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Department ofBotany

No. 226
October 2003

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In This Issue

Rare Birds Discovered in Guyana

A research team led by National Museum of Natural History scientist Michael Braun and Mark Robbins of the University of Kansas has discovered a previously unknown population of red siskins, a bird feared to be nearing extinction in the wild. Once widespread in the coastal mountains of Venezuela and Colombia, the red siskin was nearly wiped out by trapping after it became popular both in that region and in Europe in the 1800s. The bird was particularly valued for its bright red feathers and in Latin America it is know as el cardinalito, or the little cardinal.

Adult male red siskin (Cardeulis cucullata) from a newly discovered population in Guyana.

The research team was conducting a survey of birds in Guyana, when Robbins came across the new population. Census estimates put the population size at several thousand birds, larger than any known elsewhere in the wild. The discovery was made in April of 2000 with sponsorship from NMNH's Biodiversity of the Guianas Program, but was kept under wraps until a conservation plan could be developed providing legal protection for the birds in Guyana.

Conservation efforts are being undertaken by an international coalition of concerned groups, including American Bird Conservancy, American Federation of Aviculture, Bushnell Sports Optics, Guyana Environmental Protection Agency, Conservation International, the National Aviary, Rupununi Conservation Group, Rupununi Development Corporation, Smithsonian Institution, the University of Guyana and the University of Kansas. The goal of the conservation plan is to avoid damage to the wild population, and not to prevent people from raising the birds in cages. Red siskins have been protected in neighboring Venezuela since the 1940s, and have a history of being bred with canaries to yield brightly colored pet birds.

The researchers' discovery was published in the latest issue of The Auk, the journal of the American Ornithologists Union (The Auk 120: 291-298. 2003).

Future Meetings

The 15th Annual International Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) Conference will be held 19-22 November 2003, in Austin, Texas. The conference, entitled "Assembling the Pieces: Restoration, Design & Landscape Ecology," will focus on the design aspects of restoration. Practitioners have come to realize that restoration cannot be done in a vacuum. This year, SER is reaching out to a larger community of professionals to learn from their skills in engineering, architecture, hydrology, geology, philosophy, etc., to have a conversation about how to design the most meaningful and valuable restorations. SER has always been interdisciplinary and this year's conference draws on that strength and even expands it. The complete brochure and registration materials are available online at <>.

The American Museum of Natural History's Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, in collaboration with Conservation International, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Xerces Society, is convening a two‑day symposium to examine the status of invertebrate biodiversity, entitled "Expanding the Ark: The Emerging Science and Practice of Invertebrate Conservation," on 25-26 March 2004, at AMNH. Speakers from around the world will consider a broad range of perspectives on how best to advance an invertebrate conservation agenda. Expanding the Ark will provide a venue to engage the scientific community, conservation practitioners, and the public in a dialogue on the fate of invertebrate biodiversity, and to map concrete approaches for future action. A limited number of posters will be accepted for presentation. For details regarding abstract submission, please visit the symposium website at <> or E-mail The submission deadline for abstracts is 9 January 2004.

Information Highway Hi-Lites

Biflora <> is a work-in-progress botanical database documenting the unique and endangered flora of the island of Hainan, China-a biodiversity "hotspot." Recently launched by the Bicoll Group of Shanghai and Munich, Biflora aims to 1) make as much scientific information about Hainan's plant species available online, 2) help decision-makers develop conservation strategies for the island, and 3) support basic academic research. The Web site itself is easy to navigate and quite attractive. And, while only a few species records are currently available, more entries are soon to come.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2003.

Wakuzulu: Friends of the Colobus Trust <> is a not-for-profit organization based in Kenya dedicated to the "conservation, preservation, and protection of primates, in particular the Angolan Black and White Colobus monkey." Wakuzulu's extensive homepage features the latest updates on the Colobus population in the Diani area, as well as detailed information about the organization's projects and initiatives. First time visitors may wish to check out the section titled Diani's Primates, which offers an excellent introduction to Colobus monkeys and other species in the area.

-from The NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences

Current Literature

Aarts, B.G.W., and Nienhuis, P.H. 2003. Fish zonations and guilds as the basis for assessment of ecological integrity of large rivers. Hydrobiologia 500(1-3):157-178.

Able, K.W., Hagan, S.M., and Brown, S.A. 2003. Mechanisms of marsh habitat alteration due to Phragmites: response of young-of-the-year mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to treatment for Phragmites removal. Estuaries 26(2B):484-494.

Adams, G.A., and Wall, D.H. 2003. A sampling of the science from the International Biodiversity Observation Year 2001-2002. Org. Divers. Evol. 3(2):75-76.

Adler, P.B., and Lauenroth, W.K. 2003. The power of time: spatiotemporal scaling of species diversity. Ecol. Lett. 6(8):749-756.

Agardy, T., Bridgewater, P., Crosby, M.P., Day, J., Dayton, P.K., Kenchington, R., Laffoley, D., McConney, P., Murray, P.A., Parks, J.E., and Peau, L. 2003. Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. Aquat. Conserv. 13(4):353-367.

Agrawal, A.A., and Kotanen, P.M. 2003. Herbivores and the success of exotic plants: a phylogenetically controlled experiment. Ecol. Lett. 6(8):712-715.

Aipanjiguly, S., Jacobson, S.K., and Flamm, R. 2003. Conserving manatees: knowledge, attitudes, and intentions of boaters in Tampa Bay, Florida. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1098-1105.

Allison, A. 2003. Biological surveys - new perspectives in the Pacific. Org. Divers. Evol. 3(2):103-110.

Anderson, C.S., Cady, A.B., and Meikle, D.B. 2003. Effects of vegetation structure and edge habitat on the density and distribution of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in small and large forest patches. Can. J. Zool. 81(5):897-904.

Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Vences, M., and Randrianirina, J.E. 2003. The amphibians and reptiles of Nosy Be (NW Madagascar) and nearby islands: a case study of diversity and conservation of an insular fauna. J. Nat. Hist. 37(17):2119-2149.

Antonelis, G.A., Baker, J.D., and Polovina, J.J. 2003. Improved body condition of weaned Hawaiian monk seal pups associated with El Nino events: potential benefits to an endangered species. Mar. Mammal Sci. 19(3):590-598.

Artman, V.L., and Downhower, J.F. 2003. Wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nesting ecology in relation to prescribed burning of mixed-oak forest in Ohio. Auk 120(3):874-882.

Bagchi, S., Goyal, S.P., and Sankar, K. 2003. Prey abundance and prey selection by tigers (Panthera tigris) in a semi-arid, dry deciduous forest in western India. J. Zool. 260:285-290.

Baigún, C., and Ferriz, R. 2003. Distribution patterns of native freshwater fishes in Patagonia (Argentina). Org. Divers. Evol. 3(2):151-159.

Balmford, A., Green, R.E., and Jenkins, M. 2003. Measuring the changing state of nature. TREE 18(7):326-330.

Balmford, A., and Whitten, T. 2003. Who should pay for tropical conservation, and how could the costs be met? Oryx 37(2):238-250.

Barbaro, L., Dutoit, T., and Grossi, J.L. 2003. Influence of agro-ecological factors on orchid assemblages in the calcareous grasslands of the southern French preAlps. Bot. Helvetica 113(1):63-79.

Barratt, B.I.P., Derraik, J.G.B., Rufaut, C.G., Goodman, A.J., and Dickinson, K.J.M. 2003. Morphospecies as a substitute for Coleoptera species identification, and the value of experience in improving accuracy. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 33(2):583-590.

Beneš, J., Kepka, P., and Konvicka, M. 2003. Limestone quarries as refuges for European xerophilous butterflies. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1058-1069.

Blossey, B. 2003. A framework for evaluating potential ecological effects of implementing biological control of Phragmites australis. Estuaries 26(2B):607-617.

Bowden, C.G.R., Aghnaj, A., Smith, K.W., and Ribi, M. 2003. The status and recent breeding performance of the critically endangered northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita population on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Ibis 145(3):419-431.

Bradstock, R.A., and Kenny, B.J. 2003. An application of plant functional types to fire management in a conservation reserve in southeastern Australia. J. Veg. Sci. 14(3):345-354.

Briers, R.A., and Biggs, J. 2003. Indicator taxa for the conservation of pond invertebrate diversity. Aquat. Conserv. 13(4):323-330.

Broberg, L. 2003. Conserving ecosystems locally: a role for ecologists in land-use planning. BioScience 53(7):670-673.

Brook, B.W., Sodhi, N.S., and Ng, P.K.L. 2003. Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore. Nature 424(6947):420-423.

Brooks, C.P. 2003. A scalar analysis of landscape connectivity. Oikos 102(2):433-439.

Brown, N., Jennings, S., and Clements, T. 2003. The ecology, silviculture and biogeography of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): a critical review of the evidence. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 6(1-2):37-49.

Byrnes, J., and Witman, J.D. 2003. Impact assessment of an invasive flatworm, Convoluta convoluta, in the southern Gulf of Maine. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 293(2):173-191.

Cam, E., Lougheed, L., Bradley, R., and Cooke, F. 2003. Demographic assessment of a marbled murrelet population from capture-recapture data. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1118-1126.

Camargo-Ricalde, S.L., and Dhillion, S.S. 2003. Endemic Mimosa species can serve as mycorrhizal "resource islands" within semiarid communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. Mycorrhiza 13(3):129-136.

Cambray, J.A. 2003. Impact on indigenous species biodiversity caused by the globalisation of alien recreational freshwater fisheries. Hydrobiologia 500(1-3):217-230.

Chadderton, W.L., Ryan, P.A., and Winterbourn, M.J. 2003. Distribution, ecology, and conservation status of freshwater Idoteidae (Isopoda) in southern New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 33(2):529-548.

Chambers, R.M., Osgood, D.T., Bart, D.J., and Montalto, F. 2003. Phragmites australis invasion and expansion in tidal wetlands: interactions among salinity, sulfide, and hydrology. Estuaries 26(2B):398-406.

Chazdon, R.L. 2003. Tropical forest recovery: legacies of human impact and natural disturbances. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 6(1-2):51-71.

Chinea, J.D., and Helmer, E.H. 2003. Diversity and composition of tropical secondary forests recovering from large-scale clearing: results from the 1990 inventory in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 180(1-3):227-240.

Contreras-Balderas, S., Almada-Villela, P., Lozano-Vilano, M.D., and García-Ramírez, M.E. 2002. Freshwater fish at risk or extinct in México - a checklist and review. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 12(2):241-251.

Contreras-Díaz, H.G., Moya, O., Oromí, P., and Juan, C. 2003. Phylogeography of the endangered darkling beetle species of Pimelia endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Mol. Ecol. 12(8):2131-2143.

Cully, A.C., Cully, J.F., and Hiebert, R.D. 2003. Invasion of exotic plant species in tallgrass prairie fragments. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):990-998.

Cuthbert, R., Ryan, P.G., Cooper, J., and Hilton, G. 2003. Demography and population trends of the Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross. Condor 105(3):439-452.

Daniels, M.J., and Corbett, L. 2003. Redefining introgressed protected mammals: when is a wildcat a wild cat and a dingo a wild dog? Wildlife Res. 30(3):213-218.

Dennis, R.L.H. 2003. Towards a functional resource-based concept for habitat: a butterfly biology viewpoint. Oikos 102(2):417-426.

Dethier, M.N., McDonald, K., and Strathmann, R.R. 2003. Colonization and connectivity of habitat patches for coastal marine species distant from source populations. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1024-1035.

Dill, L.M., Heithaus, M.R., and Walters, C.J. 2003. Behaviorally mediated indirect interactions in marine communities and their conservation implications. Ecology 84(5):1151-1157.

Diochon, A., Burton, F.J., and Garbary, D.J. 2003. Status and ecology of Agalinis kingsii (Scrophulariaceae), a rare endemic to the Cayman Islands (Caribbean Sea). Rhodora 105(922):178-188.

Dockerty, T., Lovett, A., and Watkinson, A. 2003. Climate change and nature reserves: examining the potential impacts, with examples from Great Britain. Global Environ. Change 13(2):125-135.

Dudgeon, D. 2003. The contribution of scientific information to the conservation and management of freshwater biodiversity in tropical Asia. Hydrobiologia 500(1-3):295-314.

Duffy, J.E. 2003. Biodiversity loss, trophic skew and ecosystem functioning. Ecol. Lett. 6(8):680-687.

Dupont, L., Jollivet, D., and Viard, F. 2003. High genetic diversity and ephemeral drift effects in a successful introduced mollusc (Crepidula fornicata: Gastropoda). Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 253:183-195.

Dutson, G., and Masibalavu, V. 2003. Darwin Project discovers pink-billed parrotfinches in Fiji. Oryx 37(2):139-140.

Edwards, K.R., and Proffitt, C.E. 2003. Comparison of wetland structural characteristics between created and natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA. Wetlands 23(2):344-356.

Edwards, R.J., Garrett, G.P., and Marsh-Matthews, E. 2002. Conservation and status of the fish communities inhabiting the Río Conchos basin and middle Rio Grande, México and USA. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 12(2):119-132.

Egerova, J., Proffitt, C.E., and Travis, S.E. 2003. Facilitation of survival and growth of Baccharis halimifolia L. by Spartina alterniflora Loisel. in a created Louisiana salt marsh. Wetlands 23(2):250-256.

Ekebom, J., and Erkkilä, A. 2003. Using aerial photography for identification of marine and coastal habitats under the EU's Habitats Directive. Aquat. Conserv. 13(4):287-304.

Epifanio, J., Haas, G., Pratt, K., Rieman, B., Spruell, P., Stockwell, C., Utter, F., and Young, W. 2003. Integrating conservation genetic considerations into conservation planning: a case study of bull trout in the Lake Pend Oreille - lower Clark Fork River system. Fisheries 28(8):10-24.

Evans, B.J., Supriatna, J., Andayani, N., Setiadi, M.I., Cannatella, D.C., and Melnick, D.J. 2003. Monkeys and toads define areas of endemism on Sulawesi. Evolution 57(6):1436-1443.

Evrendilek, F. 2003. Identification of ecologically significant habitats for urban nature conservation: a case study in Turkey. J. Environ. Biol. 24(3):241-251.

Fahr, J., and Ebigbo, N.M. 2003. A conservation assessment of the bats of the Simandou Range, Guinea, with the first record of Myotis welwitschii (Gray, 1866) from West Africa. Acta Chiropterol. 5(1):125-141.

Fenton, N.J., Frego, K.A., and Sims, M.R. 2003. Changes in forest floor bryophyte (moss and liverwort) communities 4 years after forest harvest. Can. J. Bot. 81(7):714-731.

Fischer, D.T., and Church, R.L. 2003. Clustering and compactness in reserve site selection: an extension of the biodiversity management area selection model. Forest Sci. 49(4):555-565.

Fleischner, T.L. 2003. Diversity deep and wild. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):952-953.

Fletcher, R.J., and Koford, R.R. 2003. Changes in breeding bird populations with habitat restoration in northern Iowa. Am. Midl. Nat. 150(1):83-94.

Flueck, W.T., Smith-Flueck, J.A.M., and Naumann, C.M. 2003. The current distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Latin America. Z. Jagdwiss. 49(2):112-119.

Frankie, G.W., Thorp, R.W., Schindler, M.H., Ertter, B., and Przybylski, M. 2002. Bees in Berkeley? Fremontia 30(3-4):50-58.

Franklin, T.M., Burke, C.A., and Fritsky, R.S. 2003. Restoring the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge: turning tragedy into conservation achievement. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 31(2):560-564.

Freeman, S.N., and Crick, H.Q.P. 2003. The decline of the spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata in the UK: an integrated population model. Ibis 145(3):400-412.

Furness, R.W. 2003. Impacts of fisheries on seabird communities. Sci. Mar. 67:33-45.

Gajardo, G., and Laikre, L. 2003. Chilean aquaculture boom is based on exotic salmon resources: a conservation paradox. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1173-1174.

Gallo-Orsi, U. 2003. Species Action Plans for the conservation of seabirds in the Mediterranean Sea: Audouin's gull, Balearic shearwater and Mediterranean shag. Sci. Mar. 67:47-55.

Garner, A. 2003. Spirituality and sustainability. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):946.

Garnett, S., Crowley, G., and Balmford, A. 2003. The costs and effectiveness of funding the conservation of Australian threatened birds. BioScience 53(7):658-665.

Goiti, U., Aihartza, J.R., Garin, I., and Zabala, J. 2003. Influence of habitat on the foraging behaviour of the Mediterranean horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus euryale. Acta Chiropterol. 5(1):75-84.

Golding, J.S., and Timberlake, J. 2003. How taxonomists can bridge the gap between taxonomy and conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1177-1178.

Grant, M., Scholtens, B., Vande Kopple, R., and Ebbers, B. 2002. Size estimate of a local population of Brychius hungerfordi (Coleoptera: Haliplidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 35(1):23-26.

Grosholz, E.D., and Ruiz, G.M. 2003. Biological invasions drive size increases in marine and estuarine invertebrates. Ecol. Lett. 6(8):700-705.

Grothues, T.M., and Able, K.W. 2003. Discerning vegetation and environmental correlates with subtidal marsh fish assemblage dynamics during Phragmites eradication efforts: interannual trend measures. Estuaries 26(2B):574-586.

Gullison, R.E. 2003. Does forest certification conserve biodiversity? Oryx 37(2):153-165.

Halloy, S.R.P., and Mark, A.F. 2003. Climate-change effects on alpine plant biodiversity: a New Zealand perspective on quantifying the threat. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 35(2):248-254.

Harding, J.S. 2003. Historic deforestation and the fate of endemic invertebrate species in streams. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 37(2):333-345.

Hardy, Y. 2003. Canada's forest biodiversity: a decade of progress in sustainable management. Forest Chron. 79(3):385-386.

Hawksworth, D.L. 2003. Monitoring and safeguarding fungal resources worldwide: the need for an international collaborative MycoAction Plan. Fungal Divers. 13:29-45.

Hazell, D. 2003. Frog ecology in modified Australian landscapes: a review. Wildlife Res. 30(3):193-205.

Heino, J., Muotka, T., Mykra, H., Paavola, R., Hamalainen, H., and Koskenniemi, E. 2003. Defining macroinvertebrate assemblage types of headwater streams: implications for bioassessment and conservation. Ecol. Appl. 13(3):842-852.

Hellquist, C.E., and Crow, G.E. 2003. The vascular flora of Mud Pond peatland, Carroll County, New Hampshire. Rhodora 105(922):153-177.

Hendrickson, D.A., Pérez, H.E., Findley, L.T., Forbes, W., Tomelleri, J.R., Mayden, R.L., Nielsen, J.L., Jensen, B., Campos, G.R., Romero, A.V., van der Heiden, A., Camarena, F., and de León, F.J.G. 2002. Mexican native trouts: a review of their history and current systematic and conservation status. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 12(2):273-316.

Hendrickson, O. 2003. Old-growth forests: data gaps and challenges. Forest Chron. 79(3):645-651.

Herranz, J.M., Ferrandis, P., and Copete, M.A. 2003. Influence of temperature, maternal source, and seed position in fruit on seed germination and ability to form soil seed banks in threatened species of Coincya (Cruciferae). Israel J. Plant Sci. 51(2):133-141.

Hoffmann, B.D., and Andersen, A.N. 2003. Responses of ants to disturbance in Australia, with particular reference to functional groups. Austral Ecol. 28(4):444-464.

Hottinger, H., Schlick-Steiner, B.C., and Steiner, F.M. 2003. The Alcon blue Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in eastern Austria: status and conservation measures. Ekol. Bratislava 22(2):107-118.

Hsieh, Y.L., Lin, Y.S., and Tso, I.M. 2003. Ground spider diversity in the Kenting uplifted coral reef forest, Taiwan: a comparison between habitats receiving various disturbances. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2173-2194.

Hughes, J., Goudkamp, K., Hurwood, D., Hancock, M., and Bunn, S. 2003. Translocation causes extinction of a local population of the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1007-1012.

Hughes, T.P., Baird, A.H., Bellwood, D.R., Card, M., Connolly, S.R., Folke, C., Grosberg, R., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Jackson, J.B.C., Kleypas, J., Lough, J.M., Marshall, P., Nystrom, M., Palumbi, S.R., Pandolfi, J.M., Rosen, B., and Roughgarden, J. 2003. Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301(5635):929-933.

Hulme, P.E. 2003. Biological invasions: winning the science battles but losing the conservation war? Oryx 37(2):178-193.

Hutton, J.M., and Leader-Williams, N. 2003. Sustainable use and incentive-driven conservation: realigning human and conservation interests. Oryx 37(2):215-226.

Jacquemart, A.L., Champluvier, D., and De Sloover, J. 2003. A test of mowing and soil-removal restoration techniques in wet heaths of the High Ardenne, Belgium. Wetlands 23(2):376-385.

Jensen, J.B., Bailey, M.A., Blankenship, E.L., and Camp, C.D. 2003. The relationship between breeding by the gopher frog, Rana capito (Amphibia: Ranidae) and rainfall. Am. Midl. Nat. 150(1):185-190.

Jin, Y., He, T.H., and Lu, B.R. 2003. Fine scale genetic structure in a wild soybean (Glycine soja) population and the implications for conservation. New Phytol. 159(2):513-519.

Jivoff, P.R., and Able, K.W. 2003. Blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, response to the invasive common reed, Phragmites australis: abundance, size, sex ratio, and molting frequency. Estuaries 26(2B):587-595.

Jules, E.S., and Shahani, P. 2003. A broader ecological context to habitat fragmentation: why matrix habitat is more important than we thought. J. Veg. Sci. 14(3):459-464.

Kajembe, G.C., Luoga, E.J., Kijazi, M.S., and Mwaipopo, C.S. 2003. The role of traditional institutions in the conservation of forest resources in East Usambara, Tanzania. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 10(2):101-107.

Kendall, B.E., and Fox, G.A. 2003. Unstructured individual variation and demographic stochasticity. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1170-1172.

Kingston, N., and Waldren, S. 2003. The plant communities and environmental gradients of Pitcairn Island: the significance of invasive species and the need for conservation management. Ann. Botany 92(1):31-40.

Kittredge, D.B., Finley, A.O., and Foster, D.R. 2003. Timber harvesting as ongoing disturbance in a landscape of diverse ownership. Forest Ecol. Manag. 180(1-3):425-442.

Kobori, H., and Primack, R.B. 2003. Participatory conservation approaches for satoyama, the traditional forest and agricultural landscape of Japan. Ambio 32(4):307-311.

Koenig, W.D. 2003. European starlings and their effect on native cavity-nesting birds. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1134-1140.

Komonen, A. 2003. Hotspots of insect diversity in boreal forests. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):976-981.

Kremen, C., Bugg, R.L., Nicola, N., Smith, S.A., Thorp, R.W., and Williams, N.M. 2002. Native bees, native plants, and crop pollination in California. Fremontia 30(3-4):41-49.

Krupnick, G.A., and Kress, W.J. 2003. Hotspots and ecoregions: a test of conservation priorities using taxonomic data. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2237-2253.

Larkin, J.L., Maehr, D.S., Cox, J.J., Bolin, D.C., and Wichrowski, M.W. 2003. Demographic characteristics of a reintroduced elk population in Kentucky. J. Wildlife Manag. 67(3):467-476.

Le Clerc, V., Briard, M., Granger, J., and Delettre, J. 2003. Genebank biodiversity assessments regarding optimal sample size and seed harvesting techniques for the regeneration of carrot accessions. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2227-2236.

Le Maitre, S. 2002. Food and density limitations of the Seychelles magpie robin, Copsychus sechellarum, on Cousine Island. Ostrich 73(3-4):119-126.

Leme, E.M.C. 2003. Nominal extinction and the taxonomist's responsibility: the example of Bromeliaceae in Brazil. Taxon 52(2):299-302.

Lewison, R.L., Crowder, L.B., and Shaver, D.J. 2003. The impact of turtle excluder devices and fisheries closures on loggerhead and Kemp's ridley strandings in the western Gulf of Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1089-1097.

Lindley, S.T. 2003. Estimation of population growth and extinction parameters from noisy data. Ecol. Appl. 13(3):806-813.

Linke, S., and Norris, R. 2003. Biodiversity: bridging the gap between condition and conservation. Hydrobiologia 500(1-3):203-211.

Linklater, W.L. 2003. Science and management in a conservation crisis: a case study with rhinoceros. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):968-975.

Lips, K.R., Reeve, J.D., and Witters, L.R. 2003. Ecological traits predicting amphibian population declines in Central America. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1078-1088.

Liu, H., and Koptur, S. 2003. Breeding system and pollination of a narrowly endemic herb of the Lower Florida Keys: impacts of the urban-wildland interface. Am. J. Bot. 90(8):1180-1187.

Lott, M.S., Volin, J.C., Pemberton, R.W., and Austin, D.E. 2003. The reproductive biology of the invasive ferns Lygodium microphyllum and L. japonicum (Schizaeaceae): implications for invasive potential. Am. J. Bot. 90(8):1144-1152.

Lowry, P.P., and Smith, P.P. 2003. Closing the gulf between botanists and conservationists. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1175-1176.

Luck, G.W., Daily, G.C., and Ehrlich, P.R. 2003. Population diversity and ecosystem services. TREE 18(7):331-336.

Luiselli, L. 2003. Comparative abundance and population structure of sympatric Afrotropical tortoises in six rainforest areas: the differential effects of "traditional veneration" and of "subsistence hunting" by local people. Acta Oecol. 24(3):157-163.

Magin, C. 2003. Recent conservation developments in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Oryx 37(2):138-139.

Magin, C. 2003. Turkmenistan launches its country study and BSAP. Oryx 37(2):137-138.

Marker, L.L., Muntifering, J.R., Dickman, A.J., Mills, M.G.L., and Macdonald, D.W. 2003. Quantifying prey preferences of free-ranging Namibian cheetahs. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 33(1):43-53.

Martin, K.W., Leslie, D.M., Payton, M.E., Puckette, W.L., and Hensley, S.L. 2003. Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens). Acta Chiropterol. 5(1):143-150.

McCarthy, M.A., Andelman, S.J., and Possingham, H.P. 2003. Reliability of relative predictions in population viability analysis. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):982-989.

McDaniel, C.N. 2003. Elephant in the room. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):954-955.

McDaniel, J. 2003. Spirituality and sustainability. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):947.

McNeely, J.A. 2003. Conserving forest biodiversity in times of violent conflict. Oryx 37(2):142-152.

Messinger, O., and Griswold, T. 2002. A pinnacle of bees. Fremontia 30(3-4):32-40.

Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Di Maio, J., Staton, S.K., and De Solla, S.R. 2003. Status of the freshwater mussel communities of the Sydenham River, Ontario, Canada. Am. Midl. Nat. 150(1):37-50.

Meyer, J.Y., Florence, J., and Tchung, V. 2003. The endemic Psychotria (Rubiaceae) of Tahiti (French Polynesia) threatened by the invasive Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae): status, distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 58(2):161-185.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bennett, E.L., and et al. 2003. Wild meat: the bigger picture. TREE 18(7):351-357.

Minguez, E., Oro, D., de Juana, E., and Martínez-Abraín, A. 2003. Mediterranean seabird conservation: what can we do? Sci. Mar. 67:3-6.

Moreno, J. 2003. Lifetime reproductive success in seabirds: interindividual differences and implications for conservation. Sci. Mar. 67:7-12.

Morrison, L.W., and Porter, S.D. 2003. Positive association between densities of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and generalized ant and arthropod diversity. Environ. Entomol. 32(3):548-554.

Moser, D.M., Gygax, A., Palese, R., and Baumler, B. 2003. 65th Swiss floristic notes (2002). Bot. Helvetica 113(1):81-103.

Mouriño, J., Arcos, F., Salvadores, R., Sandoval, A., and Vidal, C. 2003. Status of the Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus) on the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula). Sci. Mar. 67:135-142.

Naughton-Treves, L., Mena, J.L., Treves, A., Alvarez, N., and Radeloff, V.C. 2003. Wildlife survival beyond park boundaries: the impact of slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting on mammals in Tambopata, Peru. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1106-1117.

Negi, C.S., and Nautiyal, S. 2003. Indigenous peoples, biological diversity and protected area management - policy framework towards resolving conflicts. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 10(2):169-179.

O'Connor, C., Marvier, M., and Kareiva, P. 2003. Biological vs. social, economic and political priority-setting in conservation. Ecol. Lett. 6(8):706-711.

Oldfield, S., and Dickson, B. 2003. Twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES. Oryx 37(2):136-137.

Oro, D. 2003. Managing seabird metapopulations in the Mediterranean: constraints and challenges. Sci. Mar. 67:13-22.

Orr, D.W. 2003. Diversity. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):948-951.

Pandey, S.K., and Shukla, R.P. 2003. Plant diversity in managed sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forests of Gorakhpur, India: species composition, regeneration and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2295-2319.

Pardinas, U.F.J., D'Elia, G., and Cirignoli, S. 2003. The genus Akodon (Muroidea: Sigmodontinae) in Misiones, Argentina. Mamm. Biol. 68(3):129-143.

Parr, C.L., and Chown, S.L. 2003. Burning issues for conservation: a critique of faunal fire research in Southern Africa. Austral Ecol. 28(4):384-395.

Peery, C.A., Kavanagh, K.L., and Scott, J.M. 2003. Pacific salmon: setting ecologically defensible recovery goals. BioScience 53(7):622-623.

Peng, S.L., Yang, L.C., and Lu, H.F. 2003. Environmental effect of vegetation restoration on degraded ecosystem in low subtropical China. J. Environ. Sci-China 15(4):514-519.

Perkins, D.W., Vickery, P.D., and Shriver, W.G. 2003. Spatial dynamics of source-sink habitats: effects on rare grassland birds. J. Wildlife Manag. 67(3):588-599.

Petersen, C.E., Dave, D.G., Parker, C.L., and Petersen, R.E. 2002. Ant-plant relationships in a re-created tallgrass prairie. Great Lakes Entomol. 35(1):27-32.

Peterson, A.T., and Robins, C.R. 2003. Using ecological-niche modeling to predict barred owl invasions with implications for spotted owl conservation. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1161-1165.

Peterson, J.T., and Dunham, J. 2003. Combining inferences from models of capture efficiency, detectability, and suitable habitat to classify landscapes for conservation of threatened bull trout. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1070-1077.

Peterson, M.N., Grant, W.E., Lopez, R.R., and Silvy, N.J. 2003. Implications of fetal sex ratio hypotheses in endangered populations: simulated dynamics of Florida Key deer, Florida, USA. Ecol. Model. 165(2-3):209-220.

Petranka, J.W., Murray, S.S., and Kennedy, C.A. 2003. Responses of amphibians to restoration of a southern Appalachian wetland: perturbations confound post-restoration assessment. Wetlands 23(2):278-290.

Potvin, C., Cansari, R., Hutton, J., Caisamo, I., and Pacheco, B. 2003. Preparation for propagation: understanding germination of giwa (Astrocaryum standleyanum), wagara (Sabal mauritiiformis), and eba (Socratea exorrhiza) for future cultivation. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2161-2171.

Powell, R., and Henderson, R.W. 2003. The taxonomic and conservation status of giant Hispaniolan Clestus (Anguidae). Caribbean J. Sci. 39(2):237-240.

Prawiradilaga, D.M. 2003. Great ape conservation fund for orang-utan protection. Oryx 37(2):140-141.

Prawiradilaga, D.M. 2003. The Javan hawk-eagle in Gunung Halimun National Park. Oryx 37(2):141.

Prendergast, D.K., and Adams, W.M. 2003. Colonial wildlife conservation and the origins of the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire (1903-1914). Oryx 37(2):251-260.

Proctor, J. 2003. Vegetation and soil and plant chemistry on ultramafic rocks in the tropical Far East. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 6(1-2):105-124.

Purse, B.V., Hopkins, G.W., Day, K.J., and Thompson, D.J. 2003. Dispersal characteristics and management of a rare damselfly. J. Appl. Ecol. 40(4):716-728.

Pykälä, J. 2003. Effects of restoration with cattle grazing on plant species composition and richness of semi-natural grasslands. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2211-2226.

Pyle, R.M. 2003. Nature matrix: reconnecting people and nature. Oryx 37(2):206-214.

Randi, E., Tabarroni, C., Rimondi, S., Lucchini, V., and Sfougaris, A. 2003. Phylogeography of the rock partridge (Alectoris graeca). Mol. Ecol. 12(8):2201-2214.

Ravit, B., Ehrenfeld, J.G., and Haggblom, M.M. 2003. A comparison of sediment microbial communities associated with Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in two brackish wetlands of New Jersey. Estuaries 26(2B):465-474.

Reid, W.V., and Mace, G.M. 2003. Taking conservation biology to new levels in environmental decision-making. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):943-945.

Remeš, V. 2003. Effects of exotic habitat on nesting success, territory density, and settlement patterns in the blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1127-1133.

Rheindt, F.E. 2003. The impact of roads on birds: does song frequency play a role in determining susceptibility to noise pollution? J. Ornithol. 144(3):295-306.

Robert, A., Sarrazin, F.O., and Couvet, D. 2003. Variation among individuals, demographic stochasticity, and extinction: response to Kendall and Fox. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1166-1169.

Roberts, C.M. 2003. Our shifting perspectives on the oceans. Oryx 37(2):166-177.

Rodan, B.D., and Blundell, A.G. 2003. Can sustainable mahogany stem from CITES science? BioScience 53(7):619.

Roman, J., and Palumbi, S.R. 2003. Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science 301(5632):508-510.

Romero, A. 2003. Death and taxes: the case of the depletion of pearl oyster beds in sixteenth-century Venezuela. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1013-1023.

Rood, S.B., Gourley, C.R., Ammon, E.M., Heki, L.G., Klotz, J.R., Morrison, M.L., Mosley, D., Scoppettone, G.G., Swanson, S., and Wagner, P.L. 2003. Flows for floodplain forests: a successful riparian restoration. BioScience 53(7):647-656.

Roques, A., Sun, J.H., Auger-Rozenberg, M.A., and Hua, O. 2003. Potential invasion of China by exotic insect pests associated with tree seeds. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2195-2210.

Rose, M. 2003. Centenary issue. Oryx 37(2):125-126.

Rosenzweig, M.L. 2003. Reconciliation ecology and the future of species diversity. Oryx 37(2):194-205.

Rubinoff, D. 2002. Endangered plants as guides for saving endemic insects in California. Fremontia 30(3-4):62-66.

Ruiz-Campos, G., Castro-Aguirre, J.L., Contreras-Balderas, S., Lozano-Vilano, M.D., González-Acosta, A.F., and Sánchez-Gonzáles, S. 2002. An annotated distributional checklist of the freshwater fish from Baja California Sur, México. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 12(2):143-155.

Sanchez-De Leon, Y., Zou, X.M., Borges, S., and Ruan, H.H. 2003. Recovery of native earthworms in abandoned tropical pastures. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):999-1006.

Schlick-Steiner, B.C., Steiner, F.M., and Schödl, S. 2003. A case study to quantify the value of voucher specimens for invertebrate conservation: ant records in Lower Austria. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2321-2328.

Schmidt, K.A. 2003. Nest predation and population declines in Illinois songbirds: a case for mesopredator effects. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1141-1150.

Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T., Boucher, V.L., Burton, R.S., Cottingham, K.L., Goldwasser, L., Gram, W.K., Kendall, B.E., and Micheli, F. 2003. Competition, seed limitation, disturbance, and reestablishment of California native annual forbs. Ecol. Appl. 13(3):575-592.

Seneca, A. 2003. The genus Sphagnum L. in Portugal. Cryptogamie Bryol. 24(2):103-126.

Sergio, F. 2003. Relationship between laying dates of black kites Milvus migrans and spring temperatures in Italy: rapid response to climate change? J. Avian Biol. 34(2):144-149.

Shackell, N.L., and Frank, K.T. 2003. Marine fish diversity on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Aquat. Conserv. 13(4):305-321.

Sheldon, S.P., and Creed, R.P. 2003. The effect of a native biological control agent for Eurasian watermilfoil on six North American watermilfoils. Aquat. Bot. 76(3):259-265.

Sheridan, P., and Hays, C. 2003. Are mangroves nursery habitat for transient fishes and decapods? Wetlands 23(2):449-458.

Simmons, R.E., and Allan, D.G. 2002. The Orange River avifauna: abundance, richness and comparisons. Ostrich 73(3-4):92-99.

Skowno, A.L., and Bond, W.J. 2003. Bird community composition in an actively managed savanna reserve, importance of vegetation structure and vegetation composition. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2279-2294.

Smith, A.P., and Murray, M. 2003. Habitat requirements of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) and associated possums and gliders on the New South Wales central coast. Wildlife Res. 30(3):291-301.

Smith, S.J., Lucas, Z., and Stobo, W.T. 2003. Estimate of the Ipswich sparrow population on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, in 1998, using a random-transect survey design. Can. J. Zool. 81(5):771-779.

St. Clair, C.C. 2003. Comparative permeability of roads, rivers, and meadows to songbirds in Banff National Park. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1151-1160.

Steffan-Dewenter, I. 2003. Importance of habitat area and landscape context for species richness of bees and wasps in fragmented orchard meadows. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1036-1044.

Steiner, A., Kimball, L.A., and Scanlon, J. 2003. Global governance for the environment and the role of multilateral environmental agreements in conservation. Oryx 37(2):227-237.

Stewart, R.R., Noyce, T., and Possingham, H.P. 2003. Opportunity cost of ad hoc marine reserve design decisions: an example from South Australia. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 253:25-38.

Summerville, K.S., Boulware, M.J., Veech, J.A., and Crist, T.O. 2003. Spatial variation in species diversity and composition of forest Lepidoptera in eastern deciduous forests of North America. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):1045-1057.

Taylor, P. 2003. Black rhino translocations into Malawi. Oryx 37(2):139.

ter Steege, H., Pitman, N., Sabatier, D., Castellanos, H., Van Der Hout, P., Daly, D.C., Silveira, M., Phillips, O., Vasquez, R., Van Andel, T., Duivenvoorden, J., De Oliveira, A.A., Ek, R., Lilwah, R., Thomas, R., Van Essen, J., Baider, C., Maas, P., Mori, S., Terborgh, J., Vargas, P.N., Mogollón, H., and Morawetz, W. 2003. A spatial model of tree α-diversity and tree density for the Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 12(11):2255-2277.

Tero, N., Aspi, J., Siikamäki, P., Jäkäläniemi, A., and Tuomi, J. 2003. Genetic structure and gene flow in a metapopulation of an endangered plant species, Silene tatarica. Mol. Ecol. 12(8):2073-2085.

Thomas, D.B., Eger, J.E., Jones, W., and Ortega-Leon, G. 2003. The African cluster bug, Agonoscelis puberula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), established in the New World. Fl. Entomol. 86(2):151-153.

Thompson, J.T., Van Buren, R., and Harper, K.T. 2003. Genetic analysis of the rare species Salix arizonica (Salicaceae) and associated willows in Arizona and Utah. West. N. Am. Naturalist 63(3):273-282.

Thorp, R.W., Schroeder, P.C., and Ferguson, C.S. 2002. Bumble bees: boisterous pollinators of native California flowers. Fremontia 30(3-4):26-31.

Varela-Romero, A., Ruiz-Campos, G., Yépiz-Velázquez, L.M., and Alaníz-García, J. 2002. Distribution, habitat and conservation status of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) in the Lower Colorado River Basin, Mexico. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 12(2):157-165.

Vásquez, R., Ibisch, P.L., and Gerkmann, B. 2003. Diversity of Bolivian Orchidaceae - a challenge for taxonomic, floristic and conservation research. Org. Divers. Evol. 3(2):93-102.

Vellend, M. 2003. Habitat loss inhibits recovery of plant diversity as forests regrow. Ecology 84(5):1158-1164.

Vidal, E., Jouventin, P., and Frenot, Y. 2003. Contribution of alien and indigenous species to plant-community assemblages near penguin rookeries at Crozet archipelago. Polar Biol. 26(7):432-437.

Vila, M., Burriel, J.A., Pino, J., Chamizo, J., Llach, E., Porterias, M., and Vives, M. 2003. Association between Opuntia species invasion and changes in land-cover in the Mediterranean region. Global Change Biol. 9(8):1234-1239.

Villeneuve, N., and Brisson, J. 2003. Old-growth forests in the temperate deciduous zone of Quebec: identification and evaluation for conservation and research purposes. Forest Chron. 79(3):559-569.

Wanner, M., and Xylander, W.E.R. 2003. Transient fires useful for habitat-management do not affect soil microfauna (Testate amoebae) - a study on an active military training area in eastern Germany. Ecol. Eng. 20(2):113-119.

Weis, J.S., and Weis, P. 2003. Is the invasion of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into tidal marshes of the eastern US an ecological disaster? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46(7):816-820.

West, J.M., and Salm, R.V. 2003. Resistance and resilience to coral bleaching: implications for coral reef conservation and management. Conserv. Biol. 17(4):956-967.

Wilson, P.J., Grewal, S., McFadden, T., Chambers, R.C., and White, B.N. 2003. Mitochondrial DNA extracted from eastern North American wolves killed in the 1800s is not of gray wolf origin. Can. J. Zool. 81(5):936-940.

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