In This Issue
The membership of the Association for Tropical Biology (ATB) has overwhelmingly voted to change its name to the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC). The journal Biotropica will now have a new section on conservation topics. These new developments reflect the changes occurring in the research of Association members. The Association and the journal will still publish and celebrate high-quality research in tropical biology. At the same time, it is recognized that in most, if not all, tropical systems, human impacts along with natural ecological factors determine which species are present and how the biological community is structured and functions. Many members of the Association already investigate these impacts, and are restoring the damage that has been done. The change in name will help identify the Association and journal with this expanding focus of inquiry and research. Conservation research was well-reflected at the symposia held in the three past meetings held in Scotland, Panama, and Bangalore, and is apparent in the articles being published in Biotropica. Further symposia and workshops in upcoming meetings will continue this direction. The following are a few of the major themes which ATBC will take up in coming years.
Threats to tropical ecosystems: destruction. Everywhere we look as tropical ecologists, we see habitats in peril, from forests to coral reefs to mangroves to tropical alpine zones. In many tropical countries of the world, particularly on islands and in locations where human population density is high, most of the original forest habitat has already been destroyed. These high rates of habitat destruction affect species extinction and ecosystem processes, and represent major topics for tropical ecologists.
Fragmentation. Even where habitat remains it is often extensively fragmented. Experimental studies carried out in the Amazon and elsewhere show that when a habitat is fragmented, the potential for dispersal and colonization of plants and animals is reduced. Fragmentation also changes the microenvironment at the fragment edge, impacting species composition. As large tropical areas are increasingly fragmented over large areas by logging, road construction and other human activities, we need to know how this affects the ecology of the region.
Hunting. Even where habitats still appear intact, many tropical animals are being threatened with extinction, due to ever increasing intensities of harvesting. In recent decades, human populations in tropical areas have increased, the use of the environment by people has escalated, and methods of harvesting have become dramatically more efficient. The extreme overhunting of animals throughout tropical regions, both for local consumption and for sale in towns, has been labeled the "bushmeat crisis." This crisis has become a cause for concern by conservation organizations and represents a major topic for research.
National parks and local people. There is currently a vigorous debate about the best ways to conserve tropical biodiversity, a debate in which many members of ATB are already involved. Major areas of disagreement include the relative effectiveness of traditional national parks and community-based conservation initiatives, the role of indigenous people in protected areas, and the effectiveness of forest certification and similar initiatives in promoting sustainable use of tropical habitats.
The change in the name of the Association reflects the ongoing process of review of research priorities in tropical biology being carried out by the ATBC Council, the Officers, and various colleagues. Many of the priorities being discussed are related to conservation issues, as described above. Further details are posted on the ATBC website <http://www.atbio.org>.
- Excerpt from Tropinet (vol. 14. 2003) by Richard Primack
The Kaua'i Native Plant Society in collaboration with the United States Botanic Garden (USBG) is bringing a collection of some 60 rare and endangered native Hawaiian plant species to the Garden in Washington, D.C. The plants will be the centerpiece of an exhibit titled Our Nation's Crown Jewels: Rare and Endangered Species of Hawai'i and will remain on display in the USBG Conservatory from 29 August through 23 November 2003. The exhibit, produced through the cooperation of 12 organizations under the aegis of Garden Island Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., coincides with the year 2003 being the "Year of the Hawaiian Forest."
Paired with Our Nation's Crown Jewels will be an exhibit of photographic portraits of rare Hawaiian plants and animals. Titled Remains of a Rainbow, these photographs by David Liittschwager and Susan Middleton will be on display in the West Orangerie of the USBG Conservatory from 29 August through 11 January 2004.
Today, Hawai'i is home to a wealth of biodiversity and home to many species found nowhere else on Earth. It has more rare and endangered species than any other state in the union. The plants in the exhibit have been chosen to represent four distinct habitats: wet forest, mesic forest, dryland forest, and coastal lowland. A series of interpretive panels will explain how the unique flora of the Hawaiian Islands is threatened by habitat loss, invasive species, and other factors. The exhibit will underscore how these factors are impacting flora worldwide.
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Banks, S.C., Hoyle, S.D., Horsup, A., Sunnucks, P., and Taylor, A.C. 2003. Demographic monitoring of an entire species (the northern hairy-nosed wombat, Lasiorhinus krefftii) by genetic analysis of non-invasively collected material. Anim. Conserv. 6:101-107.
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Castaño-Meneses, G., and Palacios-Vargas, J.G. 2003. Effects of fire and agricultural practices on neotropical ant communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1913-1919.
Cattin, M.F., Blandenier, G., Banaek-Richter, C., and Bersier, L.F. 2003. The impact of mowing as a management strategy for wet meadows on spider (Araneae) communities. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):179-188.
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Cousins, S.A.O., Lavorel, S., and Davies, I. 2003. Modelling the effects of landscape pattern and grazing regimes on the persistence of plant species with high conservation value in grasslands in south-eastern Sweden. Landscape Ecol. 18(3):315-332.
Currie, D., Hill, M., Millett, J., Bristol, R., Nevill, J., and Shah, N.J. 2003. Conservation options for the critically endangered Seychelles Black Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone corvina. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):97-114.
Dalton, R. 2003. Ants join online colony to boost conservation efforts. Nature 424(6946):242.
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Delisle, F., Lavoie, C., Jean, M., and Lachance, D. 2003. Reconstructing the spread of invasive plants: taking into account biases associated with herbarium specimens. J. Biogeogr. 30(7):1033-1042.
Deutschewitz, K., Lausch, A., Kuhn, I., and Klotz, S. 2003. Native and alien plant species richness in relation to spatial heterogeneity on a regional scale in Germany. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):299-311.
Devi, U., and Behera, N. 2003. Assessment of plant diversity in response to forest degradation in a tropical dry deciduous forest of Eastern Ghats in Orissa. J. Trop. For. Sci. 15(1):147-163.
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Draycott, R.A.H., Pock, K., and Carroll, J.P. 2002. Sustainable management of a wild pheasant population in Austria. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:346-353.
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Dunham, K.M., Robertson, E.F., and Swanepoel, C.M. 2003. Population decline of Tsessebe antelope (Damaliscus lunatus lunatus) on a mixed cattle and wildlife ranch in Zimbabwe. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):111-124.
Dupont, Y.L., Hansen, D.M., and Olesen, J.M. 2003. Structure of a plant-flower-visitor network in the high-altitude sub-alpine desert of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Ecography 26(3):301-310.
Eggermont, H., and Verschuren, D. 2003. Impact of soil erosion in disturbed tributary drainages on the benthic invertebrate fauna of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):99-109.
Ellis, S. 2003. Habitat quality and management for the northern brown argus butterfly Aricia artaxerxes (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in North East England. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):285-294.
Engeman, R.M., Martin, R.E., Constantin, B., Noel, R., and Woolard, J. 2003. Monitoring predators to optimize their management for marine turtle nest protection. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):171-178.
Faith, D.P. 2003. Environmental diversity (ED) as surrogate information for species-level biodiversity. Ecography 26(3):374-379.
Foody, G.M., and Cutler, M.E.J. 2003. Tree biodiversity in protected and logged Bornean tropical rain forests and its measurement by satellite remote sensing. J. Biogeogr. 30(7):1053-1066.
Foster-Smith, J., and Evans, S.M. 2003. The value of marine ecological data collected by volunteers. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):199-213.
Fu, C.Z., Wu, J.H., Chen, J.K., Qu, Q.H., and Lei, G.C. 2003. Freshwater fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River basin of China: patterns, threats and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1649-1685.
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Gaidet, N., Fritz, H., and Nyahuma, C. 2003. A participatory counting method to monitor populations of large mammals in non-protected areas: a case study of bicycle counts in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1571-1585.
Ganesan, R. 2003. Identification, distribution and conservation of Phyllanthus indofischeri, another source of Indian gooseberry. Curr. Sci. 84(12):1515-1518.
Ganzhorn, J.U. 2003. Effects of introduced Rattus rattus on endemic small mammals in dry deciduous forest fragments of western Madagascar. Anim. Conserv. 6:147-157.
Garnett, S.T., Crowley, G.M., and Stattersfield, A.J. 2003. Changes in the conservation status of Australian birds resulting from differences in taxonomy, knowledge and the definitions of threat. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):269-276.
Gauthreaux, S.A., and Belser, C.G. 2003. Radar ornithology and biological conservation. Auk 120(2):266-277.
Gillespie, T.W., and Jaffré, T. 2003. Tropical dry forests in New Caledonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1687-1697.
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Godefroid, S., and Koedam, N. 2003. Identifying indicator plant species of habitat quality and invasibility as a guide for peri-urban forest management. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1699-1713.
Goldstein, P.Z., and DeSalle, R. 2003. Calibrating phylogenetic species formation in a threatened insect using DNA from historical specimens. Mol. Ecol. 12(7):1993-1998.
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Greenwood, J.J.D. 2003. The monitoring of British breeding birds: a success story for conservation science? Sci. Total Environ. 310(1-3):221-230.
Griffiths, A.D., Philips, A., and Godjuwa, C. 2003. Harvest of Bombax ceiba for the Aboriginal arts industry, central Arnhem Land, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):295-305.
Gurdebeke, S., De Bakker, D., Vanlanduyt, N., and Maelfait, J.P. 2003. Plans for a large regional forest in eastern Flanders (Belgium): assessment of spider diversity and community structure in the current forest remnants. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1883-1900.
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Gutzwiller, K.J., and Barrow, W.C. 2003. Influences of roads and development on bird communities in protected Chihuahuan Desert landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):225-237.
Hadjikyriakou, G., and Hadjisterkotis, E. 2002. The adventive plants of Cyprus with new records of invasive species. Z. Jagdwiss. 48:59-71.
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Hanley, N., MacMillan, D., Patterson, I., and Wright, R.E. 2003. Economics and the design of nature conservation policy: a case study of wild goose conservation in Scotland using choice experiments. Anim. Conserv. 6:123-129.
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Herring, E.C., and Criley, R.A. 2003. The Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Web Site: developing a web-based information resource. Horttechnology 13(3):545-548.
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Hooson, S., and Jamieson, I.G. 2003. The distribution and current status of New Zealand Saddleback Philesturnus carunculatus. Bird Conserv. Int. 13(2):79-95.
Hornung, J.P., and Rice, C.L. 2003. Odonata and wetland quality in southern Alberta, Canada: a prelminary study. Odonatologica 32(2):119-129.
Hoskin, C.J., Couper, P.J., and Schneider, C.J. 2003. A new species of Phyllurus (Lacertilia: Gekkonidae) and a revised phylogeny and key for the Australian leaf-tailed geckos. Aust. J. Zool. 51(2):153-164.
Hughes, M., Hollingsworth, P.M., and Miller, A.G. 2003. Population genetic structure in the endemic Begonia of the Socotra archipelago. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):277-284.
Huntzinger, M. 2003. Effects of fire management practices on butterfly diversity in the forested western United States. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):1-12.
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Jepson, P., and Canney, S. 2003. Values-led conservation. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):271-274.
Jiang, Y., Kang, M.Y., Gao, Q.Z., He, L.H., Xiong, M., Jia, Z.B., and Jin, Z.P. 2003. Impact of land use on plant biodiversity and measures for biodiversity conservation in the Loess Plateau in China - a case study in a hilly-gully region of the Northern Loess Plateau. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2121-2133.
Jones, A.G., Chown, S.L., and Gaston, K.J. 2003. Introduced house mice as a conservation concern on Gough Island. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(10):2107-2119.
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Jouventin, P., Bried, J., and Micol, T. 2003. Insular bird populations can be saved from rats: a long-term experimental study of white-chinned petrels Procellaria aequinoctialis on Ile de la Possession (Crozet archipelago). Polar Biol. 26(6):371-378.
Jüriado, I., Paal, J., and Liira, J. 2003. Epiphytic and epixylic lichen species diversity in Estonian natural forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1587-1607.
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Kelly, J.A., and Samways, M.J. 2003. Diversity and conservation of forest-floor arthropods on a small Seychelles island. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1793-1813.
Kerr, J.T., and Ostrovsky, M. 2003. From space to species: ecological applications for remote sensing. TREE 18(6):299-305.
Kristensen, M., and Balslev, H. 2003. Perceptions, use and availability of woody plants among the Gourounsi in Burkina Faso. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1715-1739.
Laakkonen, J., Goodman, S.M., Duchemin, J.B., and Duplantier, J.M. 2003. Trypomastigotes and potential flea vectors of the endemic rodents and the introduced Rattus rattus in the rainforests of Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1775-1783.
Lai, C.H., and Smith, A.T. 2003. Keystone status of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae): effect of control on biodiversity of native birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1901-1912.
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Laundré, J., and Clark, T.W. 2003. Managing puma hunting in the western United States: through a metapopulation approach. Anim. Conserv. 6:159-170.
Lawrence, J.M., and Samways, M.J. 2003. Litter breakdown by the Seychelles giant millipede and the conservation of soil processes on Cousine Island, Seychelles. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):125-132.
Lehnebach, C., and Riveros, M. 2003. Pollination biology of the Chilean endemic orchid Chloraea lamellata. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(8):1741-1751.
Lomolino, M.V., and Smith, G.A. 2003. Prairie dog towns as islands: applications of island biogeography and landscape ecology for conserving nonvolant terrestrial vertebrates. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(4):275-286.
Lowe, P.N., Lauenroth, W.K., and Burke, I.C. 2003. Effects of nitrogen availability on competition between Bromus tectorum and Bouteloua gracilis. Plant Ecol. 167(2):247-254.
Lozano, F.D., Saiz, J.C.M., and Ollero, H.S. 2003. Rarity and threat relationships in the conservation planning of Iberian flora. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1861-1882.
Lyman, R.L., and Wadley, R. 2003. Sustainable yield and conservation goals. Science 301(5631):309.
Lyons, A.L., Gaines, W.L., and Servheen, C. 2003. Black bear resource selection in the northeast Cascades, Washington. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):55-62.
López-Pujol, J., Bosch, M., Simon, J., and Blanché, C. 2003. Population genetics and conservation priorities for the critically endangered island endemic Delphinium pentagynum subsp. formenteranum (Ranunculaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1937-1951.
Major, R.E., Christie, F.J., Gowing, G., Cassis, G., and Reid, C.A.M. 2003. The effect of habitat configuration on arboreal insects in fragmented woodlands of south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 113(1):35-48.
Martikainen, P., and Kouki, J. 2003. Sampling the rarest: threatened beetles in boreal forest biodiversity inventories. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(9):1815-1831.
Mat-Salleh, K., Tami, R., and Latiff, A. 2003. Ecology and conservation value of Tanjung Tuan, the Myrtaceae-dominated coastal forest reserve of Malaysia. J. Trop. For. Sci. 15(1):59-73.
Mazerolle, M.J. 2003. Detrimental effects of peat mining on amphibian abundance and species richness in bogs. Biol. Conserv. 113(2):215-223.
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