review of research priorities in tropical biology being carried out by the ATBC Council, the Officers, and various colleagues. Many of the priorities being discussed are related to conservation issues, as described above. Further details are posted on the ATBC website <>.

- Excerpt from Tropinet (vol. 14. 2003) by Richard Primack

Rare Plants of Hawai'i at US Botanic Garden

The Kaua'i Native Plant Society in collaboration with the United States Botanic Garden (USBG) is bringing a collection of some 60 rare and endangered native Hawaiian plant species to the Garden in Washington, D.C. The plants will be the centerpiece of an exhibit titled Our Nation's Crown Jewels: Rare and Endangered Species of Hawai'i and will remain on display in the USBG Conservatory from 29 August through 23 November 2003. The exhibit, produced through the cooperation of 12 organizations under the aegis of Garden Island Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., coincides with the year 2003 being the "Year of the Hawaiian Forest."

Paired with Our Nation's Crown Jewels will be an exhibit of photographic portraits of rare Hawaiian plants and animals. Titled Remains of a Rainbow, these photographs by David Liittschwager and Susan Middleton will be on display in the West Orangerie of the USBG Conservatory from 29 August through 11 January 2004.

Today, Hawai'i is home to a wealth of biodiversity and home to many species found nowhere else on Earth. It has more rare and endangered species than any other state in the union. The plants in the exhibit have been chosen to represent four distinct habitats: wet forest, mesic forest, dryland forest, and coastal lowland. A series of interpretive panels will explain how the unique flora of the Hawaiian Islands is threatened by habitat loss, invasive species, and other factors. The exhibit will underscore how these factors are impacting flora worldwide.

Current Literature

Archawaranon, M. 2003. The impact of human interference on Hill Mynahs Gracula religiosa breeding in Thailand. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):139-149.

Archie, E.A., Moss, C.J., and Alberts, S.C. 2003. Characterization of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the African savannah elephant (Loxodonta africana africana). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(2):244-246.

Armenteras, D., Gast, F., and Villareal, H. 2003. Andean forest fragmentation and the representativeness of protected natural areas in the eastern Andes, Colombia. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):245-256.

Baker, C.S., Dalebout, M.L., Lavery, S., and Ross, H.A. 2003. www.DNA-surveillance: applied molecular taxonomy for species conservation and discovery. TREE 18(6):271-272.

Bank, M.S., Sarno, R.J., and Franklin, W.L. 2003. Spatial distribution of guanaco mating sites in southern Chile: conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):427-434.

Banks, S.C., Hoyle, S.D., Horsup, A., Sunnucks, P., and Taylor, A.C. 2003. Demographic monitoring of an entire species (the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii) by genetic analysis of non-invasively collected material. Anim. Conserv. 6:101-107.

Barrientos, Z. 2003. Introduction to molluscan classification, collection, data recording and conservation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 51:13-30.

Barrientos, Z. 2003. Update on research and conservation of continental molluscs in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 51:285-292.

Bassett, S.D., and Edwards, T.C. 2003. Effect of different sampling schemes on the spatial placement of conservation reserves in Utah, USA. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):141-151.

Bell, E.M., Lockyear, J.F., McPherson, J.M., Marsden, A.D., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2003. First field studies of an endangered South African seahorse, Hippocampus capensis. Environ. Biol. Fish. 67(1):35-46.

Berglund, H., and Jonsson, B.G. 2003. Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):319-328.

Bhupathy, S., and Karunakaran, R. 2003. Conservation of olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Reptilia/Chelonia) along the Nagapattinam coast, southeast coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 32(2):168-171.

Bhuyan, P., Khan, M.L., and Tripathi, R.S. 2003. Tree diversity and population structure in undisturbed and human-impacted stands of tropical wet evergreen forest in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalayas, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1753-1773.

Bissonette, J.A. 2002. Scaling roads and wildlife: the Cinderella Principle. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:208-214.

Blaxter, M., and Floyd, R. 2003. Molecular taxonomics for biodiversity surveys: already a reality. TREE 18(6):268-269.

Bleeker, W. 2003. Hybridization and Rorippa austriaca (Brassicaceae) invasion in Germany. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1831-1841.

Brewer, J.S., and Cralle, S.P. 2003. Phosphorus addition reduces invasion of a longleaf pine savanna (southeastern USA) by a non-indigenous grass (Imperata cylindrica). Plant Ecol. 167(2):237-245.

Bridges, C.M., and Boone, M.D. 2003. The interactive effects of UV-B and insecticide exposure on tadpole survival, growth and development. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):49-54.

Bridgewater, P., and Cresswell, I.D. 2003. Identifying biogeographic patterns in Australian saltmarsh and mangal systems: a phytogeographic analysis. Phytocoenologia 33(2-3):231-250.

Brito, D., and Figueiredo, M.D.L. 2003. Minimum viable population and conservation status of the Atlantic Forest spiny rat Trinomys eliasi. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):153-158.

Brondani, R.P.V., Gaiotto, F.A., Missiaggia, A.A., Kirst, M., Gribel, R., and Grattapaglia, D. 2003. Microsatellite markers for Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae), an endangered tree species of the Amazon forest. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(2):177-179.

Brosse, S., Arbuckle, C.J., and Townsend, C.R. 2003. Habitat scale and biodiversity: influence of catchment, stream reach and bedform scales on local invertebrate diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2057-2075.

Brown, R.L., and Fridley, J.D. 2003. Control of plant species diversity and community invasibility by species immigration: seed richness versus seed density. Oikos 102(1):15-24.

Bruun, H.H., Moen, J., and Angerbjörn, A. 2003. Environmental correlates of meso-scale plant species richness in the province of Härjedalen, Sweden. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2025-2041.

Bunyard, B.A. 2003. A survey of fungal diversity in northeast Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 103(2):29-32.

Bystriakova, N., Kapos, V., Lysenko, I., and Stapleton, C.M.A. 2003. Distribution and conservation status of forest bamboo biodiversity in the Asia-Pacific Region. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1833-1841.

Cabeza, M. 2003. Habitat loss and connectivity of reserve networks in probability approaches to reserve design. Ecol. Lett. 6(7):665-672.

Cahill, J.F. 2003. Neighbourhood-scale diversity, composition and root crowding do not alter competition during drought in a native grassland. Ecol. Lett. 6(7):599-603.

Campbell, M.L. 2002. Getting the foundation right: a scientifically based management framework to aid in the planning and implementation of seagrass transplant efforts. Bull. Mar. Sci. 71(3):1405-1414.

Caro, T.M. 2003. Umbrella species: critique and lessons from East Africa. Anim. Conserv. 6:171-181.

Cassens, I., Van Waerebeek, K., Best, P.B., Crespo, E.A., Reyes, J., and Milinkovitch, M.C. 2003. The phylogeography of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus): a critical examination of network methods and rooting procedures. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1781-1792.

Castaño-Meneses, G., and Palacios-Vargas, J.G. 2003. Effects of fire and agricultural practices on neotropical ant communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1913-1919.

Cattin, M.F., Blandenier, G., Banašek-Richter, C., and Bersier, L.F. 2003. The impact of mowing as a management strategy for wet meadows on spider (Araneae) communities. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):179-188.

Clout, M.N. 2002. Biodiversity loss caused by invasive alien vertebrates. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:51-58.

Cockle, K.L., and Richardson, J.S. 2003. Do riparian buffer strips mitigate the impacts of clearcutting on small mammals? Biol. Conserv. 113(1):133-140.

Collar, N.J. 2003. Beyond value: biodiversity and the freedom of the mind. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):265-269.

Cousins, S.A.O., Lavorel, S., and Davies, I. 2003. Modelling the effects of landscape pattern and grazing regimes on the persistence of plant species with high conservation value in grasslands in south-eastern Sweden. Landscape Ecol. 18(3):315-332.

Currie, D., Hill, M., Millett, J., Bristol, R., Nevill, J., and Shah, N.J. 2003. Conservation options for the critically endangered Seychelles Black Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone corvina. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):97-114.

Dalton, R. 2003. Ants join online colony to boost conservation efforts. Nature 424(6946):242.

Davic, R.D. 2003. Linking keystone species and functional groups: a new operational definition of the keystone species concept. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):r11. <>

Dayton, P.K. 2003. The importance of the natural sciences to conservation. Am. Nat. 162(1):1-13.

De La Vega-Salazar, M.Y., Avila-Luna, E., and Macías-Garcia, C. 2003. Ecological evaluation of local extinction: the case of two genera of endemic Mexican fish, Zoogoneticus and Skiffia. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2043-2056.

Delisle, F., Lavoie, C., Jean, M., and Lachance, D. 2003. Reconstructing the spread of invasive plants: taking into account biases associated with herbarium specimens. J. Biogeogr. 30(7):1033-1042.

Deutschewitz, K., Lausch, A., Kuhn, I., and Klotz, S. 2003. Native and alien plant species richness in relation to spatial heterogeneity on a regional scale in Germany. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):299-311.

Devi, U., and Behera, N. 2003. Assessment of plant diversity in response to forest degradation in a tropical dry deciduous forest of Eastern Ghats in Orissa. J. Trop. For. Sci. 15(1):147-163.

Dietz, S., and Adger, W.N. 2003. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. J. Environ. Manage. 68(1):23-35.

Draycott, R.A.H., Pock, K., and Carroll, J.P. 2002. Sustainable management of a wild pheasant population in Austria. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:346-353.

Drew, C.A., and Hess, G.R. 2003. Online publication enhances integration of current research in the classroom. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):r12. <>

Dunham, K.M., Robertson, E.F., and Swanepoel, C.M. 2003. Population decline of Tsessebe antelope (Damaliscus lunatus lunatus) on a mixed cattle and wildlife ranch in Zimbabwe. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):111-124.

Dupont, Y.L., Hansen, D.M., and Olesen, J.M. 2003. Structure of a plant-flower-visitor network in the high-altitude sub-alpine desert of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Ecography 26(3):301-310.

Eggermont, H., and Verschuren, D. 2003. Impact of soil erosion in disturbed tributary drainages on the benthic invertebrate fauna of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):99-109.

Ellis, S. 2003. Habitat quality and management for the northern brown argus butterfly Aricia artaxerxes (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in North East England. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):285-294.

Engeman, R.M., Martin, R.E., Constantin, B., Noel, R., and Woolard, J. 2003. Monitoring predators to optimize their management for marine turtle nest protection. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):171-178.

Faith, D.P. 2003. Environmental diversity (ED) as surrogate information for species-level biodiversity. Ecography 26(3):374-379.

Foody, G.M., and Cutler, M.E.J. 2003. Tree biodiversity in protected and logged Bornean tropical rain forests and its measurement by satellite remote sensing. J. Biogeogr. 30(7):1053-1066.

Foster-Smith, J., and Evans, S.M. 2003. The value of marine ecological data collected by volunteers. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):199-213.

Fu, C.Z., Wu, J.H., Chen, J.K., Qu, Q.H., and Lei, G.C. 2003. Freshwater fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River basin of China: patterns, threats and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1649-1685.

Fuller, R.A., McGowan, P.J.K., Carroll, J.P., Dekker, R.W.R.J., and Garson, P.J. 2003. What does IUCN species action planning contribute to the conservation process? Biol. Conserv. 112(3):343-349.

Gaidet, N., Fritz, H., and Nyahuma, C. 2003. A participatory counting method to monitor populations of large mammals in non-protected areas: a case study of bicycle counts in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1571-1585.

Ganesan, R. 2003. Identification, distribution and conservation of Phyllanthus indofischeri, another source of Indian gooseberry. Curr. Sci. 84(12):1515-1518.

Ganzhorn, J.U. 2003. Effects of introduced Rattus rattus on endemic small mammals in dry deciduous forest fragments of western Madagascar. Anim. Conserv. 6:147-157.

Garnett, S.T., Crowley, G.M., and Stattersfield, A.J. 2003. Changes in the conservation status of Australian birds resulting from differences in taxonomy, knowledge and the definitions of threat. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):269-276.

Gauthreaux, S.A., and Belser, C.G. 2003. Radar ornithology and biological conservation. Auk 120(2):266-277.

Gillespie, T.W., and Jaffré, T. 2003. Tropical dry forests in New Caledonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1687-1697.

Godefroid, S., and Koedam, N. 2003. How important are large vs. small forest remnants for the conservation of the woodland flora in an urban context? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):287-298.

Godefroid, S., and Koedam, N. 2003. Identifying indicator plant species of habitat quality and invasibility as a guide for peri-urban forest management. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1699-1713.

Goldstein, P.Z., and DeSalle, R. 2003. Calibrating phylogenetic species formation in a threatened insect using DNA from historical specimens. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1993-1998.

Gómez, C., Casellas, D., Oliveras, J., and Bas, J.M. 2003. Structure of ground-foraging ant assemblages in relation to land-use change in the northwestern Mediterranean region. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2135-2146.

Grand, J., and Cushman, S.A. 2003. A multi-scale analysis of species-environment relationships: breeding birds in a pitch pine-scrub oak (Pinus rigida-Quercus ilicifolia) community. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):307-317.

Grau, E.T., Pereira, S.L., Silveira, L.F., and Wajntal, A. 2003. Molecular markers contribute to a breeding programme of the extinct-in-the-wild Alagoas Curassow Mitu mitu and confirm the validity of the species. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):115-126.

Graz, F.P. 2003. An HTML-based concept model of the dry savanna woodland ecosystem, for teaching and learning. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):9. <>

Greenwood, J.J.D. 2003. The monitoring of British breeding birds: a success story for conservation science? Sci. Total Environ. 310(1-3):221-230.

Griffiths, A.D., Philips, A., and Godjuwa, C. 2003. Harvest of Bombax ceiba for the Aboriginal arts industry, central Arnhem Land, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):295-305.

Gurdebeke, S., De Bakker, D., Vanlanduyt, N., and Maelfait, J.P. 2003. Plans for a large regional forest in eastern Flanders (Belgium): assessment of spider diversity and community structure in the current forest remnants. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1883-1900.

Gutzwiller, K.J., and Barrow, W.C. 2003. Bird communities, roads and development: prospects and constraints of applying empirical models. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):239-243.

Gutzwiller, K.J., and Barrow, W.C. 2003. Influences of roads and development on bird communities in protected Chihuahuan Desert landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):225-237.

Hadjikyriakou, G., and Hadjisterkotis, E. 2002. The adventive plants of Cyprus with new records of invasive species. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:59-71.

Hale, M.L., and Lurz, P.W.W. 2003. Morphological changes in a British mammal as a result of introductions and changes in landscape management: the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). J. Zool. 260:159-167.

Hanley, N., MacMillan, D., Patterson, I., and Wright, R.E. 2003. Economics and the design of nature conservation policy: a case study of wild goose conservation in Scotland using choice experiments. Anim. Conserv. 6:123-129.

Heaven, J.B., Gross, F.E., and Gannon, A.T. 2003. Vegetation comparison of a natural and a created emergent marsh wetland. Southeast. Nat. 2(2):195-206.

Hebblewhite, M., Percy, M., and Serrouya, R. 2003. Black bear (Ursus americanus) survival and demography in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Alberta. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):415-425.

Herring, E.C., and Criley, R.A. 2003. The Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Web Site: developing a web-based information resource. Horttechnology 13(3):545-548.

Hill, M., Holm, K., Vel, T., Shah, N.J., and Matyot, P. 2003. Impact of the introduced yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes on Bird Island, Seychelles. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1969-1984.

Hooson, S., and Jamieson, I.G. 2003. The distribution and current status of New Zealand Saddleback Philesturnus carunculatus. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):79-95.

Hornung, J.P., and Rice, C.L. 2003. Odonata and wetland quality in southern Alberta, Canada: a prelminary study. Odonatologica 32(2):119-129.

Hoskin, C.J., Couper, P.J., and Schneider, C.J. 2003. A new species of Phyllurus (Lacertilia: Gekkonidae) and a revised phylogeny and key for the Australian leaf-tailed geckos. Aust. J. Zool. 51(2):153-164.

Hughes, M., Hollingsworth, P.M., and Miller, A.G. 2003. Population genetic structure in the endemic Begonia of the Socotra archipelago. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):277-284.

Huntzinger, M. 2003. Effects of fire management practices on butterfly diversity in the forested western United States. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):1-12.

Hutton, K.A., Koprowski, J.L., Greer, V.L., Alanen, M.I., Schauffert, C.A., and Young, P.J. 2003. Use of mixed-conifer and spruce-fir forests by an introduced population of Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti). Southwest. Nat. 48(2):257-260.

Hyrenbach, K.D., and Dotson, R.C. 2003. Assessing the susceptibility of female black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) to longline fisheries during their post-breeding dispersal: an integrated approach. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):391-404.

Ikuta, L.A., and Blumstein, D.T. 2003. Do fences protect birds from human disturbance? Biol. Conserv. 112(3):447-452.

Iqubal, P., McGowan, P.J.K., Carroll, J.P., and Rahmani, A.R. 2003. Home range size, habitat use and nesting success of Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis on agricultural land in northern India. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):127-138.

Jenkins, C.N., and Pimm, S.L. 2003. How big is the global weed patch? Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 90(2):172-178.

Jepson, P., and Canney, S. 2003. Values-led conservation. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):271-274.

Jiang, Y., Kang, M.Y., Gao, Q.Z., He, L.H., Xiong, M., Jia, Z.B., and Jin, Z.P. 2003. Impact of land use on plant biodiversity and measures for biodiversity conservation in the Loess Plateau in China - a case study in a hilly-gully region of the Northern Loess Plateau. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2121-2133.

Jones, A.G., Chown, S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2003. Introduced house mice as a conservation concern on Gough Island. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2107-2119.

Jones, A.G., Chown, S.L., Ryan, P.G., Gremmen, N.J.M., and Gaston, K.J. 2003. A review of conservation threats on Gough Island: a case study for terrestrial conservation in the Southern Oceans. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):75-87.

Joron, M., and Brakefield, P.M. 2003. Captivity masks inbreeding effects on male mating success in butterflies. Nature 424(6945):191-194.

Jouventin, P., Bried, J., and Micol, T. 2003. Insular bird populations can be saved from rats: a long-term experimental study of white-chinned petrels Procellaria aequinoctialis on Ile de la Possession (Crozet archipelago). Polar Biol. 26(6):371-378.

Jüriado, I., Paal, J., and Liira, J. 2003. Epiphytic and epixylic lichen species diversity in Estonian natural forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1587-1607.

Karanth, K.U., Nichols, J.D., Seidensticker, J., Dinerstein, E., Smith, J.L.D., McDougal, C., Johnsingh, A.J.T., Chundawat, R.S., and Thapar, V. 2003. Science deficiency in conservation practice: the monitoring of tiger populations in India. Anim. Conserv. 6:141-146.

Kean, J., Wratten, S., Tylianakis, J., and Barlow, N. 2003. The population consequences of natural enemy enhancement, and implications for conservation biological control. Ecol. Lett. 6(7):604-612.

Kelly, J.A., and Samways, M.J. 2003. Diversity and conservation of forest-floor arthropods on a small Seychelles island. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1793-1813.

Kerr, J.T., and Ostrovsky, M. 2003. From space to species: ecological applications for remote sensing. TREE 18(6):299-305.

Kristensen, M., and Balslev, H. 2003. Perceptions, use and availability of woody plants among the Gourounsi in Burkina Faso. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1715-1739.

Laakkonen, J., Goodman, S.M., Duchemin, J.B., and Duplantier, J.M. 2003. Trypomastigotes and potential flea vectors of the endemic rodents and the introduced Rattus rattus in the rainforests of Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1775-1783.

Lai, C.H., and Smith, A.T. 2003. Keystone status of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae): effect of control on biodiversity of native birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1901-1912.

Lamoreux, J., Akçakaya, H.R., Bennun, L., Collar, N.J., Boitani, L., Brackett, D., Bräutigam, A., Brooks, T.M., de Fonseca, G.A.B., Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B., Gärdenfors, U., Hilton-Taylor, C., Mace, G., Stein, B.A., and Stuart, S. 2003. Value of the IUCN Red List. TREE 18(5):214-215.

Laundré, J., and Clark, T.W. 2003. Managing puma hunting in the western United States: through a metapopulation approach. Anim. Conserv. 6:159-170.

Lawrence, J.M., and Samways, M.J. 2003. Litter breakdown by the Seychelles giant millipede and the conservation of soil processes on Cousine Island, Seychelles. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):125-132.

Lehnebach, C., and Riveros, M. 2003. Pollination biology of the Chilean endemic orchid Chloraea lamellata. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1741-1751.

Lomolino, M.V., and Smith, G.A. 2003. Prairie dog towns as islands: applications of island biogeography and landscape ecology for conserving nonvolant terrestrial vertebrates. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):275-286.

Lowe, P.N., Lauenroth, W.K., and Burke, I.C. 2003. Effects of nitrogen availability on competition between Bromus tectorum and Bouteloua gracilis. Plant Ecol. 167(2):247-254.

Lozano, F.D., Saiz, J.C.M., and Ollero, H.S. 2003. Rarity and threat relationships in the conservation planning of Iberian flora. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1861-1882.

Lyman, R.L., and Wadley, R. 2003. Sustainable yield and conservation goals. Science 301(5631):309.

Lyons, A.L., Gaines, W.L., and Servheen, C. 2003. Black bear resource selection in the northeast Cascades, Washington. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):55-62.

López-Pujol, J., Bosch, M., Simon, J., and Blanché, C. 2003. Population genetics and conservation priorities for the critically endangered island endemic Delphinium pentagynum subsp. formenteranum (Ranunculaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1937-1951.

Major, R.E., Christie, F.J., Gowing, G., Cassis, G., and Reid, C.A.M. 2003. The effect of habitat configuration on arboreal insects in fragmented woodlands of south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):35-48.

Martikainen, P., and Kouki, J. 2003. Sampling the rarest: threatened beetles in boreal forest biodiversity inventories. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1815-1831.

Mat-Salleh, K., Tami, R., and Latiff, A. 2003. Ecology and conservation value of Tanjung Tuan, the Myrtaceae-dominated coastal forest reserve of Malaysia. J. Trop. For. Sci. 15(1):59-73.

Mazerolle, M.J. 2003. Detrimental effects of peat mining on amphibian abundance and species richness in bogs. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):215-223.

McIntyre, N.E. 2003. Effects of conservation reserve program seeding regime on harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex), with implications for the threatened Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). Southwest. Nat. 48(2):274-277.

McLachlan, S.M., and Bazely, D.R. 2003. Outcomes of longterm deciduous forest restoration in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):159-169.

Mennechez, G., Schtickzelle, N., and Baguette, M. 2003. Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: comparison of demographic parameters and dispersal between a continuous and a highly fragmented landscape. Landscape Ecol. 18(3):279-291.

Michaelidou, M., and Decker, D.J. 2002. Challenges and opportunities facing wildlife conservation and cultural sustainability in the Paphos Forest, Cyprus: historical overview and contemporary perspective. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:291-300.

Mills, H.R., and Spencer, P.B.S. 2003. Polymorphic microsatellites identified in an endangered dasyurid marsupial, the dibbler (Parantechinus apicalis). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(2):218-220.

Molnar, Z., and Borhidi, A. 2003. Hungarian alkali vegetation: origins, landscape history, syntaxonomy, conservation. Phytocoenologia 33(2-3):377-408.

Monty, A.M., Heist, E.J., Wagle, E.R., Emerson, R.E., Nicholson, E.H., and Feldhamer, G.A. 2003. Genetic variation and population assessment of eastern woodrats in southern Illinois. Southeast. Nat. 2(2):243-260.

Mooers, A.Ø., and Atkins, R.A. 2003. Indonesia's threatened birds: over 500 million years of evolutionary heritage at risk. Anim. Conserv. 6:183-188.

Müller, R., Nowicki, C., Barthlott, W., and Ibisch, P.L. 2003. Biodiversity and endemism mapping as a tool for regional conservation planning - case study of the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) of the Andean rain forests in Bolivia. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2005-2024.

Murphy, R.K., Greenwood, R.J., Ivan, J.S., and Smith, K.A. 2003. Predator exclusion methods for managing endangered shorebirds: are two barriers better than one? Waterbirds 26(2):156-159.

Murphy, R.K., Michaud, I.M.G., Prescott, D.R.C., Ivan, J.S., Anderson, B.J., and French-Pombier, M.L. 2003. Predation on adult piping plovers at predator exclosure cages. Waterbirds 26(2):150-155.

Murray, M. 2003. Sustainable yield and conservation goals - response. Science 301(5631):309.

Muss, J.D., Austin, D.F., and Snyder, J.R. 2003. Plants of the Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130(2):119-142.

Nellemann, C., Vistnes, I., Jordhøy, P., Strand, O., and Newton, A. 2003. Progressive impact of piecemeal infrastructure development on wild reindeer. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):307-317.

Newman, C., Buesching, C.D., and Macdonald, D.W. 2003. Validating mammal monitoring methods and assessing the performance of volunteers in wildlife conservation - "Sed quis custodiet ipsos custodies?" Biol. Conserv. 113(2):189-197.

Nijman, V. 2003. Distribution, habitat use and conservation of the endemic chestnut-bellied hill-partridge (Arborophila javanica) in fragmented forests of Java, Indonesia. Emu 103(2):133-140.

Nuttle, T., Leidolf, A., and Burger, L.W. 2003. Assessing conservation value of bird communities with partners in flight-based ranks. Auk 120(2):541-549.

O'Brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F., Nurcahyo, A., Prasetyaningrum, M., and Iqbal, M. 2003. Fire, demography and the persistence of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus: Hylobatidae) in a Sumatran rainforest. Anim. Conserv. 6:115-121.

O'Brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F., and Wibisono, H.T. 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Anim. Conserv. 6:131-139.

Oliver, D.L., Chambers, M.A., and Parker, D.G. 2003. Habitat and resource selection of the painted honeyeater (Grantiella picta) on the northern floodplains region of New South Wales. Emu 103(2):171-176.

Opdam, P., Verboom, J., and Pouwels, R. 2003. Landscape cohesion: an index for the conservation potential of landscapes for biodiversity. Landscape Ecol. 18(2):113-126.

Orth, R.J., Batiuk, R.A., Bergstrom, P.W., and Moore, K.A. 2002. A perspective on two decades of policies and regulations influencing the protection and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Bull. Mar. Sci. 71(3):1391-1403.

Ozanne, C.M.P., Anhuf, D., Boulter, S.L., Keller, M., Kitching, R.L., Korner, C., Meinzer, F.C., Mitchell, A.W., Nakashizuka, T., Dias, P.L.S., Stork, N.E., Wright, S.J., and Yoshimura, M. 2003. Biodiversity meets the atmosphere: a global view of forest canopies. Science 301(5630):183-186.

Papadopoulos, M.C. 2002. Evaluation of Theodorou island as a habitat for the conservation of the Cretan wild goat (Capra aegagrus cretica Schinz 1938) and the impact of grazing on vegetation. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:130-139.

Peterson, E.B., and McCune, B. 2003. The importance of hotspots for lichen diversity in forests of Western Oregon. Bryologist 106(2):246-256.

Poly, W.J. 2003. Design and evaluation of a translocation strategy for the fringed darter (Etheostoma crossopterum) in Illinois. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):13-22.

Ponel, P., Orgeas, J., Samways, M.J., Andrieu-Ponel, V., de Beaulieu, J.L., Reille, M., Roche, P., and Tatoni, T. 2003. 110000 years of Quaternary beetle diversity change. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2077-2089.

Pons, P., Lambert, B., Rigolot, E., and Prodon, R. 2003. The effects of grassland management using fire on habitat occupancy and conservation of birds in a mosaic landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1843-1860.

Pryke, S.R., and Samways, M.J. 2003. Quality of remnant indigenous grassland linkages for adult butterflies (Lepidoptera) in an afforested African landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):1985-2004.

Puyravaud, J.P., Davidar, P., Pascal, J.P., and Ramesh, B.R. 2003. Analysis of threatened endemic trees of the Western Ghats of India sheds new light on the Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2091-2106.

Pyare, S., and Berger, J. 2003. Beyond demography and delisting: ecological recovery for Yellowstone's grizzly bears and wolves. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):63-73.

Ramirez, R., Paredes, C., and Arenas, J. 2003. The molluscs of Peru. Rev. Biol. Trop. 51:225-284.

Randi, E., Davoli, F., Pierpaoli, M., Pertoldi, C., Madsen, A.B., and Loeschcke, V. 2003. Genetic structure in otter (Lutra lutra) populations in Europe: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 6:93-100.

Ravenscroft, N.O.M., and Beardall, C.H. 2003. The importance of freshwater flows over estuarine mudflats for wintering waders and wildfowl. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):89-97.

Reddy, M.S., and Parthasarathy, N. 2003. Liana diversity and distribution in four tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel coast of south India. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1609-1627.

Redman, C.L., and Kinzig, A.P. 2003. Resilience of past landscapes: resilience theory, society, and the longue durée. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):14. <>

Reed, D.H., O'Grady, J.J., Ballou, J.D., and Frankham, R. 2003. The frequency and severity of catastrophic die-offs in vertebrates. Anim. Conserv. 6:109-114.

Reed, D.H., O'Grady, J.J., Brook, B.W., Ballou, J.D., and Frankham, R. 2003. Estimates of minimum viable population sizes for vertebrates and factors influencing those estimates. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):23-34.

Rehfisch, M.M., Austin, G.E., Armitage, M.J.S., Atkinson, P.W., Holloway, S.J., Musgrove, A.J., and Pollitt, M.S. 2003. Numbers of wintering waterbirds in Great Britain and the Isle of Man (1994/1995-1998/1999): II. Coastal waders (Charadrii). Biol. Conserv. 112(3):329-341.

Riffell, S.K., Keas, B.E., and Burton, T.M. 2003. Birds in North American Great Lakes coastal wet meadows: is landscape context important? Landscape Ecol. 18(2):95-111.

Rivera-Milan, F.F., Ruiz, C.A., Cruz, J.A., and Sustache, J.A. 2003. Reproduction of plain pigeons (Columba inornata wetmorei) in east-central Puerto Rico. Auk 120(2):466-480.

Robbins, M.B., Braun, M.J., and Finch, D.W. 2003. Discovery of a population of the endangered red siskin (Carduelis cucullata) in Guyana. Auk 120(2):291-298.

Rocamora, G., Feare, C.J., Skerrett, A., Athanase, M., and Greig, E. 2003. The breeding avifauna of Cosmoledo Atoll (Seychelles) with special reference to seabirds: conservation status and international importance. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):151-174.

Rodgers, K.S., and Cox, E.F. 2003. The effects of trampling on Hawaiian corals along a gradient of human use. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):383-389.

Ronquist, F., and Gardenfors, U. 2003. Taxonomy and biodiversity inventories: time to deliver. TREE 18(6):269-270.

Saarinen, K., Lahti, T., and Marttila, O. 2003. Population trends of Finnish butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea) in 1991-2000. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2147-2159.

Sachot, S., Perrin, N., and Neet, C. 2003. Winter habitat selection by two sympatric forest grouse in western Switzerland: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):373-382.

Salinas, M.J., and Suarez, V. 2003. Reproductive biology of Sarcocapnos pulcherrima Morales & Romero (Fumariaceae), a threatened species. Acta Bot. Gallica 150(2):137-146.

Saltonstall, K. 2003. Microsatellite variation within and among North American lineages of Phragmites australis. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1689-1702.

Samways, M.J. 2003. Conservation of an endemic odonate fauna in the Seychelles archipelago. Odonatologica 32(2):177-182.

Samways, M.J. 2003. Threats to the tropical island dragonfly fauna (Odonata) of Mayotte, Comoro archipelago. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1785-1792.

Schaal, B.A., Gaskin, J.F., and Caicedo, A.L. 2003. Phylogeography, haplotype trees, and invasive plant species. J. Heredity 94(3):197-204.

Schneider, R.R., Stelfox, J.B., Boutin, S., and Wasel, S. 2003. Managing the cumulative impacts of land uses in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin: a modeling approach. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):8. <>

Segarra-Moragues, J.G., Palop-Esteban, M., González-Candelas, F., and Catalán, P. 2003. Characterization of 10 trinucleotide microsatellite loci in the Critically Endangered Pyrenean yam Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(2):265-267.

Segelbacher, G., Höglund, J., and Storch, I. 2003. From connectivity to isolation: genetic consequences of population fragmentation in capercaillie across Europe. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1773-1780.

Sergio, F., Pedrini, P., and Marchesi, L. 2003. Adaptive selection of foraging and nesting habitat by black kites (Milvus migrans) and its implications for conservation: a multi-scale approach. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):351-362.

Sharma, J., Zettler, L.W., and Van Sambeek, J.W. 2003. A survey of mycobionts of federally threatened Platanthera praeclara (Orchidaceae). Symbiosis 34(2):145-155.

Simeone, A., Luna-Jorquera, G., Bernal, M., Garthe, S., Sepulveda, F., Villablanca, R., Ellenberg, U., Contreras, M., Munoz, J., and Ponce, T. 2003. Breeding distribution and abundance of seabirds on islands off north-central Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 76(2):323-333.

Simon, M.F., and Hay, J.D. 2003. Comparison of a common and rare species of Mimosa (Mimosaceae) in central Brazil. Austral Ecol. 28(3):315-326.

Snider, A.G., Pattanayak, S.K., Sills, E.O., and Schuler, J.L. 2003. Policy innovations for private forest management and conservation in Costa Rica. J. Forestry 101(5):18-23.

Spinks, P.Q., Pauly, G.B., Crayon, J.J., and Shaffer, H.B. 2003. Survival of the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) in an urban California environment. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):257-267.

Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Leschke, K. 2003. Effects of habitat management on vegetation and above-ground nesting bees and wasps of orchard meadows in Central Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1953-1968.

Sternberg, M.A. 2003. Comparison of native brushland, replanted, and unaided secondary succession plant communities in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Tex. J. Sci. 55(2):129-148.

Stoinski, T.S., Beck, B.B., Bloomsmith, M.A., and Maple, T.L. 2003. A behavioral comparison of captive-born, reintroduced golden lion tamarins and their wild-born offspring. Behaviour 140:137-160.

Stokstad, E. 2003. Can well-timed jolts keep out unwanted exotic fish? Science 301(5630):157-159.

Tankersley, R., Jr., and Orvis, K. 2003. Modeling the geography of migratory pathways and stopover habitats for neotropical migratory birds. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):7. <>

Taplin, J.R.D., and Lovett, J.C. 2003. Can we predict centres of plant species richness and rarity from environmental variables in sub-saharan Africa? Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142(2):187-197.

Tefera, M. 2003. Phenotypic and reproductive characteristics of lions (Panthera leo) at Addis Ababa Zoo. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1629-1639.

Teske, P.R., Cherry, M.I., and Matthee, C.A. 2003. Population genetics of the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1703-1715.

Tidon, R., Leite, D.F., and Leão, B.F.D. 2003. Impact of the colonisation of Zaprionus (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in different ecosystems of the Neotropical Region: 2 years after the invasion. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):299-305.

Toupal, R.S. 2003. Cultural landscapes as a methodology for understanding natural resource management impacts in the western United States. Conserv. Ecol. [Online] 7(1):12. <>

Turner, W., Spector, S., Gardiner, N., Fladeland, M., Sterling, E., and Steininger, M. 2003. Remote sensing for biodiversity science and conservation. TREE 18(6):306-314.

van Andel, T.R. 2003. Floristic composition and diversity of three swamp forests in northwest Guyana. Plant Ecol. 167(2):293-317.

van Dyk, G., and Slotow, R. 2003. The effects of fences and lions on the ecology of African wild dogs reintroduced to Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. Afr. Zool. 38(1):79-94.

Van Gemerden, B.S., Shu, G.N., and Olff, H. 2003. Recovery of conservation values in Central African rain forest after logging and shifting cultivation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1553-1570.

Van Zant, J.L., and Wooten, M.C. 2003. Translocation of Choctawhatchee beach mice (Peromyscus polionotus allophrys): hard lessons learned. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):405-413.

Verma, S., Magotra, R., and Koul, A.K. 2003. Restoration of Eremostachys superba Royle ex Benth. - a critically endangered species. Curr. Sci. 84(10):1307-1308.

Walker, N.F., Hulme, P.E., and Hoelzel, A.R. 2003. Population genetics of an invasive species, Heracleum mantegazzianum: implications for the role of life history, demographics and independent introductions. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1747-1756.

Wan, Q.H., Fang, S.G., Chen, G.F., Wang, Z.M., Ding, P., Zhu, M.Y., Chen, K.S., Yu, J.H., and Zhao, Y.P. 2003. Use of oligonucleotide fingerprinting and faecal DNA in identifying the distribution of the Chinese tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis Hilzheimer). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1641-1648.

Watters, J.V., Lema, S.C., and Nevitt, G.A. 2003. Phenotype management: a new approach to habitat restoration. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):435-445.

White, P.C.L., McClean, C.J., and Woodroffe, G.L. 2003. Factors affecting the success of an otter (Lutra lutra) reinforcement programme, as identified by post-translocation monitoring. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):363-371.

Whittaker, A. 2002. A new species of forest-falcon (Falconidae: Micrastur) from southeastern Amazonia and the Atlantic Brazil. Wilson Bull. 114(4):421-445.

Woltmann, S. 2003. Bird community responses to disturbance in a forestry concession in lowland Bolivia. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1921-1936.

Zhang, L., and Wang, N. 2003. An initial study on habitat conservation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), with a focus on human elephant conflict in Simao, China. Biol. Conserv. 112(3):453-459.

Zschokke, S., Gautschi, B., and Baur, B. 2003. Polymorphic microsatellite loci in the endangered Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(2):233-235.

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