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Department ofBotany

No. 227
November 2003

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In This Issue

Ecological Studies in the Neotropical Cloud Forests of Colombia

By Carolina Alcázar Caicedo and Beatriz Eugenia Salgado Negret

Located in the southwest of Colombia, the department of Cauca, with an area of 29.3 km2, is considered a diverse region. Just 2.7 percent of the Colombian territory, this area is a complex system, with inter-Andean valleys and the influence of the Amazon basin, with the Caquetá River and Chocó biogeographic elements in the west slope of the Western Cordillera. The region, originating from geomorphologic and climatic differences, has evolved a high level of biological diversity.

The cloud forests of Cauca are located between the Western Cordillera and the Pacific coast. They contain unique biological characteristics, not only due to its sustained cloudiness, broken topography and low brightness, but also due to the abiotic elements of the Chocó region, like high precipitation, humidity and extreme local endemism. Unfortunately, these forests are threatened, mainly due to habitat fragmentation, deforestation and colonization.

In this respect, the Wildlife Management and Conservancy Study Group (GEMAVIC) of the University of Cauca began a research project in 1999 entitled "Ecology and Conservancy of the Cauca Cloud Forest." The purpose of the project is to gain an understanding into the internal ecosystem dynamics, and provide management and conservation tools for government and academic environmental institutions, in addition to the people of the region, who have lived for years using the natural resources of this ecosystem.

Over the last two years, studies in ethnobotany, vegetation composition and structure, and ornithological species richness, abundance and dominance were developed and analyzed in the Pacific Environmental Study Center of "Tambito" (1200-2400 m) and in the Munchique National Park (2600 m), both in El Tambo municipality. GEMAVIC has provided valuable data in several subjects such as species taxonomy, identification of species rich regions and vulnerable areas, and flora and fauna interactions, which are all relevant to the restoration and conservation of this vital ecosystem.

It has become necessary to acquire additional funds to continue this project into its second phase, not only to maintain the research of the Cauca cloud forest, but also to sustain efforts in participative community conservation. For further information about GEMAVIC, send e-mail to

Rare Mauritian Plant Produces Fruit

The Café Marron (Ramosmania rodriguesii), a member of the coffee family, is one of the world's rarest plants. It is endemic to the island of Rodrigues in Mauritius where only one plant remains in the wild. In 1986 a conservation initiative was launched to rescue this plant from extinction involving IUCN, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and the Mauritian Forestry Service. Plants propagated in Kew and elsewhere, however, are all clones of the plant in the wild. No fruit were produced by any of these plants in the wild or in cultivation since the wild plant was found in 1980. Scientific research indicated that the pollen tube fails to grow through the style and that producing seed was impossible. Studies had shown, however, that the pollen was viable in culture.

Based on these studies at the Micropropagation Unit in Kew, Viswambharan Sarasan developed a method to pollinate the flowers. This involves the elimination of the barrier which prevents successful fertilization. The first batch of pollination yielded two fruits. Some seeds sown in vitro and two seedlings have been raised so far. The Millennium Seed Bank, Kew's seed banking facility, has got the seeds of the plant now in their storage facility. This breakthrough is significant in many ways. Production of seeds, eventually, has the potential to create genetic diversity and will be highly significant in future repatriation of this plant. For more information contact: Dr. V. Sarasan, Micropropagation Unit, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond TW9 3AB, UK; E-mail:

Current Literature

Aguilar-Støen, M., and Dhillion, S.S. 2003. Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Mesoamerica: environmental and developmental perspectives. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):131-138.

Aguirre, A.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Tabor, G.M., House, C., and Pearl, M.C. (Eds.). 2002. Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. 432 pp.

Akhter, J., Mahmood, K., Malik, K.A., Ahmed, S., and Murray, R. 2003. Amelioration of a saline sodic soil through cultivation of a salt-tolerant grass Leptochloa fusca. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):168-174.

Allnutt, T.R., Newton, A.C., Premoli, A., and Lara, A. 2003. Genetic variation in the threatened South American conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum (Cupressaceae), detected using RAPD markers. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):245-253.

Amundson, R., Guo, Y., and Gong, P. 2003. Soil diversity and land use in the United States. Ecosystems 6(5):470-482.

Andelman, S.J., and Willig, M.R. 2003. Present patterns and future prospects for biodiversity in the Western Hemisphere. Ecol. Lett. 6(9):818-824.

Atkinson, P.W., Clark, N.A., Bell, M.C., Dare, P.J., Clark, J.A., and Ireland, P.L. 2003. Changes in commercially fished shellfish stocks and shorebird populations in the Wash, England. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):127-141.

Aubry, K.B., and Lewis, J.C. 2003. Extirpation and reintroduction of fishers (Martes pennanti) in Oregon: implications for their conservation in the Pacific states. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):79-90.

Badola, R., and Hussain, S.A. 2003. Conflict in paradise - women and protected areas in the Indian Himalayas. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):234-237.

Bais, H.P., Vepachedu, R., Gilroy, S., Callaway, R.M., and Vivanco, J.M. 2003. Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion: from molecules and genes to species interactions. Science 301(5638):1377-1380.

Balirwa, J.S., Chapman, C.A., Chapman, L.J., Cowx, I.G., Geheb, K., Kaufman, L., Lowe-McConnell, R.H., Seehausen, O., Wanink, J.H., Welcomme, R.L., and Witte, F. 2003. Biodiversity and fishery sustainability in the Lake Victoria Basin: an unexpected marriage? BioScience 53(8):703-715.

Balmford, A. 2003. Conservation planning in the real world: South Africa shows the way. TREE 18(9):435-438.

Bancroft, J.S., and Turchin, P. 2003. An experimental test of fragmentation and loss of habitat with Oryzaephilus surinamensis. Ecology 84(7):1756-1767.

Bauer, H. 2003. Local perceptions of Waza National Park, northern Cameroon. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):175-181.

Benítez P., S. 2003. The Condor Bioreserve in Ecuador - use of the functional landscape approach to conservation of montane ecosystems. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):212-214.

Bergallo, H.G., Esbérard, C.E.L., Mello, M.A.R., Lins, V., Mangolin, R., Melo, G.G.S., and Baptista, M. 2003. Bat species richness in Atlantic Forest: what is the minimum sampling effort? Biotropica 35(2):278-288.

Bessa-Gomes, C., and Petrucci-Fonseca, F. 2003. Using artificial neural networks to assess wolf distribution patterns in Portugal. Anim. Conserv. 6:221-229.

Beukes, P.C., and Cowling, R.M. 2003. Evaluation of restoration techniques for the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):308-316.

Björklund, M. 2003. The risk of inbreeding due to habitat loss in the lion (Panthera leo). Conserv. Genet. 4(4):515-523.

Boivin, S., Kerdelhué, C., Rozenberg, M.A., Cariou, M.L., and Roques, A. 2003. Characterization of microsatellite loci in a seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(3):363-365.

Bowkett, L.A., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2003. Ecology and conservation of remnant Melaleuca ericifolia stands in the Tamar Valley, Tasmania. Aust. J. Bot. 51(4):405-413.

Boydston, E.E., Kapheim, K.M., Watts, H.E., Szykman, M., and Holekamp, K.E. 2003. Altered behaviour in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity. Anim. Conserv. 6:207-219.

Branch, G.M., and Odendaal, F. 2003. The effects of marine protected areas on the population dynamics of a South African limpet, Cymbula oculus, relative to the influence of wave action. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):255-269.

Brisson, J.A., Strasburg, J.L., and Templeton, A.R. 2003. Impact of fire management on the ecology of collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) populations living on the Ozark Plateau. Anim. Conserv. 6:247-254.

Bruun, M., and Smith, H.G. 2003. Landscape composition affects habitat use and foraging flight distances in breeding European starlings. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):179-187.

Buckley, Y.M., Downey, P., Fowler, S.V., Hill, R., Memmot, J., Norambuena, H., Pitcairn, M., Shaw, R., Sheppard, A.W., Winks, C., Wittenberg, R., and Rees, M. 2003. Are invasives bigger? A global study of seed size variation in two invasive shrubs. Ecology 84(6):1434-1440.

Buij, R., Singleton, I., Krakauer, E., and van Schaik, C.P. 2003. Rapid assessment of orangutan density. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):103-113.

Burke, A. 2003. Inselbergs in a changing world - global trends. Divers. Distrib. 9(5):375-383.

Burne, H.M., Yates, C.J., and Ladd, P.G. 2003. Comparative population structure and reproductive biology of the critically endangered shrub Grevillea althoferorum and two closely related more common congeners. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):53-65.

Byers, J.E., and Noonburg, E.G. 2003. Scale dependent effects of biotic resistance to biological invasion. Ecology 84(6):1428-1433.

Cain, A.T., Tuovila, V.R., Hewitt, D.G., and Tewes, M.E. 2003. Effects of a highway and mitigation projects on bobcats in Southern Texas. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):189-197.

Calaforra, J.M., Fernández-Cortés, A., Sánchez-Martos, F., Gisbert, J., and Pulido-Bosch, A. 2003. Environmental control for determining human impact and permanent visitor capacity in a potential show cave before tourist use. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):160-167.

Caparroz, R., Miyaki, C.Y., and Baker, A.J. 2003. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the blue-and-gold macaw, Ara ararauna (Psittaciformes: Aves). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(3):441-443.

Caravaca, F., Alguacil, M.M., Figueroa, D., Barea, J.M., and Roldán, A. 2003. Re-establishment of Retama sphaerocarpa as a target species for reclamation of soil physical and biological properties in a semi-arid Mediterranean area. Forest Ecol. Manag. 182(1-3):49-58.

Caro, T., Mulder, M.B., and Moore, M. 2003. Effects of conservation education on reasons to conserve biological diversity. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):143-152.

Casatti, L. 2003. Biology of a catfish, Trichomycterus sp. (Pisces, Siluriformes), in a pristine stream in the Morro do Diabo State Park, southeastern Brazil. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 38(2):105-110.

Castro, I., Brunton, D.H., Mason, K.M., Ebert, B., and Griffiths, R. 2003. Life history traits and food supplementation affect productivity in a translocated population of the endangered hihi (stitchbird, Notiomystis cincta). Biol. Conserv. 114(2):271-280.

Caswell, H., Lensink, R., and Neubert, M.G. 2003. Demography and dispersal: life table response experiments for invasion speed. Ecology 84(8):1968-1978.

Cavers, S., Navarro, C., and Lowe, A.J. 2003. A combination of molecular markers identifies evolutionarily significant units in Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) in Costa Rica. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):571-580.

Chapman, D.D., Abercrombie, D.L., Douady, C.J., Pikitch, E.K., Stanhope, M.J., and Shivji, M.S. 2003. A streamlined, bi-organelle, multiplex PCR approach to species identification: application to global conservation and trade monitoring of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):415-425.

Chown, S.L., and Freitag-Ronaldson, S. 2002. Survey site selection for data-deficient arthropod taxa: from rags to richness. Afr. Entomol. 10(2):345-349.

Cunningham, A.A., Prakash, V., Pain, D., Ghalsasi, G.R., Welis, G.A.H., Kolte, G.N., Nighot, P., Goudar, M.S., Kshirsagar, S., and Rahmani, A. 2003. Indian vultures: victims of an infectious disease epidemic? Anim. Conserv. 6:189-197.

Danielopol, D.L., Griebler, C., Gunatilaka, A., and Notenboom, J. 2003. Present state and future prospects for groundwater ecosystems. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):104-130.

Datta, A., and Rawat, G.S. 2003. Foraging patterns of sympatric hornbills during the nonbreeding season in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India. Biotropica 35(2):208-218.

David, J.H.M., Cury, P., Crawford, R.J.M., Randall, R.M., Underhill, L.G., and Meÿer, M.A. 2003. Assessing conservation priorities in the Benguela ecosystem, South Africa: analysing predation by seals on threatened seabirds. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):289-292.

de Mendonça, M.J.C., Sachsida, A., and Loureiro, P.R.A. 2003. A study on the valuing of biodiversity: the case of three endangered species in Brazil. Ecol. Econ. 46(1):9-18.

Desgranges, J.L., and Jobin, B. 2003. Knowing, mapping and understanding St. Lawrence biodiversity, with special emphasis on bird assemblages. Environ. Monit. Assess. 88(1-3):177-192.

Diaz-Paez, H., and Ortiz, J.C. 2003. Assessment of the conservation status of amphibians in Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 76(3):509-525.

Dinsmore, S.J., White, G.C., and Knopf, F.L. 2003. Annual survival and population estimates of mountain plovers in southern Phillips County, Montana. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):1013-1026.

Donlan, C.J., Howald, G.R., Tershy, B.R., and Croll, D.A. 2003. Evaluating alternative rodenticides for island conservation: roof rat eradication from the San Jorge Islands, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):29-34.

Draper, D., Rosselló-Graell, A., Garcia, C., Gomes, C.T., and Sérgio, C. 2003. Application of GIS in plant conservation programmes in Portugal. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):337-349.

Drechsler, M., Frank, K., Hanski, I., O'Hara, R.B., and Wissel, C. 2003. Ranking metapopulation extinction risk: from patterns in data to conservation management decisions. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):990-998.

Dunham, J.B., Adams, S.B., Schroeter, R.E., and Novinger, D.C. 2002. Alien invasions in aquatic ecosystems: toward an understanding of brook trout invasions and potential impacts on inland cutthroat trout in western North America. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 12(4):373-391.

Dyer, A.R. 2003. Burning and grazing management in a California grassland: growth, mortality, and recruitment of Nassella pulchra. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):291-296.

El-Bana, M.I., Nijs, I., and Khedr, A.H.A. 2003. The importance of phytogenic mounds (nebkhas) for restoration of arid degraded rangelands in northern Sinai. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):317-324.

Elliott, S., Navakitbumrung, P., Kuarak, C., Zangkum, S., Anusarnsunthorn, V., and Blakesley, D. 2003. Selecting framework tree species for restoring seasonally dry tropical forests in northern Thailand based on field performance. Forest Ecol. Manag. 184(1-3):177-191.

England, P.R., Osler, G.H.R., Woodworth, L.M., Montgomery, M.E., Briscoe, D.A., and Frankham, R. 2003. Effects of intense versus diffuse population bottlenecks on microsatellite genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):595-604.

Ervin, J. 2003. Protected area assessments in perspective. BioScience 53(9):819-822.

Escudero, A., Iriondo, J.M., and Torres, M.E. 2003. Spatial analysis of genetic diversity as a tool for plant conservation. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):351-365.

Etterson, M.A. 2003. Conspecific attraction in loggerhead shrikes: implications for habitat conservation and reintroduction. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):199-205.

Fagan, W.F., Fortin, M.J., and Soykan, C. 2003. Integrating edge detection and dynamic modeling in quantitative analyses of ecological boundaries. BioScience 53(8):730-738.

Feist, B.E., Steel, E.A., Pess, G.R., and Bilby, R.E. 2003. The influence of scale on salmon habitat restoration priorities. Anim. Conserv. 6:271-282.

Felton, A.M., Engström, L.M., Felton, A., and Knott, C.D. 2003. Orangutan population density, forest structure and fruit availability in hand-logged and unlogged peat swamp forests in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):91-101.

Festa-Bianchet, M., and Apollonio, M. (Eds.). 2003. Animal Behavior and Wildlife Conservation. Island Press. Washington, D.C. 322 pp.

Flamand, J.R.B., Vankan, D., Gairhe, K.P., Duong, H., and Barker, J.S.F. 2003. Genetic identification of wild Asian water buffalo in Nepal. Anim. Conserv. 6:265-270.

Fleishman, E., and Mac Nally, R. 2003. Distinguishing between signal and noise in faunal responses to environmental change. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(5):395-402.

Forsyth, S.A. 2003. Density-dependent seed set in the Haleakala silversword: evidence for an Allee effect. Oecologia 136(4):551-557.

Freedman, A.H., Portier, K.M., and Sunquist, M.E. 2003. Life history analysis for black bears (Ursus americanus) in a changing demographic landscape. Ecol. Model. 167(1-2):47-64.

Freile, J.F., and Renjifo, L.M. 2003. First nesting records of the moustached antpitta (Grallaria alleni). Wilson Bull. 115(1):11-15.

Freilich, J.E., Emlen, J.M., Duda, J.J., Freeman, D.C., and Cafaro, P.J. 2003. Ecological effects of ranching: a six-point critique. BioScience 53(8):759-765.

Fu, Y.Q., and Dane, F. 2003. Allozyme variation in endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila. Ann. Botany 92(2):223-230.

Ganeva, A., and Natcheva, R. 2003. Check-list of the bryophytes of Bulgaria with data on their distribution. I. Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. Cryptogamie Bryol. 24(3):229-239.

Garrido, B., Hampe, A., Maranon, T., and Arroyo, J. 2003. Regional differences in land use affect population performance of the threatened insectivorous plant Drosophyllum lusitanicum (Droseraceae). Divers. Distrib. 9(5):335-350.

Gauthier, D.A., and Wiken, E.B. 2003. Monitoring the conservation of grassland habitats, prairie ecozone, Canada. Environ. Monit. Assess. 88(1-3):343-364.

Gautschi, B., Jacob, G., Negro, J.J., Godoy, J.A., Müller, J.P., and Schmid, B. 2003. Analysis of relatedness and determination of the source of founders in the captive bearded vulture, Gypaetus barbatus, population. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):479-490.

Gehrt, S.D., and Chelsvig, J.E. 2003. Bat activity in an urban landscape: patterns at the landscape and microhabitat scale. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):939-950.

Geist, J., Rottmann, O., Schröder, W., and Kuhn, R. 2003. Development of microsatellite markers for the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera L. (Bivalvia: Unionoidea). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(3):444-446.

Gell, F.R., and Roberts, C.M. 2003. Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. TREE 18(9):448-455.

Godfrey, J.D., Bryant, D.M., and Williams, M.J. 2003. Radio-telemetry increases free-living energy costs in the endangered Takahe Porphyrio mantelli. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):35-38.

Goodman, P.S. 2003. Assessing management effectiveness and setting priorities in protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal. BioScience 53(9):843-850.

Graham, N.A.J., Evans, R.D., and Russ, G.R. 2003. The effects of marine reserve protection on the trophic relationships of reef fishes on the Great Barrier Reef. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):200-208.

Greig, C., Jacobson, D.P., and Banks, M.A. 2003. New tetranucleotide microsatellites for fine-scale discrimination among endangered chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3(3):376-379.

Grelle, C.E.V. 2003. Forest structure and vertical stratification of small mammals in a secondary Atlantic forest, southeastern Brazil. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 38(2):81-85.

Griffith, J.A. 2003. Regions of high fish diversity for conservation concern within the US Central Plains. J. Freshwater Ecol. 18(3):451-457.

Gujja, B., Chatterjee, A., Gautam, P., and Chandan, P. 2003. Wetlands and lakes at the top of the world. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):219-221.

Hall, J.S., Harris, D.J., Medjibe, V., and Ashton, P.M.S. 2003. The effects of selective logging on forest structure and tree species composition in a central African forest: implications for management of conservation areas. Forest Ecol. Manag. 183(1-3):249-264.

Hastings, A. 2003. Metapopulation persistence with age-dependent disturbance or succession. Science 301(5639):1525-1526.

Hausner, V.H., Yoccoz, N.G., and Ims, R.A. 2003. Selecting indicator traits for monitoring land use impacts: birds in northern coastal birch forests. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):999-1012.

Hedenås, H., and Ericson, L. 2003. Response of epiphytic lichens on Populus tremula in a selective cutting experiment. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):1124-1134.

Heywood, V.H., and Iriondo, J.M. 2003. Plant conservation: old problems, new perspectives. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):321-335.

Hill, J.L., and Curran, P.J. 2003. Area, shape and isolation of tropical forest fragments: effects on tree species diversity and implications for conservation. J. Biogeogr. 30(9):1391-1403.

Hill, M.F., Botsford, L.W., and Hastings, A. 2003. The effects of spawning age distribution on salmon persistence in fluctuating environments. J. Anim. Ecol. 72(5):736-744.

Hodacová, D., and Prach, K. 2003. Spoil heaps from brown coal mining: technical reclamation versus spontaneous revegetation. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):385-391.

Hogbin, P.M., and Crisp, M.D. 2003. Evolution of the coastal neospecies Zieria prostrata (Rutaceae) and its relationship to the Zieria smithii species complex. Aust. Syst. Bot. 16(4):515-525.

Hokit, D.G., and Branch, L.C. 2003. Associations between patch area and vital rates: consequences for local and regional populations. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):1060-1068.

Horton, B., Colarullo, G., Bateman, I.J., and Peres, C.A. 2003. Evaluating non-user willingness to pay for a large-scale conservation programme in Amazonia: a UK/Italian contingent valuation study. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):139-146.

Iriondo, J.M., Albert, M.J., and Escudero, A. 2003. Structural equation modelling: an alternative for assessing causal relationships in threatened plant populations. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):367-377.

James, S.E., and M'Closkey, R.T.M. 2003. Lizard microhabitat and fire fuel management. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):293-297.

Jang, M.H., Lucas, M.C., and Joo, G.J. 2003. The fish fauna of mountain streams in South Korean national parks and its significance to conservation of regional freshwater fish biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):115-126.

Jarvi, S.I., Farias, M.E.M., Baker, H., Freifeld, H.B., Baker, P.E., Van Gelder, E., Massey, J.G., and Atkinson, C.T. 2003. Detection of avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in native land birds of American Samoa. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):629-637.

Jim, C.Y., and Xu, S.S. 2003. Getting out of the woods - quandaries of protected area management in China. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):222-226.

Jivoff, P.R., and Able, K.W. 2003. Evaluating salt marsh restoration in Delaware Bay: the response of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, at former salt hay farms. Estuaries 26(3):709-719.

Jones, T.A. 2003. The restoration gene pool concept: beyond the native versus non-native debate. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):281-290.

Kamler, J.F., Ballard, W.B., Fish, E.B., Lemons, P.R., Mote, K., and Perchellet, C.C. 2003. Habitat use, home ranges, and survival of swift foxes in a fragmented landscape: conservation implications. J. Mammal. 84(3):989-995.

Kanowski, J., Catterall, C.P., Wardell-Johnson, G.W., Proctor, H., and Reis, T. 2003. Development of forest structure on cleared rainforest land in eastern Australia under different styles of reforestation. Forest Ecol. Manag. 183(1-3):265-280.

Kerth, G., Kiefer, A., Trappmann, C., and Weishaar, M. 2003. High gene diversity at swarming sites suggest hot spots for gene flow in the endangered Bechstein's bat. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):491-499.

Kinzler, W., and Maier, G. 2003. Asymmetry in mutual predation: possible reason for the replacement of native gammarids by invasives. Arch. Hydrobiol. 157(4):473-481.

Kitahara, M., and Watanabe, M. 2003. Diversity and rarity hotspots and conservation of butterfly communities in and around the Aokigahara woodland of Mount Fuji, central Japan. Ecol. Res. 18(5):503-522.

Koel, T.M., and Peterka, J.J. 2003. Stream fish communities and environmental correlates in the Red River of the North, Minnesota and North Dakota. Environ. Biol. Fish. 67(2):137-155.

Konvicka, M., Hula, V., and Fric, Z. 2003. Habitat of pre-hibernating larvae of the endangered butterfly Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): what can be learned from vegetation composition and architecture? Eur. J. Entomol. 100(3):313-322.

Konvicka, M., Maradova, M., Benes, J., Fric, Z., and Kepka, P. 2003. Uphill shifts in distribution of butterflies in the Czech Republic: effects of changing climate detected on a regional scale. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(5):403-410.

Krakowski, J., Aitken, S.N., and El-Kassaby, Y.A. 2003. Inbreeding and conservation genetics in whitebark pine. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):581-593.

Kristan, W.B., and Boarman, W.I. 2003. Spatial pattern of risk of common raven predation on desert tortoises. Ecology 84(9):2432-2443.

Kristensen, T.N., Dahlgaard, J., and Loeschcke, V. 2003. Effects of inbreeding and environmental stress on fitness - using Drosophila buzzatii as a model organism. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):453-465.

Kruse, B.S., and Groninger, J.W. 2003. Vegetative characteristics of recently reforested bottomlands in the Lower Cache River Watershed, Illinois, USA. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):273-280.

Lalas, C., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2003. Expectations for population growth at new breeding locations for the vulnerable New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) using a simulation model. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):67-78.

León-Cortés, J.L., Lennon, J.J., and Thomas, C.D. 2003. Ecological dynamics of extinct species in empty habitat networks. 1. The role of habitat pattern and quantity, stochasticity and dispersal. Oikos 102(3):449-464.

León-Cortés, J.L., Lennon, J.J., and Thomas, C.D. 2003. Ecological dynamics of extinct species in empty habitat networks. 2. The role of host plant dynamics. Oikos 102(3):465-477.

Levy, S. 2003. Getting the drop on Hawaiian invasives. BioScience 53(8):694-699.

Light, T. 2003. Success and failure in a lotic crayfish invasion: the roles of hydrologic variability and habitat alteration. Freshwater Biol. 48(10):1886-1897.

Liley, D., and Clarke, R.T. 2003. The impact of urban development and human disturbance on the numbers of nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus on heathlands in Dorset, England. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):219-230.

Lindbladh, M., Niklasson, M., and Nilsson, S.G. 2003. Long-time record of fire and open canopy in a high biodiversity forest in southeast Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):231-243.

Lubke, R.A., Hoare, D., Victor, J., and Ketelaar, R. 2003. The vegetation of the habitat of the Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), in the Western Cape, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 99(5-6):201-206.

Marín, J.M., Diez, R.M., and Insua, D.R. 2003. Bayesian methods in plant conservation biology. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):379-387.

Marrero-Gómez, M.V., Bañares-Baudet, A., and Carqué-Alamo, E. 2003. Plant resource conservation planning in protected natural areas: an example from the Canary Islands, Spain. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):399-410.

Maxted, N. 2003. Conserving the genetic resources of crop wild relatives in European Protected Areas. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):411-417.

McClure, M.M., Holmes, E.E., Sanderson, B.L., and Jordan, C.E. 2003. A large-scale, multispecies status, assessment: anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):964-989.

McLoughlin, C.A., and Owen-Smith, N. 2003. Viability of a diminishing roan antelope population: predation is the threat. Anim. Conserv. 6:231-236.

Miller, D.L., Yager, L., Thetford, M., and Schneider, M. 2003. Potential use of Uniola paniculata rhizome fragments for dune restoration. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):359-369.

Miller, H.C., and Lambert, D.M. 2003. An evaluation of methods of blood preservation for RT-PCR from endangered species. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):651-654.

Moehrenschlager, A., and Macdonald, D.W. 2003. Movement and survival parameters of translocated and resident swift foxes Vulpes velox. Anim. Conserv. 6:199-206.

Moerke, A.H., and Lamberti, G.A. 2003. Responses in fish community structure to restoration of two Indiana streams. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 23(3):748-759.

Morris, D.W. 2003. How can we apply theories of habitat selection to wildlife conservation and management? Wildlife Res. 30(4):303-319.

Muller-Landau, H.C., Levin, S.A., and Keymer, J.E. 2003. Theoretical perspectives on evolution of long-distance dispersal and the example of specialized pests. Ecology 84(8):1957-1967.

Muwanika, V.B., Siegismund, H.R., Okello, J.B.A., Masembe, C., Arctander, P., and Nyakaana, S. 2003. A recent bottleneck in the warthog and elephant populations of Queen Elizabeth National Park, revealed by a comparative study of four mammalian species in Uganda national parks. Anim. Conserv. 6:237-245.

Neel, M.C., and Cummings, M.P. 2003. Genetic consequences of ecological reserve design guidelines: an empirical investigation. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):427-439.

Nelson, R.J., Wood, C.C., Cooper, G., Smith, C., and Koop, B. 2003. Population structure of sockeye salmon of the central coast of British Columbia: implications for recovery planning. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 23(3):703-720.

Neubert, M.G. 2003. Marine reserves and optimal harvesting. Ecol. Lett. 6(9):843-849.

Nichols, O.G., and Nichols, F.M. 2003. Long-term trends in faunal recolonization after bauxite mining in the jarrah forest of southwestern Australia. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):261-272.

Nijman, V. 2003. The status of three northern migrant raptors rarely observed on Java. Kukila 12:59-65.

Nyhus, P.J., Sumianto, and Tilson, R. 2003. Wildlife knowledge among migrants in southern Sumatra, Indonesia: implications for conservation. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):192-199.

Olsen, J.B., Miller, S.J., Spearman, W.J., and Wenburg, J.K. 2003. Patterns of intra- and inter-population genetic diversity in Alaskan coho salmon: implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):557-569.

Oostermeijer, J.G.B., Luijten, S.H., and den Nijs, J.C.M. 2003. Integrating demographic and genetic approaches in plant conservation. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):389-398.

Ostfeld, R.S., and Logiudice, K. 2003. Community disassembly, biodiversity loss, and the erosion of an ecosystem service. Ecology 84(6):1421-1427.

Osunkoya, O.O. 2003. Two-sex population projection of the endemic and dioecious rainforest shrub, Gardenia actinocarpa (Rubiaceae). Biol. Conserv. 114(1):39-51.

Ovaskainen, O., and Hanski, I. 2003. The species-area relationship derived from species-specific incidence functions. Ecol. Lett. 6(10):903-909.

Pakkad, G., Torre, F., Elliott, S., and Blakesley, D. 2003. Selecting seed trees for a forest restoration program: a case study using Spondias axillaris Roxb. (Anacardiaceae). Forest Ecol. Manag. 182(1-3):363-370.

Palik, B.J., Buech, R., and Egeland, L. 2003. Using an ecological land hierarchy to predict seasonal-wetland abundance in upland forests. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):1153-1163.

Parrish, J.D., Braun, D.P., and Unnasch, R.S. 2003. Are we conserving what we say we are? Measuring ecological integrity within protected areas. BioScience 53(9):851-860.

Pawar, S. 2003. Taxonomic chauvinism and the methodologically challenged. BioScience 53(9):861-864.

Peakall, R., Ebert, D., Scott, L.J., Meagher, P.F., and Offord, C.A. 2003. Comparative genetic study confirms exceptionally low genetic variation in the ancient and endangered relictual conifer, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). Mol. Ecol. 12(9):2331-2343.

Pearson, R.G., and Dawson, T.P. 2003. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 12(5):361-371.

Penn, D.J. 2003. The evolutionary roots of our environmental problems: toward a Darwinian ecology. Q. Rev. Biol. 78(3):275-301.

Perry, L.G., and Galatowitsch, S.M. 2003. A test of two annual cover crops for controlling Phalaris arundinacea invasion in restored sedge meadow wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):297-307.

Picard, C.H. 2003. Post-apartheid perceptions of the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):182-191.

Pickering, C.M., and Buckley, R.C. 2003. Swarming to the summit - managing tourists at Mt Kosciuszko, Australia. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):230-233.

Pires, A.E., and Fernandes, M.L. 2003. Last lynxes in Portugal? Molecular approaches in a pre-extinction scenario. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):525-532.

Pither, R., Shore, J.S., and Kellman, M. 2003. Genetic diversity of the tropical tree Terminalia amazonia (Combretaceae) in naturally fragmented populations. Heredity 91(3):307-313.

Prentice, H.C., Malm, J.U., Mateu-Andrés, I., and Segarra-Moragues, J.G. 2003. Allozyme and chloroplast DNA variation in island and mainland populations of the rare Spanish endemic, Silene hifacensis (Caryophyllaceae). Conserv. Genet. 4(5):543-555.

Price, C.A., and Weltzin, J.F. 2003. Managing non-native plant populations through intensive community restoration in Cades Cove, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):351-358.

Puyravaud, J.P., Mohandass, D., and Chhabra, T. 2003. A rediscovery of Eriochrysis rangacharii C. E. C. Fisch. (Poaceae) in the Nilgiri Mountains of southern India. Candollea 58(1):97-100.

Quinlan, A., Dale, M.R.T., and Gates, C.C. 2003. Effects of prescribed burning on herbaceous and woody vegetation in northern lowland meadows. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):343-350.

Riley, J., and Wardill, J.C. 2003. The status, habitat and nest of the satanic nightjar Eurostopodus diabolicus. Kukila 12:3-11.

Ripple, W.J., and Beschta, R.L. 2003. Wolf reintroduction, predation risk, and cottonwood recovery in Yellowstone National Park. Forest Ecol. Manag. 184(1-3):299-313.

Rivera-Milan, F.F., Ruiz, C.R., Cruz, J.A., Vazquez, M., and Martinez, A.J. 2003. Population monitoring of plain pigeons in Puerto Rico. Wilson Bull. 115(1):45-51.

Robert, A., Couvet, D., and Sarrazin, F. 2003. The role of local adaptation in metapopulation restorations. Anim. Conserv. 6:255-264.

Rosel, P.E. 2003. PCR-based sex determination in Odontocete cetaceans. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):647-649.

Rosenberger, A., and Angermeier, P.L. 2003. Ontogenetic shifts in habitat use by the endangered Roanoke logperch (Percina rex). Freshwater Biol. 48(9):1563-1577.

Rottenberg, A., and Parker, J.S. 2003. Conservation of the critically endangered Rumex rothschildianus as implied from AFLP diversity. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):299-303.

Säisä, M., Koljonen, M.L., and Tähtinen, J. 2003. Genetic changes in Atlantic salmon stocks since historical times and the effective population size of a long-term captive breeding programme. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):613-627.

Saiz, J.C.M., Lozano, F.D., and Ollero, H.S. 2003. Recent progress in conservation of threatened Spanish vascular flora: a critical review. Biol. Conserv. 113(3):419-431.

Sánchez-Azofelfa, G.A., Castro, K.L., Rivard, B., Kalascka, M.R., and Harriss, R.C. 2003. Remote sensing research priorities in tropical dry forest environments. Biotropica 35(2):134-142.

Sanford, N.L., Harrington, R.A., and Fownes, J.H. 2003. Survival and growth of native and alien woody seedlings in open and understory environments. Forest Ecol. Manag. 183(1-3):377-385.

Schmetterling, D.A. 2003. Reconnecting a fragmented river: movements of westslope cutthroat trout and bull trout after transport upstream of Milltown Dam, Montana. North Am. J.Fish. Manag. 23(3):721-731.

Severns, P.M. 2003. Propagation of a long-lived and threatened prairie plant, Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):334-342.

Shaw, P., and Masina, J. 2003. Correlates of abundance and breeding success in the globally threatened Hinde's babbler (Turdoides hindei) and its congener, northern pied babbler (T. hypoleucus). Biol. Conserv. 114(2):281-288.

Shaw, P.W. 2003. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the assessment of genetic diversity and paternity testing in the giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama (Cephalopoda). Conserv. Genet. 4(4):533-535.

Sheail, J., and Bunce, R.G.H. 2003. The development and scientific principles of an environmental classification for strategic ecological survey in the United Kingdom. Environ. Conserv. 30(2):147-159.

Shuman, C.S., and Ambrose, R.F. 2003. A comparison of remote sensing and ground-based methods for monitoring wetland restoration success. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):325-333.

Siemann, E., and Rogers, W.E. 2003. Herbivory, disease, recruitment limitation, and success of alien and native tree species. Ecology 84(6):1489-1505.

Singh, H.S. 2003. Marine protected areas in India. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 32(3):226-233.

Smulders, M.J.M., Snoek, L.B., Booy, G., and Vosman, B. 2003. Complete loss of MHC genetic diversity in the common hamster (Cricetus cricetus) population in The Netherlands. Consequences for conservation strategies. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):441-451.

Southall, E.J., Dale, M.P., and Kent, M. 2003. Spatial and temporal analysis of vegetation mosaics for conservation: poor fen communities in a Cornish valley mire. J. Biogeogr. 30(9):1427-1443.

Staton, S.K., Dextrase, A., Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Di Maio, J., Nelson, M., Parish, J., Kilgour, B., and Holm, E. 2003. Status and trends of Ontario's Sydenham River ecosystem in relation to aquatic species at risk. Environ. Monit. Assess. 88(1-3):283-310.

Sullivan, B.J., Norris, W.M., and Baxter, G.S. 2003. Low-density koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in the mulgalands of south-west Queensland. II. distribution and diet. Wildlife Res. 30(4):331-338.

Swei, A., Brylski, P.V., Spencer, W.D., Dodd, S.C., and Patton, J.L. 2003. Hierarchical genetic structure in fragmented populations of the little pocket mouse (Perognathus longimembris) in Southern California. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):501-514.

Tani, N., Kawahara, T., Yoshimaru, H., and Hoshi, Y. 2003. Development of scar markers distinguishing pure seedlings of the endangered species Morus boninensis from M. boninensis x M. acidosa hybrids for conservation in Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):605-612.

Teo, S.L.H., and Able, K.W. 2003. Habitat use and movement of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) in a restored salt marsh. Estuaries 26(3):720-730.

Thalmann, C., Freise, J., Heitland, W., and Bacher, S. 2003. Effects of defoliation by horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella) on reproduction in Aesculus hippocastanum. Trees-Struct. Funct. 17(5):383-388.

Traba, J., Levassor, C., and Peco, B. 2003. Restoration of species richness in abandoned Mediterranean grasslands: seeds in cattle dung. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):378-384.

Tranah, G.J., Bagley, M., Agresti, J.J., and May, B. 2003. Development of codominant markers for identifying species hybrids. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):537-541.

Tuck, G.N., Polacheck, T., and Bulman, C.M. 2003. Spatio-temporal trends of longline fishing effort in the Southern Ocean and implications for seabird bycatch. Biol. Conserv. 114(1):1-27.

van Gemerden, B.S., Olff, H., Parren, M.P.E., and Bongers, F. 2003. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity. J. Biogeogr. 30(9):1381-1390.

van Hooft, W.F., Groen, A.F., and Prins, H.H.T. 2003. Genetic structure of African buffalo herds based on variation at the mitochondrial D-loop and autosomal microsatellite loci: evidence for male-biased gene flow. Conserv. Genet. 4(4):467-477.

Van Ruijven, J., De Deyn, G.B., and Berendse, F. 2003. Diversity reduces invasibility in experimental plant communities: the role of plant species. Ecol. Lett. 6(10):910-918.

van Wesenbeeck, B.K., van Mourik, T., Duivenvoorden, J.F., and Cleef, A.M. 2003. Strong effects of a plantation with Pinus patula on Andean subpáramo vegetation: a case study from Colombia. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):207-218.

Velázquez, A., Bocco, G., Romero, F.J., and Vega, A.P. 2003. A landscape perspective on biodiversity conservation - the case of Central Mexico. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):240-246.

Vucetich, J.A., and Waite, T.A. 2003. Spatial patterns of demography and genetic processes across the species' range: null hypotheses for landscape conservation genetics. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):639-645.

Wallsten, P. 2003. The "inside-out" process - a key approach for establishing Fulufjallet National Park in Sweden. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):227-229.

Wen, M.Z., Pang, X.A., Wang, Q.F., and Taylor, W.C. 2003. Relationship between water chemistry and the distribution of the endangered aquatic quillwort Isoetes sinensis Palmer in China. J. Freshwater Ecol. 18(3):361-367.

Whitfield, D.P., McLeod, D.R.A., Watson, J., Fielding, A.H., and Haworth, P.F. 2003. The association of grouse moor in Scotland with the illegal use of poisons to control predators. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):157-163.

Wikle, C.K. 2003. Hierarchical Bayesian models for predicting the spread of ecological processes. Ecology 84(6):1382-1394.

Willis, T.J., Millar, R.B., Babcock, R.C., and Tolimieri, N. 2003. Burdens of evidence and the benefits of marine reserves: putting Descartes before des horse? Environ. Conserv. 30(2):97-103.

Wilson, W.G., Lundberg, P., Vázquez, D.P., Shurin, J.B., Smith, M.D., Langford, W., Gross, K.L., and Mittelbach, G.G. 2003. Biodiversity and species interactions: extending Lotka-Volterra community theory. Ecol. Lett. 6(10):944-952.

Windham, L., and Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2003. Net impact of a plant invasion on nitrogen-cycling processes within a brackish tidal marsh. Ecol. Appl. 13(4):883-896.

Wirth, T.A., and Pyke, D.A. 2003. Restoring forbs for sage grouse habitat: fire, microsites, and establishment methods. Restor. Ecol. 11(3):370-377.

Yerena, E., Padrón, J., Vera, R., Martínez, Z., and Bigio, D. 2003. Building consensus on biological corridors in the Venezuelan Andes. Mtn. Res. Dev. 23(3):215-218.

Zabala, J., Zuberogoitia, I., Garin, I., and Aihartza, J. 2003. Landscape features in the habitat selection of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in south-western Europe. J. Zool. 260:415-421.

Zechmeister, H.G., Schmitzberger, I., Steurer, B., Peterseil, J., and Wrbka, T. 2003. The influence of land-use practices and economics on plant species richness in meadows. Biol. Conserv. 114(2):165-177.

Zenger, K.R., Eldridge, M.D.B., and Johnston, P.G. 2003. A rapid PCR-RFLP diagnostic test for distinguishing sympatric bandicoot species (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) in southeastern Australia. Conserv. Genet. 4(5):655-657.

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